Birds of Central America in taxonomic hierarchy

Birds as they appear in the taxonomic classification.

Class aves (Birds / Vögel):

Order Anseriformes (Ducks, geese and swans / Vögel):

Family anatidae (Anatidae / Entenvögel):

Subfamily Anatinae (Dabbling ducks plus extinct):
Tribe Mergini (Seaducks / Meerenten und Säger):
Genus Mergus:
Red-breasted merganser / Mittelsäger (Mergus serrator)
Also known as: Red-breasted Merganser
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Mittelsaeger auf Lago Maggiore in Locarno. Source: OWN 2021-04-06 12.12.52 Northern Lago Maggiore
Zuerst gesehen in Lago Maggiore in Locarno

Tribe Anatini (Dabbling ducks / Schwimmenten):
Genus Anas (Ducks):
Mallard / Stockente (Anas platyrhynchos)
Alternate classification: Anas platyrhynchos f. domestica
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Mother and 4 of 9 babies on the Pfäffikersee Source: OWN 2020-05-20 09.12.44 Pfäffikersee
Common waterbird at Pfäffikersee
Etymology: Der heutige Name kann als Hinweis auf ihre Brutplätze verstanden werden, zu denen auf Stock gesetzte Weiden, Weidengebüsch oder auch Reisighaufen gehören. ['Stock' wird weiter erklärt: Als Stockausschlag bezeichnet man bei Bäumen und Sträuchern Triebe, die nach dem Verlust der primären Sprossachse neu aus dem Stumpf oder Stubben (der dann „Stock“ genannt wird) austreiben.] [Link]
The name 'was derived from the Old French malart or mallart for "wild drake"' [Link]
Vocalization: Female: A distinct coarse, laughing quacking; "haaa ha ha ha ha ha", with first note accented and then descending in pitch. Male: a more silent, very nasal "rriib". [Link]
Calls: Display call a high-pitched short whistle. [Link]
Physical details: length=50-65 cm, wingspan=81-98 cm, weight=750-1450 g

Eurasian teal / Krickente (Anas crecca)
Alternate classification: Nettion crecca
Also known as: Green-winged teal
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Krickente am Aa-Bach beim Südende des Pfäffikersee Source: OWN 2021-01-26 15.41.54 Pfäffikersee
Wintergast am Teich am Aa-Bach beim Südende des Pfäffikersee
Etymology: Die hellen «krrik»-Rufe der stimmfreudigen Erpel verhalfen dieser Art zu ihrem deutschen Namen. [Link]
Vocalization: Male: characteristic, short, highly resonant and metallic "plytt". A bit similar to Pintail, but higher pitched and lacking accompanying whistling sound. Female: various quacking sounds generally quicker paced, more nasal and noticeably higher pitched than Mallard. [Link]
Physical details: length=34-38 cm, wingspan=58-64 cm, weight=200-450 g

Call: Blup blup, fast wie vom Computer generiert
Krickente Ruf von XenoCanto

Krickente Ruf von XenoCanto Source: XENOCANTO

Call attributes: Call melody: simple rhythmic, slow, Frequency: low (1-3 KHz),

Blue-winged teal / Blauflügelente (Spatula discors)
Alternate classification: Anas discors
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Wikipedia: Blue-winged teal

Genus Mareca:
American wigeon / Nordamerikanische Pfeifente (Mareca americana)
Alternate classification: Anas americana
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Wikipedia: American wigeon

Tribe Aythyini (Diving ducks / Tauchenten):
Genus Aythya:
Greater scaup / Bergente (Aythya marila)
Alternate classification: Anas marila
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Wikipedia: Greater scaup
Zugvogel, Wintergast
Calls: Male call carries only a few meters: a whistling "po-ho" last syllable slowly descending. Female calls with harsh "harr-harrr-harrr". [Link]
Physical details: length=42-51 cm, wingspan=72-84 cm, weight=700-1300 g

Ring-necked duck / Ringschnabelente (Aythya collaris)
Alternate classification: Anas collaris
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Wikipedia: Ring-necked duck

Genus Oxyura:
Ruddy duck / Schwarzkopf-Ruderente (Oxyura jamaicensis)
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Wikipedia: Ruddy duck
eingebürgertes Neozoon, ausnahmsweise Brutvogel

Family Anatidae (Waterfowl):

Subfamily Dendrocygninae:
Genus Dendrocygna:
Black-billed whistling duck / Kubapfeifgans (Dendrocygna arborea)
Also known as: West Indian whistling duck
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Black billed whistling duck. Source: OWN 2020-02-19 07.35.22 Central America
We saw this on the Pipeline Road near Gamboa, Panama - see tiger heron for more on that.
General: Anas arborea Linnaeus, 1758 [more]

Order Pelecaniformes (Ibis, herons and pelicans):

Family Ardeidae (Herons / Reiher):

Genus Ardea (Great herons):
Great egret / Silberreiher (Ardea alba)
Alternate classification: Egretta albus
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Silberreiher in Deutschland, von WikiCommons Von Andreas Eichler, CC BY-SA 4.0,
Auf dem Heimweg von Schwanden haben wir bei Benken ganz weisse Reiher gesehen. Laut waren sie Silberreiher.
Bei den meisten Quellen heisst es, sie sind in der Schweiz nur Durchzüger oder Wintergäste. Aber laut Balzari und Gygax, brüten auch einige Voegel am Lac Neuchatel seit 2013.
Vocalization: Silent outside breeding ground. [Link]
Calls: In colonies various harsh calls like a dry, and mechanical "kerrrrrrr", and a very nasal "geet" or "ga-geet ga-geet" are heard. [Link]
Physical details: length=85-102 cm, wingspan=140-170 cm, weight=960-1030 g

Genus Nycticorax (Night herons):
Black-crowned night-heron / Nachtreiher (Nycticorax nycticorax)
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Wikipedia: Black-crowned night-heron
General: The black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), or black-capped night heron, commonly shortened to just night heron in Eurasia, is a medium-sized heron found throughout a large part of the world, except in the coldest regions and Australasia (where it is replaced by the closely related nankeen night heron, with which it has hybridized in the area of contact). [more]
Calls: Most commonly hear call is a nasal, soft croaking "roack", like cross between Raven and frog. [Link]
Physical details: length=58-65 cm, wingspan=105-112 cm, weight=500-800 g

Genus Egretta (Plumed egrets):
Snowy egret / Schmuckreiher (Egretta thula)
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Wikipedia: Snowy egret
General: The snowy egret (Egretta thula) is a small white heron. The genus name comes from Provençal French for the little egret, aigrette, which is a diminutive of aigron, 'heron'. The species name thula is the Araucano term for the black-necked swan, applied to this species in error by Chilean naturalist Juan Ignacio Molina in 1782.[3] [more]

Genus Nyctanassa:
Yellow-crowned night heron / Krabbenreiher (Nyctanassa violacea)
Also known as: Yellow-crowned night-heron
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Juvenile Yellow-crowned night heron in Manzanillo, Costa Rica. Source: OWN 2020-03-13 08.59.00 Central America
The yellow-crowned night heron (Nyctanassa violacea), is one of two species of night herons found in the Americas, the other one being the black-crowned night heron. It is known as the "bihoreau violacé" in French and the "pedrete corona clara" in Spanish. [more]

Genus Bubulcus (Cattle egrets):
Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis)
Alternate classification: Egretta ibis
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Arenal cattle w cattle egrets. Source: OWN 2018-02-27 16.42.14 Central America
The cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) is a cosmopolitan species of heron (family Ardeidae) found in the tropics, subtropics, and warm-temperate zones. It is the only member of the monotypic genus Bubulcus, although some authorities regard two of its subspecies as full species, the western cattle egret and the eastern cattle egret. Despite the similarities in plumage to the egrets of the genus Egretta, it is more closely related to the herons of Ardea. Originally native to parts of Asia, Africa, and Europe, it has undergone a rapid expansion in its distribution and successfully colonised much of the rest of the world in the last century. [more]
Vocalization: Usually silent away from breeding ground. In the colonies a chorus of various coarse sounds can be heard. Most distinct is a disyllabic "rick-rack". Other sounds includes short, guttural utterings, or drawn, harsh shrieks. [Link]
Physical details: length=48-53 cm, wingspan=90-96 cm, weight=300-400 g

Genus Cochlearius:
Boat-billed heron / Kahnschnabel (Cochlearius cochlearius)
Alternate classification: Cochlearius cochlearia
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Boat billed heron in Cahuita, Costa Rica. Source: OWN 2020-03-17 16.57.49 Central America
General: The boat-billed heron (Cochlearius cochlearius), colloquially known as the boatbill, is an atypical member of the heron family, and was formerly placed in a monotypic family, the Cochlearidae. It lives in mangrove swamps from Mexico south to Peru and Brazil. It is a nocturnal bird, and breeds semicolonially in mangrove trees, laying two to four bluish-white eggs in a twig nest. [more]

Genus Tigrisoma:
Fasciated tiger heron / Streifenreiher (Tigrisoma fasciatum)
Also known as: Fasciated tiger-heron
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Fasciated tiger heron. Source: OWN 2020-02-19 06.59.06 Central America
We saw this on a guided tour of the Pipeline Road near Gamboa, Panama, which is named after an oil pipeline built to ensure supply during World War II, but never actually put into service, and now providing access to Soberania National Park.
General: The fasciated tiger heron (Tigrisoma fasciatum) is a species of heron in the family Ardeidae. It is present in southern Central America and parts of northern and central South America, where its natural habitat is rivers. [more]

Family Anhingidae (Anhingas):

Genus Anhinga:
American anhinga (Anhinga anhinga)
Alternate classification: Plotus anhinga
Also known as: Anhinga
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Cormorant or anhinga or african darter. Source: OWN 2016-09-29 13.51.18 Botswana

Family Pelecanidae (Pelicans):

Genus Pelecanus:
Brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis)
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Brown pelican tentative ID. Source: OWN 2020-03-08 13.27.20 Central America
The brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) is a bird of the pelican family, Pelecanidae, one of three species found in the Americas and one of two that feed by diving into water. It is found on the Atlantic Coast from New Jersey to the mouth of the Amazon River, and along the Pacific Coast from British Columbia to northern Chile, including the Galapagos Islands. The nominate subspecies in its breeding plumage has a white head with a yellowish wash on the crown. The nape and neck are dark maroon–brown. The upper sides of the neck have white lines along the base of the gular pouch, and the lower fore neck has a pale yellowish patch. The male and female are similar, but the female is slightly smaller. The nonbreeding adult has a white head and neck. The pink skin around the eyes becomes dull and gray in the nonbreeding season. It lacks any red hue, and the pouch is strongly olivaceous ochre-tinged and the legs are olivaceous gray to blackish-gray. [more]

Family Threskiornithidae:

Genus Plegadis:
Glossy ibis / Brauner Sichler (Plegadis falcinellus)
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Wikipedia: Glossy ibis
The glossy ibis (Plegadis falcinellus) is a water bird in the order Pelecaniformes and the ibis and spoonbill family Threskiornithidae. The scientific name derives from Ancient Greek plegados and Latin, falcis, both meaning "sickle" and referring to the distinctive shape of the bill.[2] [more]
Vocalization: Generally silent away from breeding ground. Dry, crow-like "garr garr", may be heard occasionally in flight. At breeding ground various guttural grunts, and piping, hissing sounds. [Link]
Physical details: length=55-65 cm, wingspan=80-95 cm, weight=530-768 g

Order Passeriformes (Passerine / Singvögel):

Suborder Passeri (Sperlingsvögel):

Superfamily Sylvioidea:
Family Hirundinidae (Swallows / Schwalben):
Genus Hirundo:
Barn swallow / Rauchschwalbe (Hirundo rustica)
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Rauchschwalben schenkel farm, farbe betont für ID. Source: OWN 2020-04-16 10.09.16 Luppmen
Seen every evening from spring to fall, need good picture.
Etymology: In früheren Jahrhunderten flogen sie vielfach durch die Öffnungen im Giebel ein und aus, durch die auch der Rauch des Herdfeuers abzog. So erhielten sie den Namen Rauchschwalben. [Link]
Song: Characteristic calls and song. Song a sparkling, squeaky energetic improvisation with interspersed contact calls, often with diagnostic ending; an electric and drawn-out "su-eerrrrrrrrrrrrrrr". [Link]
Calls: Contact call a short and sharp "weet" or "kee-weet". [Link]
Physical details: length=17-19 cm, wingspan=32-34 cm, weight=16-22 g

Genus Stelgidopteryx:
Southern rough-winged swallow (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis)
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Arenal hike southern rough-winged swallow tentative ID by Merlin. Source: OWN 2018-02-28 10.47.32 Central America
General: The southern rough-winged swallow (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis) is a small swallow. It was first formally described as Hirundo ruficollis by French ornithologist Louis Vieillot in 1817 in his Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle.[2] [more]

Genus Riparia:
Bank swallow / Uferschwalbe (Riparia riparia)
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Wikipedia: Bank swallow
The sand martin (Riparia riparia) or European sand martin, bank swallow, and collared sand martin in India, is a migratory passerine bird in the swallow family. It has a wide range in summer, embracing practically the whole of Europe and the Mediterranean countries and across the Palearctic to the Pacific Ocean. It is a Holarctic species also found in North America. It winters in eastern and southern Africa, South America, and the Indian Subcontinent. [more]
Song: Song a primitive improvisation on the contact call. [Link]
Calls: Contact call a mono- or disyllabic "trrrrt". Similar to House Martin but more raucous and less crisp, with less rolling r's, and with stable pitch throughout. Alarm call similar to House Martin; a sharp plaintive "tseep", but somewhat purer and more drawn. [Link]
Physical details: length=12 cm, wingspan=26-29 cm, weight=11-16 g

Superfamily Passeroidea:
Family Passeridae (Sparrows / Sperlinge):
Genus Passer:
House sparrow / Haussperling (Passer domesticus)
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Pair of house sparrows in a tree near Zürichstrasse, Fehraltorf Source: OWN 2020-04-11 07.54.30 Luppmen
One of the most common birds anywhere in Europe and North America. In Fehraltorf there are 5 house sparrows for every one tree sparrow. Eugene Schieffelin brought house sparrows and starlings to North Ameria. As a Shakespeare fan, it is often claimed that he wanted to introduce all species to North America that are mentioned in Shakespeare, but apparently this is not supported by any records
Found practically everywhere. Often on the ground or on your table in a cafe (they're very bold) or in groups in bushes and hedges
Song: Song a primitive, monosyllabic, or slightly disyllabic "chilp", hard to distinguish from Tree Sparrow. [Link]
Calls: Most calls very similar to Tree Sparrow, but lacks said species' distinct high pitched call (chew-itt), and alarm call is less dry and raucous. [Link]
Physical details: length=14-15 cm, wingspan=21-25 cm, weight=24-38 g

Song: An monotone chirping. Mainly 2-5 KHz with higher overtones.
Song attributes: Melody: simple rhythmic, slow, Frequency: 2-5 KHz Singing season: 01-01 - 08-31 Dawn chorus start, 30 minutes before dawn.

Family Fringillidae (Finken):
Subfamily Emberizinae:
Genus Cyanerpes:
Red-legged honeycreeper / Türkisnaschvogel (Cyanerpes cyaneus)
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Red-legged honeycreeper. Source: OWN 2020-02-21 07.42.10 Central America
We saw this on the grounds of Gamboa Rainforest Resort, a hotel at the old U.S. administrative center for the Panama Canal. You can spend hours watching birds and wildlife just around the hotel.
General: The red-legged honeycreeper (Cyanerpes cyaneus) is a small songbird species in the tanager family (Thraupidae). It is found in the tropical New World from southern Mexico south to Peru, Bolivia and central Brazil, Trinidad and Tobago, and on Cuba, where possibly introduced. It is also rarely found in southern Texas.[2] [more]

Family Motacillidae (Stelzenverwandte):
Genus Anthus:
American pipit / Pazifikpieper (Anthus rubescens)
Alternate classification: Pipastes rubescens
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Wikipedia: American pipit
besondere Ausnahmeerscheinung

Family Icteridae (New World blackbirds, orioles and allies):
Genus Quiscalus:
Great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus)
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Monteverde great tailed grackle female. Source: OWN 2018-02-12 16.47.52 Central America
General: The great-tailed grackle or Mexican grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus) is a medium-sized, highly social passerine bird native to North and South America. A member of the family Icteridae, it is one of 10 extant species of grackle and is closely related to the boat-tailed grackle and the extinct slender-billed grackle.[2] In the southern United States, it is sometimes simply referred to as "blackbird" or (erroneously) "crow"[3] due to its glossy black plumage, and similarly it is often called cuervo ("crow") in some parts of Mexico, although it is not a member of the crow genus Corvus, nor even of the family Corvidae. [more]

Genus Icterus:
Black-cowled oriole / Gelbschultertrupial (Icterus prosthemelas)
Alternate classification: Icterus dominicensis prosthemelas
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Black-cowled oriole in Manzanillo, Costa Rica. Source: OWN 2020-03-12 09.34.56 Central America
The black-cowled oriole (Icterus prosthemelas) is a species of bird in the family Icteridae. It is common and widespread in the Caribbean lowlands and foothills from southern Mexico to western Panama. It lives primarily in humid or semihumid forest, as well as in clearings, along forest edges, in plantations, in semi-open areas with scattered trees and bushes, and in gardens. The adult male is black, with yellow on the belly, shoulder, rump, wing lining, and crissum. The female's plumage varies depending on location. In the south of its range, it is similar to that of the male. In the north, its crown and upperparts are olive-yellow, while its face, throat, upper breast, wings, and tail are black. [more]

Bullock's oriole (Icterus bullockii)
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Monteverde Bullocks oriole tenative ID by Merlin. Source: OWN 2018-02-21 16.23.04 Central America
Bullock's oriole (Icterus bullockii) is a small New World blackbird. At one time, this species and the Baltimore oriole were considered to be a single species, the northern oriole. This bird is named after William Bullock, an English amateur naturalist. [more]

Genus Psarocolius:
Montezuma oropendola / Montezumastirnvogel (Psarocolius montezuma)
Alternate classification: Gymnostinops montezuma
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Arenal feeder montezuma oropendola landing. Source: OWN 2018-02-27 12.51.44 Central America
The Montezuma Oropendola (Psarocolius montezuma) is a New World tropical icterid bird. It is a resident breeder in the Caribbean coastal lowlands from southeastern Mexico to central Panama, but is absent from El Salvador and southern Guatemala. It also occurs on the Pacific slope of Nicaragua and Honduras and northwestern and southwestern Costa Rica. It is among the oropendola species sometimes separated in the genus Gymnostinops. The English and scientific names of this species commemorate the Aztec emperor Moctezuma II. [more]

Family Parulidae (New World warblers):
Genus Setophaga:
Black-throated green warbler / Grünwaldsänger (Setophaga virens)
Alternate classification: Dendroica virens
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Wikipedia: Black-throated green warbler
besondere Ausnahmeerscheinung

Family Sturnidae (Starlings / Stare):

Genus Sturnus:
Common starling / Star (Sturnus vulgaris)
Also known as: European starling
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Im richtigen Licht schimmern die Federn. Source: OWN 2020-04-11 07.54.52 Luppmen
In trees or in the fields by the cows.
Frequently seen here, for instance by their nests under the eaves of one of the Toblerone houses. Introduced to North America from Europe by Eugene Schieffelin.
Eine der Vogelarten, die gleichzeitig zwei Toene singen kann!
Vocalization: Among the best of imitators. Mimics birds, animals and mechanical noises. Often makes several sounds at the same time. [Link]
Song: Song a highly varied mix of falling whistles, bill-clappering and various masterful mimicry. [Link]
Calls: Other calls; a harsh "chaee" and a short sharp "tink". [Link]
Physical details: length=21 cm, wingspan=37-42 cm, weight=60-90 g

Song: I find their individual song amusing, with its (long) whoops and weird noises. As a group, they're just noisy!
Song attributes: Melody: improvised melodic, slow, Frequency: medium (1-5 KHz) Special sounds: whoop, weird, mimicry Singing season: 01-01 - 09-30 Dawn chorus start, 15 minutes before dawn.

Family Turdidae (Thrushes / Drosseln):

Genus Catharus:
Gray-cheeked thrush / Grauwangendrossel (Catharus minimus)
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Wikipedia: Gray-cheeked thrush

Genus Turdus:
Clay-colored Robin (Turdus grayi)
Alternate classification: Turdus grayii
Also known as: Clay-colored thrush
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Lava hike clay colored thrush? national bird. Source: OWN 2018-03-01 17.09.44 Central America
General: The clay-colored thrush (Turdus grayi) is a common Middle American bird of the thrush family (Turdidae). It is the national bird of Costa Rica, where it is well known as the yigüirro (Spanish: [ʝi'ɣwiro]). Other common names include clay-colored robin.[1] [more]

Genus Myadestes:
Black-faced solitaire (Myadestes melanops)
Alternate classification: Myadestes ralloides melanops
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Cloud forest black faced solitaire. Source: OWN 2018-02-17 13.24.56 Central America
The black-faced solitaire (Myadestes melanops) is a bird in the thrush family endemic to highlands in Costa Rica and western Panama. [more]

Family Tyrannidae:

Genus Tyrannus:
Tropical kingbird (Tyrannus melancholicus)
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Tropical kingbird. Source: OWN 2018-02-16 16.18.52 Central America
The tropical kingbird (Tyrannus melancholicus) is a large tyrant flycatcher. This bird breeds from southern Arizona and the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas in the United States through Central America, South America as far as south as central Argentina and eastern Peru, and on Trinidad and Tobago. Birds from the northernmost and southern breeding areas migrate to warmer parts of the range after breeding. [more]

Genus Tityra:
Masked Tityra (Tityra semifasciata)
Also known as: Masked tityra
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Cahal pech resort masked tityra tentative ID by Merlin. Source: OWN 2018-02-05 17.22.32 Central America
The masked tityra (Tityra semifasciata) is a medium-sized passerine bird. It has traditionally been placed in the cotinga or the tyrant flycatcher family, but evidence strongly suggests that it is better placed in Tityridae,[2] where it is now placed by the South American Classification Committee. [more]

Genus Contopus:
Western wood-pewee (Contopus sordidulus)
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Arenal western wood-pewee tentative ID by Merlin. Source: OWN 2018-03-01 07.50.38 Central America
The western wood pewee (Contopus sordidulus) is a small tyrant flycatcher. Adults are gray-olive on the upperparts[2] with light underparts, washed with olive on the breast. They have two wing bars and a dark bill with yellow at the base of the lower mandible. This bird is very similar in appearance to the eastern wood pewee; the two birds were formerly considered to be one species. The call of C. sordidulus is a loud buzzy peeer; the song consists of three rapid descending tsees ending with a descending peeer. [more]

Genus Myiodynastes:
Streaked flycatcher / Südlicher Fleckenmaskentyrann (Myiodynastes maculatus)
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Streaked flycatcher. Source: OWN 2020-02-20 14.53.44 Central America
We saw this at Los Lagartos Restaurant on the grounds of Gamboa Rainforest Resort in Panama.
General: The streaked flycatcher (Myiodynastes maculatus) is a passerine bird in the tyrant flycatcher family. [more]

Genus Pitangus:
Great kiskadee / Schwefelmaskentyrann (Pitangus sulphuratus)
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La fortuna Great kiskadee tenatative ID w wings spread. Source: OWN 2018-02-26 10.15.18 Central America
The great kiskadee (Pitangus sulphuratus), called bem-te-vi in Brazil, is a passerine bird in the tyrant flycatcher family Tyrannidae. It is the only member of the genus Pitangus. [more]

Genus Myiozetetes:
Gray-capped flycatcher (Myiozetetes granadensis)
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La tarde last morning gray-capped flycatcher. Source: OWN 2018-03-11 10.56.34 Central America
The grey-capped flycatcher (Myiozetetes granadensis) is a passerine bird, a member of the large tyrant flycatcher family. [more]

Family Mimidae (Spottdrosseln):

Genus Dumetella:
Grey catbird / Katzenvogel (Dumetella carolinensis)
Alternate classification: Muscicapa carolinensis
Also known as: Gray catbird
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Wikipedia: Grey catbird

Family Dendrocolaptidae:

Genus Xiphorhynchus:
Black-striped woodcreeper / Tränen-Baumsteiger (Xiphorhynchus lachrymosus)
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Black-striped woodcreeper in Manzanillo, Costa Rica. Source: OWN 2020-03-12 09.50.48 Central America
General: The black-striped woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus lachrymosus) is a species of bird in the Dendrocolaptinae subfamily. [more]

Superfamily Corvoidea:

Family Corvidae (Krähenverwandte):
Genus Cyanocorax:
Brown jay (Psilorhinus morio)
Alternate classification: Cyanocorax morio Wagler, 1829
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Arenal feeder 2 brown jays. Source: OWN 2018-02-27 13.24.36 Central America
The brown jay (Psilorhinus morio) is a large American jay which has the habitus of a magpie, but is slightly smaller and with a shorter tail, though the bill is larger. [more]

Family Vireonidae (Vireos):
Subfamily Vireoninae (Shrike-vireos):
Genus Vireo:
Yellow-throated vireo / Gelbkehlvireo (Vireo flavifrons)
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Red-eyed vireo / Rotaugenvireo (Vireo olivaceus)
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Family Thraupidae (Tanagers):

Genus Ramphocelus:
Crimson-backed tanager / Scharlachbauchtangare (Ramphocelus dimidiatus)
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Crimson-backed tanager gamboa town. Source: OWN 2020-02-17 17.52.16 Central America
We saw this beautiful bird walking around Gamboa town in Panama. They were also common on the hotel grounds.
General: The crimson-backed tanager (Ramphocelus dimidiatus) is a species of bird in the family Thraupidae. It is found in Colombia, Panama, and Venezuela, and introduced to French Polynesia.[2] Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and heavily degraded former forest.[2] A nickname in Panama is sangre de toro ("Blood of the bull").[3] [more]

Passerini's tanager (Ramphocelus passerinii)
Also known as: Scarlet-rumped tanager
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La fortuna passerinis tanager pair. Source: OWN 2018-02-26 14.57.40 Central America
The scarlet-rumped tanager (Ramphocelus passerinii) is a medium-sized passerine bird. This tanager is a resident breeder in the Caribbean lowlands from southern Mexico to western Panama. This species was formerly known as the scarlet-rumped tanager, but was renamed when the distinctive form found on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Panama was reclassified as a separate species, the Cherrie's tanager, Ramphocelus costaricensis. While most authorities have accepted this split, there are notable exceptions (e.g. the Howard and Moore checklist). It was renamed back to the scarlet-rumped tanager in 2018 when Cherrie's Tanager was lumped back into the species. [more]

Crimson-collared tanager (Ramphocelus sanguinolentus)
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Crimson collared tanager. Source: OWN 2018-02-26 10.49.32 Central America
The crimson-collared tanager (Ramphocelus sanguinolentus) is a rather small Middle American songbird. It was first described by the French naturalist René-Primevère Lesson in 1831, its specific epithet from the Latin adjective sanguinolentus, "bloodied", referring to its red plumage. [more]

Genus Piranga:
Summer tanager (Piranga rubra)
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Arenal feeder summer tanager tenatative ID. Source: OWN 2018-02-27 12.58.26 Central America
The summer tanager (Piranga rubra) is a medium-sized American songbird. Formerly placed in the tanager family (Thraupidae), it and other members of its genus are now classified in the cardinal family (Cardinalidae).[2] The species's plumage and vocalizations are similar to other members of the cardinal family. [more]

Genus Habia:
Red-throated ant-tanager (Habia fuscicauda)
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Red throated ant tanager maybe. Source: OWN 2020-02-19 07.46.46 Central America
The red-throated ant tanager (Habia fuscicauda) is a medium-sized passerine bird. This species is a resident breeder on the Caribbean slopes from southeastern Mexico to eastern Panama. It was usually considered an aberrant kind of tanager and placed in the Thraupidae, but is actually closer to the cardinals (Cardinalidae). Consequently, it can be argued that referring to the members of this genus as ant tanagers is misleading, but no other common name has gained usage. [more]

Subfamily Thraupinae:
Genus Tangara:
Blue-gray tanager / Blautangare (Thraupis episcopus)
Alternate classification: Tangara episcopus
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Arenal blue gray tanager. Source: OWN 2018-02-27 13.05.16 Central America
We saw this on the grounds of Gamboa Rainforest Resort.
General: The blue-gray tanager (Thraupis episcopus) is a medium-sized South American songbird of the tanager family, Thraupidae. Its range is from Mexico south to northeast Bolivia and northern Brazil, all of the Amazon Basin, except the very south. It has been introduced to Lima (Peru). On Trinidad and Tobago, this bird is called blue jean. [more]

Golden-hooded tanager / Goldscheiteltangare (Tangara larvata)
Alternate classification: Stilpnia larvata
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Zoom one golden-hooded tanager on telephone wire. Source: OWN 2020-02-18 10.52.28
We saw this on a nature tour on the grounds of Gamboa Rainforest Resort. I noted it as a honeycreeper, which it is not - not sure if my mistake or the guide's.
General: The golden-hooded tanager (Stilpnia larvata) is a medium-sized passerine bird. This tanager is a resident breeder from southern Mexico south to western Ecuador. [more]

Genus Thraupis:
Palm tanager (Thraupis palmarum)
Alternate classification: Tangara palmarum (Wied, 1821)
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Arenal feeder palm tanager. Source: OWN 2018-02-27 12.23.14 Central America
The palm tanager (Thraupis palmarum) is a medium-sized passerine bird. This tanager is a resident breeder from Nicaragua south to Bolivia, Paraguay and southern Brazil.[2][3] It also breeds on Trinidad and, since 1962, on Tobago. In Trinidad and Tobago, it is known by colloquial names such as the "palmiste" and the "green jean".[4] [more]

Family Passerellidae:

Genus Zonotrichia:
Rufous-collared sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis)
Alternate classification: Fringilla capensis
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La fortuna rufous collared sparrow. Source: OWN 2018-02-26 10.16.56 Central America
The rufous-collared sparrow or Andean sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis) is an American sparrow found in a wide range of habitats, often near humans, from the extreme south-east of Mexico to Tierra del Fuego, and in the Caribbean, only on the island of Hispaniola (in both the Dominican Republic and Haiti). It is famous for its diverse vocalizations, which have been intensely studied since the 1970s, particularly by Paul Handford and Stephen C. Lougheed (UWO), Fernando Nottebohm (Rockefeller University) and Pablo Luis Tubaro (UBA). Local names for this bird include the Portuguese tico-tico, the Spanish chingolo, chincol and copetón, "tufted" in Colombia and comemaíz "corn eater" in Costa Rica. [more]

Order Charadriiformes (Shorebirds and others / Regenpfeiferartige):

Family Laridae (Gulls / Reiher):

Subfamily Larinae (Möwen):
Genus Larus:
Lesser black-backed gull / Heringsmöwe (Larus fuscus)
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Wikipedia: Lesser black-backed gull
The lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus) is a large gull that breeds on the Atlantic coasts of Europe. It is migratory, wintering from the British Isles south to West Africa. It is a regular winter visitor to the east coast of North America, probably from the breeding population in Iceland. [more]

Ring-billed gull / Ringschnabelmöwe (Larus delawarensis)
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Wikipedia: Ring-billed gull

Herring gull / Silbermöwe (Larus argentatus)
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Wikipedia: Herring gull
Brut-, Jahres-, Zugvogel, Wintergast
Vocalization: Quite vocal. A long and strong "ay-kay-kay-kay-kay" with fading strength commonly heard. A deep "ga-ga-ga" heard from anxious birds. [Link]
Calls: All calls much deeper pitched than Common Gull. Difficult to distinguish from Lesser Black-backed Gull, but tone is less nasal. [Link]
Physical details: length=55-64 cm, wingspan=123-148 cm, weight=750-1440 g

Great black-backed gull / Mantelmöwe (Larus marinus)
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Wikipedia: Great black-backed gull
Brut-, Jahres-, Zugvogel, Wintergast

Genus Rissa:
Black-legged kittiwake / Dreizehenmöwe (Rissa tridactyla)
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Wikipedia: Black-legged kittiwake
General: The black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) is a seabird species in the gull family Laridae. [more]
Vocalization: Highly vocal at breeding ground. A mewing "kitti-wake", with the pitch rising on the second drawn out syllable, and then falling. Generally silent elsewhere, except when squabbling over food. [Link]
Physical details: length=38-40 cm, wingspan=95-105 cm, weight=310-500 g

Genus Gelochelidon:
Gull-billed tern / Lachseeschwalbe (Gelochelidon nilotica)
Alternate classification: Sterna nilotica
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Wikipedia: Gull-billed tern
General: The gull-billed tern (Gelochelidon nilotica), formerly Sterna nilotica,[2] is a tern in the family Laridae. The genus name is from Ancient Greek gelao, "to laugh", and khelidon, "swallow". The specific niloticus is from Latin and means of the Nile.[3] The Australian gull-billed tern was previously considered a subspecies. [more]

Genus Xema:
Sabine's gull / Schwalbenmöwe (Xema sabini)
Alternate classification: Xema sabinii
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Wikipedia: Sabine's gull
Sabine's gull (/ˈsbɪn/ SAY-bin; Xema sabini), also known as the fork-tailed gull or xeme, is a small gull. Its generic placement is disputed; some authors treat it as the sole species in the genus Xema as Xema sabini,[2] while others retain it in the genus Larus as Larus sabini.[3][4] [more]

Genus Chlidonias:
Black tern / Trauerseeschwalbe (Chlidonias niger)
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Wikipedia: Black tern
The black tern (Chlidonias niger) is a small tern generally found in or near inland water in Europe, Western Asia and North America. As its name suggests, it has predominantly dark plumage. In some lights it can appear blue in the breeding season, hence the old English name "blue darr".[2] The genus name is from Ancient Greek khelidonios, "swallow-like", from khelidon, "swallow": another old English name for the black tern is "carr (i.e. lake) swallow".[3] The species name is from Latin niger "shining black".[4] [more]
Vocalization: Moderately vocal. [Link]
Calls: Flight call a more or less clear "kleck, or a disyllabic "klee-ake" with accented first syllable. Sometimes slightly rolling "klirr-eke", but never as much as in White-winged Tern. Also a slightly harsher "kreek", but not as raspy as in Whiskered Tern. [Link]
Physical details: length=22-24 cm, wingspan=64-68 cm, weight=60-86 g

Genus Anous:
Brown noddy / Noddiseeschwalbe (Anous stolidus)
Alternate classification: Sterna stolida
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Wikipedia: Brown noddy
General: The brown noddy or common noddy (Anous stolidus) is a seabird in the family Laridae. The largest of the noddies, it can be told from the closely related black noddy by its larger size and plumage, which is dark brown rather than black. The brown noddy is a tropical seabird with a worldwide distribution, ranging from Hawaii to the Tuamotu Archipelago and Australia in the Pacific Ocean, from the Red Sea to the Seychelles and Australia in the Indian Ocean and in the Caribbean to Tristan da Cunha in the Atlantic Ocean. The brown noddy is colonial, usually nesting on elevated situations on cliffs or in short trees or shrubs. It only occasionally nests on the ground. A single egg is laid by the female of a pair each breeding season. In India the brown noddy is protected in the PM Sayeed Marine Birds Conservation Reserve.[2] [more]

Genus Leucophaeus:
Laughing gull / Aztekenmöwe (Leucophaeus atricilla)
Alternate classification: Larus atricilla
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Genus Hydroprogne:
Caspian tern / Raubseeschwalbe (Hydroprogne caspia)
Alternate classification: Sterna caspia
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Wikipedia: Caspian tern
General: The Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia)[2] is a species of tern, with a subcosmopolitan but scattered distribution. Despite its extensive range, it is monotypic of its genus, and has no accepted subspecies.[3] The genus name is from Ancient Greek hudros, "water", and Latin progne, "swallow". The specific caspia is from Latin and, like the English name, refers to the Caspian Sea.[4] [more]
Calls: Easily recognized by its very harsh calls. Sometimes likened to the sound of a plate of steel being dragged across a concrete floor. Similar in harshness to Grey Heron, but more drawn, with an accented middle; "Kraaeeet", or with a double syllable start "ka-ha-kraaaeet". Immature birds begs with a penetrating, sharp whistle. [Link]
Physical details: length=47-54 cm, wingspan=130-145 cm, weight=500-750 g

Genus Onychoprion:
Bridled tern / Zügelseeschwalbe (Onychoprion anaethetus)
Alternate classification: Sterna anaethetus
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Wikipedia: Bridled tern
General: The bridled tern (Onychoprion anaethetus)[2] is a seabird of the family Laridae. It is a bird of the tropical oceans. The scientific name is from Ancient Greek. The genus comes from onux meaning "claw" or "nail", and prion, meaning "saw". The specific anaethetus means "senseless, stupid".[3] [more]

Genus Thalasseus:
Elegant tern / Schmuckseeschwalbe (Thalasseus elegans)
Alternate classification: Sterna elegans
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Wikipedia: Elegant tern
The elegant tern (Thalasseus elegans) is a tern in the family Laridae. It breeds on the Pacific coasts of the southern United States and Mexico and winters south to Peru, Ecuador and Chile. [more]

Sandwich tern / Brandseeschwalbe (Thalasseus sandvicensis)
Alternate classification: Sterna sandvicensis
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La tarde 5 sandwich terns tenative ID by Merlin. Source: OWN 2018-03-11 06.35.12 Central America
The Sandwich tern (Thalasseus sandvicensis)[2] is a tern in the family Laridae. It is very closely related to the lesser crested tern (T. bengalensis), Chinese crested tern (T. bernsteini), Cabot's tern (T. acuflavidus), and elegant tern (T. elegans) and has been known to interbreed with the lesser crested. It breeds in the Palearctic from Europe to the Caspian Sea wintering to South Africa, India and Sri Lanka. [more]
Calls: Contact call a sharp and grating "keeree-eek". Often compared to the pressing of amalgam into a tooth. [Link]
Physical details: length=36-41 cm, wingspan=95-105 cm, weight=215-275 g

Family Charadriidae (Regenpfeifer):

Genus Pluvialis:
American golden-plover / Prärie-Goldregenpfeifer (Pluvialis dominica)
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Wikipedia: American golden-plover
General: The American golden plover (Pluvialis dominica), or American golden-plover is a medium-sized plover. The genus name is Latin and means relating to rain, from pluvia, "rain". It was believed that golden plovers flocked when rain was imminent. The species name dominica refers to Santo Domingo, now Hispaniola, in the West Indies.[2] [more]

Black-bellied plover / Kiebitzregenpfeifer (Pluvialis squatarola)
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Black-bellied plover on its nest. Source: OWN 2016-09-25 16.50.10 Botswana
The grey plover or black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola) is a medium-sized plover breeding in Arctic regions. It is a long-distance migrant, with a nearly worldwide coastal distribution when not breeding.[2] The genus name is Latin and means relating to rain, from pluvia, "rain". It was believed that golden plovers flocked when rain was imminent. The species name squatarola is a Latinised version of Sgatarola, a Venetian name for some kind of plover.[3] [more]
Calls: Contact call diagnostic. A plaintive, drawn and trisyllabic (but continuous) "kleeooowee". Pitch falls on second syllable and rises on last. [Link]
Physical details: length=27-30 cm, wingspan=71-83 cm, weight=190-280 g

Pacific golden plover / Tundra-Goldregenpfeifer (Pluvialis fulva)
Also known as: Pacific golden-plover
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Wikipedia: Pacific golden plover
General: The Pacific golden plover (Pluvialis fulva), or Pacific golden-plover is a medium-sized plover. The genus name is Latin and means relating to rain, from pluvia, "rain". It was believed that golden plovers flocked when rain was imminent. The species name fulva is Latin and refers to a tawny colour.[2] [more]

Family Scolopacidae (Shorebirds / Schnepfenvögel):

Genus Calidris:
Curlew sandpiper / Sichelstrandläufer (Calidris ferruginea)
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Wikipedia: Curlew sandpiper
The curlew sandpiper (Calidris ferruginea) is a small wader that breeds on the tundra of Arctic Siberia.[2] The genus name is from Ancient Greek kalidris or skalidris, a term used by Aristotle for some grey-coloured waterside birds. The specific ferruginea is from Latin ferrugo, ferruginis, "iron rust" referring to its colour in breeding plumage.[3] [more]
Calls: Flight call a soft, ringing and rolling "krrrrrt, with variations. Lacks the hoarse, nasal quality of similar call by Dunlin. [Link]
Physical details: length=18-19 cm, wingspan=42-46 cm, weight=50-65 g

Red knot / Knutt (Calidris canutus)
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Wikipedia: Red knot
General: The red knot (Calidris canutus) (just knot in English-speaking Europe) is a medium-sized shorebird which breeds in tundra and the Arctic Cordillera in the far north of Canada, Europe, and Russia. It is a large member of the Calidris sandpipers, second only to the great knot.[2] Six subspecies are recognised. [more]
Song: Song an undulating, nasal mewing "poooor-mee", or "po-hor-mee". [Link]
Calls: Most commonly heard migratory call, a short "kut" or "knot". Sometimes given in stuttering series. [Link]
Physical details: length=23-25 cm, wingspan=57-61 cm, weight=110-160 g

Baird's sandpiper / Bairdstrandläufer (Calidris bairdii)
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Wikipedia: Baird's sandpiper
General: Baird's sandpiper (Calidris bairdii) is a small shorebird. It is among those calidrids which were formerly included in the genus Erolia, which was subsumed into the genus Calidris in 1973.[2] The genus name is from Ancient Greek kalidris or skalidris, a term used by Aristotle for some grey-coloured waterside birds. The English name and specific bairdii commemorate Spencer Fullerton Baird, 19th-century naturalist and assistant secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.[3] [more]

Buff-breasted sandpiper / Grasläufer (Calidris subruficollis)
Alternate classification: Tryngites subruficollis
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Wikipedia: Buff-breasted sandpiper
The buff-breasted sandpiper (Calidris subruficollis) is a small shorebird. The species name subruficollis is from Latin subrufus, "reddish" (from sub, "somewhat", and rufus, "rufous") and collis, "-necked/-throated" (from collum, "neck").[2] It is a calidrid sandpiper. [more]

Sanderling / Sanderling (Calidris alba)
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Wikipedia: Sanderling
The sanderling (Calidris alba) is a small wading bird. The name derives from Old English sand-yrðling, "sand-ploughman".[2] The genus name is from Ancient Greek kalidris or skalidris, a term used by Aristotle for some grey-coloured waterside birds. The specific alba is Latin for "white".[3] [more]
Calls: Call not very diagnostic; a short and soft "pleet" or "keek". [Link]
Physical details: length=20-21 cm, wingspan=40-45 cm, weight=44-70 g

Dunlin / Alpenstrandläufer (Calidris alpina)
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Wikipedia: Dunlin
General: The dunlin (Calidris alpina) is a small wader, sometimes separated with the other "stints" in Erolia. The English name is a dialect form of "dunling", first recorded in 1531–2. It derives from dun, "dull brown", with the suffix -ling, meaning a person or thing with the given quality.[2] The genus name is from Ancient Greek kalidris or skalidris, a term used by Aristotle for some grey-coloured waterside birds. The specific alpina is from Latin and means "of high mountains", in this case referring to the Alps.[3] [more]
Song: Song: A drawn out, nasal "tweeet", and ringing variations on the contact call in decrescendo. Low chattering heard from feeding birds. [Link]
Calls: Contact call a diagnostic, very nasal "trrreeet" . Given throughout the year and in many situations, including when being flushed. [Link]
Physical details: length=16-20 cm, wingspan=38-43 cm, weight=35-60 g

Ruff / Kampfläufer (Calidris pugnax)
Alternate classification: Philomachus pugnax
Also known as: Ruff_(bird)
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Wikipedia: Ruff
General: The ruff (Calidris pugnax) is a medium-sized wading bird that breeds in marshes and wet meadows across northern Eurasia. This highly gregarious sandpiper is migratory and sometimes forms huge flocks in its winter grounds, which include southern and western Europe, Africa, southern Asia and Australia. [more]
Vocalization: Generally silent. Short, muted, nasal, mono or disyllabic grunts sometimes heard. [Link]
Physical details: length=26-30 cm, wingspan=54-58 cm, weight=75-230 g

Pectoral sandpiper / Graubrust-Strandläufer (Calidris melanotos)
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Wikipedia: Pectoral sandpiper
General: The pectoral sandpiper (Calidris melanotos) is a small, migratory wader that breeds in North America and Asia, wintering in South America and Oceania. It eats small invertebrates. Its nest, a hole scraped in the ground and with a thick lining, is deep enough to protect its four eggs from the cool breezes of its breeding grounds. The pectoral sandpiper is 21 cm (8.3 in) long, with a wingspan of 46 cm (18 in). [more]

Semipalmated sandpiper / Sandstrandläufer (Calidris pusilla)
Alternate classification: Tringa pusilla
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Least sandpiper / Wiesenstrandläufer (Calidris minutilla)
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Stilt sandpiper / Bindenstrandläufer (Calidris himantopus)
Alternate classification: Micropalama himantopus
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Wikipedia: Stilt sandpiper
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Genus Numenius (Curlews):
Whimbrel / Regenbrachvogel (Numenius phaeopus)
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Wikipedia: Whimbrel
Song: Song starts similar to Curlew with long wailing notes "kluuueee", which then accelerates to a continuous, vibrating single note. Lacks the cyclic phrase ending of Curlew. [Link]
Physical details: length=40-42 cm, wingspan=76-89 cm, weight=300-660 g

Genus Arenaria (Turnstones):
Ruddy turnstone / Steinwälzer (Arenaria interpres)
Alternate classification: Tringa interpres
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Wikipedia: Ruddy turnstone
General: The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) is a small wading bird, one of two species of turnstone in the genus Arenaria. The scientific name is from Latin. The genus name arenaria derives from arenarius, "inhabiting sand, from arena, "sand". The specific interpres means "messenger"; when visiting Gotland in 1741, Linnaeus thought that the Swedish word Tolk "interpreter" applied to this species, but in the local dialect the word means "legs" and is used for the redshank.[2] [more]
Song: Alarm call/song more "wader-like", a staccato "kuvi-kuvi-vit-vit-vitua". [Link]
Calls: Characteristic call: An explosive, hard, resonant and short "koi" or "kott" with a peculiar timbre, usually given in rapid or accelerating series. [Link]
Physical details: length=22-24 cm, wingspan=50-57 cm, weight=85-150 g

Genus Limnodromus:
Shortbilled dowitcher / Kleiner Schlammläufer (Limnodromus griseus)
Also known as: Short-billed dowitcher
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Genus Tringa:
Lesser yellowlegs / Kleiner Gelbschenkel (Tringa flavipes)
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Wikipedia: Lesser yellowlegs
General: The lesser yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes) is a medium-sized shorebird. The genus name Tringa is the New Latin name given to the green sandpiper by Aldrovandus in 1599 based on Ancient Greek trungas, a thrush-sized, white-rumped, tail-bobbing wading bird mentioned by Aristotle. The specific flavipes is from Latin flavus, "yellow", and pes, "foot".[2] [more]

Genus Actitis:
Spotted sandpiper / Drosseluferläufer (Actitis macularius)
Alternate classification: Actitis macularia
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Genus Phalaropus:
Red phalarope / Thorshühnchen (Phalaropus fulicarius)
Alternate classification: Phalaropus fulicaria
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Wikipedia: Red phalarope
General: The red phalarope or grey phalarope (Phalaropus fulicarius) is a small wader. This phalarope breeds in the Arctic regions of North America and Eurasia. It is migratory, and, unusually for a wader, migrating mainly on oceanic routes and wintering at sea on tropical oceans. [more]
Calls: Flight-call a short and sharp, Coot-like "kit". Cleaner and higher pitched than Red-necked Phalarope. Display sound a rolling cooing, at stable pitch. Other calls: a hissing like the squeezing of a rubber duck, rising quickly in pitch and ending abruptly. [Link]
Physical details: length=20-22 cm, wingspan=40-44 cm, weight=40-75 g

Wilson's phalarope / Wilsonwassertreter (Phalaropus tricolor)
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Wikipedia: Wilson's phalarope
General: Wilson's phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor) is a small wader. This bird, the largest of the phalaropes, breeds in the prairies of North America in western Canada and the western United States. It is migratory, wintering in inland salt lakes near the Andes in Argentina.[2] They are passage migrants through Central America around March/April and again during September/October.[3] The species is a rare vagrant to western Europe. [more]

Red-necked phalarope / Odinshühnchen (Phalaropus lobatus)
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Wikipedia: Red-necked phalarope
The red-necked phalarope (Phalaropus lobatus), also known as the northern phalarope and hyperborean phalarope,[2] is a small wader. This phalarope breeds in the Arctic regions of North America and Eurasia. It is migratory, and, unusually for a wader, winters at sea on tropical oceans. [more]

Genus Bartramia:
Upland sandpiper / Prärieläufer (Bartramia longicauda)
Alternate classification: Tringa longicauda
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Subfamily Sterninae (Terns / Möwenverwandte):

Genus Sterna:
Common tern / Flussseeschwalbe (Sterna hirundo)
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Common tern pfaeffikersee. Source: OWN 2020-05-20 09.31.28 Pfäffikersee
Seasonal Behavior: Die Flussseeschwalbe (Sterna hirundo) ist eine Vogelart aus der Familie der Seeschwalben (Sternidae). Sie ist in Mitteleuropa ein verbreiteter, aber nicht sehr häufiger Brut- und Sommervogel. Während der Zugzeiten können im mitteleuropäischen Raum außerdem viele Durchzügler beobachtet werden. [Link]
Vocalization: Similar to Arctic Tern but deeper. [Link]
Calls: Lacks latter's high pitched "tip-tip-tip" call, and the drawn out "kree-aaahh" call falls more distinctly in pitch. [Link]
Physical details: length=31-35 cm, wingspan=77-98 cm, weight=110-150 g

Roseate tern / Rosenseeschwalbe (Sterna dougallii)
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Wikipedia: Roseate tern
General: The roseate tern (Sterna dougallii) is a tern in the family Laridae. The genus name Sterna is derived from Old English "stearn", "tern",[2] and the specific dougallii refers to Scottish physician and collector Dr Peter McDougall (1777–1814).[3] "Roseate" refers to the bird's pink breast in breeding plumage.[4] [more]
Calls: Extremely harsh calls. Like mix of Caspian and Arctic Tern. Very hard and raspy "kreeeet", harder and higher pitched than Caspian Tern, but equally harsh. Other calls include more Arctic/Common tern-like short "kek", and similar. [Link]
Physical details: length=33-38 cm, wingspan=72-80 cm, weight=92-133 g

Arctic tern / Küstenseeschwalbe (Sterna paradisaea)
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Wikipedia: Arctic tern
General: The Arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea) is a tern in the family Laridae. This bird has a circumpolar breeding distribution covering the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of Europe, Asia, and North America (as far south as Brittany and Massachusetts). The species is strongly migratory, seeing two summers each year as it migrates along a convoluted route from its northern breeding grounds to the Antarctic coast for the southern summer and back again about six months later. Recent studies have shown average annual roundtrip lengths of about 70,900 km (44,100 mi) for birds nesting in Iceland and Greenland[3] and about 90,000 km (56,000 mi) for birds nesting in the Netherlands.[4] These are by far the longest migrations known in the animal kingdom. The Arctic tern flies as well as glides through the air. It nests once every one to three years (depending on its mating cycle); once it has finished nesting it takes to the sky for another long southern migration. [more]
Vocalization: Similar to Common Tern but higher pitched. [Link]
Calls: Typical call a series of high pitched "tip-tip-tip", and longer, ringing, high-pitched "kriiiiii" calls. The drawn out "kree-aaahh" call falls less distinctly in pitch than Common Tern. [Link]
Physical details: length=33-35 cm, wingspan=75-85 cm, weight=95-120 g

Family Stercorariidae:

Genus Stercorarius:
Pomarine jaeger / Spatelraubmöwe (Stercorarius pomarinus)
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Wikipedia: Pomarine jaeger
General: The pomarine jaeger (Stercorarius pomarinus), pomarine skua, or pomatorhine skua,[2] is a seabird in the skua family Stercorariidae. It is a migrant, wintering at sea in the tropical oceans. [more]
Calls: Short "kea" or "ke", and various mewing calls, usually deeper pitched than Arctic Skua. Also a characteristic, laughing and vibrating "kayayayayaya", heard mostly on breeding ground. [Link]
Physical details: length=46-51 cm, wingspan=125-138 cm, weight=600-900 g

Long-tailed jaeger / Falkenraubmöwe (Stercorarius longicaudus)
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Wikipedia: Long-tailed jaeger
General: The long-tailed skua or long-tailed jaeger (Stercorarius longicaudus) is a seabird in the skua family Stercorariidae. [more]

Parasitic jaeger / Schmarotzerraubmöwe (Stercorarius parasiticus)
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Wikipedia: Parasitic jaeger
The parasitic jaeger (Stercorarius parasiticus), also known as the Arctic skua, Arctic jaeger or parasitic skua, is a seabird in the skua family Stercorariidae. The word "jaeger" is derived from the German word Jäger, meaning "hunter".[2] The English "skua" comes from the Faroese name skúgvur [ˈskɪkvʊər] for the great skua, with the island of Skúvoy known for its colony of that bird. The general Faroese term for skuas is kjógvi [ˈtʃɛkvə].[3] The genus name Stercorarius is Latin and means "of dung"; the food disgorged by other birds when pursued by skuas was once thought to be excrement. The specific parasiticus is from Latin and means "parasitic".[4] [more]
Vocalization: Mostly heard at breeding ground. [Link]
Calls: Most characteristic call is a mewing, kittiwake-like "aeeeee-ah". First syllable drawn-out and rising in pitch, and followed by a deeper conclusive second syllable "ah". Lacks the introductory double accent of Kittiwakes ("kitti-wake"). [Link]
Physical details: length=41-46 cm, wingspan=110-125 cm, weight=330-570 g

Class Accipitriformes (Hawks and eagles / Greifvögel):

Family Accipitridae (Habichtartige):

Subfamily Buteoninae (Bussardartige):
Genus Buteo (Hawks):
Roadside hawk / Wegebussard (Buteo magnirostris)
Alternate classification: Falco magnirostris
Also known as: Grossschnabelbussard
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Tikal roadside hawk. Source: OWN 2018-02-07 12.31.44 Central America
We saw this on the Pipeline Road near Gamboa, Panama - see tiger heron for more on that.
General: The roadside hawk (Rupornis magnirostris) is a relatively small bird of prey found in America. This vocal species is often the most common raptor in its range. It has many subspecies and is now usually placed in the monotypic genus Rupornis instead of Buteo.[2] [more]

Family Cathartidae:

Genus Cathartes:
Turkey vulture (Cathartes aura)
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Arenal hike turkey vultures. Source: OWN 2018-02-28 11.30.14 Central America
The turkey vulture (Cathartes aura), also known in some North American regions as the turkey buzzard (or just buzzard), and in some areas of the Caribbean as the John crow or carrion crow,[2] is the most widespread of the New World vultures.[3] One of three species in the genus Cathartes of the family Cathartidae, the turkey vulture ranges from southern Canada to the southernmost tip of South America. It inhabits a variety of open and semi-open areas, including subtropical forests, shrublands, pastures, and deserts.[1] [more]

Family Pandionidae (Fischadler):

Genus Pandion:
Osprey / Fischadler (Pandion haliaetus)
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Wikipedia: Osprey
Falco haliaetus Linnaeus, 1758 [more]
Calls: Calls with sequences of short, soft and clear whistling notes. Often in series with rising pitch, then ending with a few lower pitched notes. [Link]
Physical details: length=55-58 cm, wingspan=145-170 cm, weight=1120-2050 g

Superorder Palaeognathae:

Order Tinamiformes (Tinamous):

Family Tinamidae:
Genus Tinamus:
Great tinamou (Tinamus major)
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La tarde great tinamou tenative ID by Merlin. Source: OWN 2018-03-09 12.58.40 Central America
General: The great tinamou (Tinamus major) is a species of tinamou ground bird native to Central and South America. There are several subspecies, mostly differentiated by their coloration. [more]

Infraclass Neognathae:

Order Columbiformes (Pigeons and others / Taubenvögel):

Family Columbidae (Pigeons):
Genus Columba:
Rock dove / Felsentaube (Columba livia)
Alternate classification: Columba livia domestica
Also known as: Rock pigeon, Strassentaube
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Wikipedia: Rock dove
The rock dove, rock pigeon, or common pigeon (/ˈpɪ.ən/ also /ˈpɪ.ɪn/; Columba livia) is a member of the bird family Columbidae (doves and pigeons).[3]:624 In common usage, this bird is often simply referred to as the "pigeon". [more]
Vocalization: Not loud. [Link]
Song: Song a two-syllable, but continuous cooing. First a rolling ascending "orrrrrr" immediately followed by a short descending "oohh". Wings produce a quite audible whistling sound. [Link]
Physical details: length=31-34 cm, wingspan=63-70 cm, weight=230-370 g

Genus Streptopelia:
Eurasian collared dove / Türkentaube (Streptopelia decaocto)
Also known as: Eurasian collared-dove
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Didn't recognize this collared dove I annotated it with the characteristics I should have recognized Source: OWN 2021-02-01 13.14.42 Luppmen
General: The Eurasian collared dove (Streptopelia decaocto) is a dove species native to Europe and Asia; it was introduced to Japan, North America and islands in the Caribbean. Because of its vast global range and increasing population trend, it has been listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List since 2014.[1] [more]
Song: Gu-guh-gu, klingt wie „ Gross-mue-ti“ Dazu auch „chräi“ oder „chwii“ [Link]
Song a characteristic, rhythmic cooing, consisting of three syllables with emphasis on the second. The third lower pitched than the rest. Can be rendered as "su-do-ku" (or "deca-oc-to", latin name derived from song). [Link]
Calls: Excitement-call a nasal "wrrraa". [Link]
Physical details: length=31-33 cm, wingspan=47-55 cm, weight=170-240 g

Genus Columbina:
Ruddy ground dove (Columbina talpacoti)
Alternate classification: Columbigallina talpacoti
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La tarde ruddy ground dove tentative ID. Source: OWN 2018-03-11 09.38.10 Central America
General: The ruddy ground dove (Columbina talpacoti) is a small New World tropical dove. It is a resident breeder from Mexico south to Peru, Brazil and Paraguay, and northern Argentina, and on Trinidad and Tobago. Individual birds can sometimes be seen in the southwestern USA, from southern Texas to southernmost California, primarily during winter. [more]

Order Coraciiformes (Kingfishers and others / Rackenvögel):

Family Momotidae:
Genus Momotus:
Blue-crowned motmot / Amazonasmotmot (Momotus momota)
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Curi cancha blue crowned motmot in tree. Source: OWN 2018-02-18 13.52.48 Central America
The blue-capped motmot or blue-crowned motmot (Momotus coeruliceps) is a colorful near-passerine bird found in forests and woodlands of eastern Mexico. This species and the Lesson's Motmot, Whooping Motmot, Trinidad Motmot, Amazonian Motmot, and Andean Motmot were all considered conspecific. The IUCN uses blue-crowned as their identifier for this species, however it was also the name used for the prior species complex. [more]

Lesson's motmot (Momotus lessonii)
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Curi cancha Lessons motmot in tree. Source: OWN 2018-02-18 13.52.46 Central America
Lesson's motmot (Momotus lessonii) or the blue-diademed motmot, is a colorful near-passerine bird found in forests and woodlands of southern Mexico to western Panama. This species and the blue-capped motmot, whooping motmot, Trinidad motmot, Amazonian motmot, and Andean motmot were all considered conspecific. [more]

Order Cuculiformes (Cuckoos and others / Kuckucke):

Family Coccyzidae:
Genus Piaya:
Squirrel cuckoo / Eichhornkuckkuck (Piaya cayana)
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Squirrel cuckoo in Manzanillo, Costa Rica. Source: OWN 2020-03-12 08.12.56 Central America
The squirrel cuckoo (Piaya cayana) is a large and active species of cuckoo found in wooded habitats from northwestern Mexico to northern Argentina and Uruguay, and on Trinidad. Some authorities have split off the western Mexican form as the Mexican squirrel-cuckoo (Piaya mexicana).[2] [more]

Genus Coccyzus:
Black-billec cuckoo / Schwarzschnabelkuckuck (Coccyzus erythropthalmus)
Also known as: Black-billed cuckoo
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Wikipedia: Black-billec cuckoo
besondere Ausnahmeerscheinung

Order Falconiformes (Falcons and others / Falkenartige):

Family Falconidae:
Genus Falco (Falcons):
Peregrine falcon / Wanderfalke (Falco peregrinus)
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Wikipedia: Peregrine falcon
General: The peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), also known as the peregrine,[2] and historically as the duck hawk in North America,[3] is a widespread bird of prey (raptor) in the family Falconidae. A large, crow-sized falcon, it has a blue-grey back, barred white underparts, and a black head. The peregrine is renowned for its speed, reaching over 320 km/h (200 mph) during its characteristic hunting stoop (high-speed dive),[4] making it the fastest bird in the world, as well as the fastest member of the animal kingdom.[5][6][7] According to a National Geographic TV program, the highest measured speed of a peregrine falcon is 389 km/h (242 mph).[8][9] As is typical for bird-eating raptors, peregrine falcons are sexually dimorphic, with females being considerably larger than males.[10][11] [more]
Vocalization: A harsh, drawn out "kiaaaa" with emphasised endings repeated in series. Much slower than Merlin, but higher pitched than Gyrfalcon. [Link]
Calls: Also shorter, coarse warning-calls. [Link]
Physical details: length=36-48 cm, wingspan=95-110 cm, weight=582-1300 g

Merlin / Merlin (Falco columbarius)
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Night tour - sleeping trogon, tenative ID by Merlin collared trogon. Source: OWN 2018-02-14 18.46.34 Central America
Zugvogel, Wintergast
Vocalization: Series of harsh "kwik-wik wik". Coarseness similar to Peregrine, but pace much quicker. [Link]
Calls: Female call harsher than male. Lacking the clearer tones and attack of Kestrel. [Link]
Physical details: length=25-30 cm, wingspan=50-62 cm, weight=125-300 g

Order Piciformes (Woodpeckers and others / Spechtvögel):

Family Picidae (Woodpeckers):
Genus Dryocopus:
Lineated woodpecker (Dryocopus lineatus)
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Lineated woodpecker cahal pech. Source: OWN 2018-02-04 15.57.04 Central America
General: The lineated woodpecker (Dryocopus lineatus) is a very large woodpecker which is a resident breeding bird from southern Mexico to northern Argentina and on Trinidad in the Caribbean. [more]

Genus Melanerpes:
Red-crowned woodpecker (Melanerpes rubricapillus)
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Red crowned woodpecker. Source: OWN 2020-02-18 09.37.00 Central America
The red-crowned woodpecker (Melanerpes rubricapillus) is a resident breeding bird from southwestern Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas and Tobago.[2] [more]

Genus Campephilus:
Pale-billed woodpecker (Campephilus guatemalensis)
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Arenal pale-billed woodpecker. Source: OWN 2018-02-27 15.51.26 Central America
The pale-billed woodpecker (Campephilus guatemalensis) is a very large woodpecker that is a resident breeding bird from northern Mexico to western Panama. [more]

Family Ramphastidae:
Genus Pteroglossus:
Collared aracari (Pteroglossus torquatus)
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Tikal collared aracari. Source: OWN 2018-02-07 12.38.40 Central America
The collared aracari or collared araçari (Pteroglossus torquatus) is a toucan, a near-passerine bird. It breeds from southern Mexico(North America) to Panama; also Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela and Costa Rica. [more]

Genus Ramphastos:
Keel-billed toucan / Fischertukan (Ramphastos sulfuratus)
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Keel billed toucan. Source: OWN 2020-02-19 06.49.02
We saw this on the grounds of Gamboa Rainforest Resort and around Panama and Costa Rica.
General: The keel-billed toucan (Ramphastos sulfuratus), also known as sulfur-breasted toucan or rainbow-billed toucan, is a colorful Latin American member of the toucan family. It is the national bird of Belize.[2] The species is found in tropical jungles from southern Mexico to Colombia. It is an omnivorous forest bird that feeds on fruits, seeds, insects, invertebrates, lizards, snakes, and small birds and their eggs.[3] [more]

Order Psittaciformes (Parrots and others / Papageien):

Family Psittacidae (Parrots):
Genus Ara:
Scarlet macaw (Ara macao)
Alternate classification: Psittacus macao
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La tarde 3 scarlet macaws in tree our first morning. Source: OWN 2018-03-09 06.31.28 Central America
The scarlet macaw (Ara macao) is a large red, yellow, and blue Central and South American parrot, a member of a large group of Neotropical parrots called macaws. It is native to humid evergreen forests of tropical Central and South America. Its range extends from south-eastern Mexico to the Peruvian Amazon, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia, Venezuela and Brazil in lowlands of 500 m (1,600 ft) (at least formerly) up to 1,000 m (3,300 ft), as well as the Pacific island of Coiba. Formerly, it ranged north to southern Tamaulipas. In some areas, it has suffered local extinction because of habitat destruction, or capture for the parrot trade, but in other areas, it remains fairly common. It is the national bird of Honduras. Like its relative the blue-and-yellow macaw, scarlet macaws are popular birds in aviculture as a result of their striking plumage. [more]

Genus Amazona:
Red-lored amazon / Rotstirnamazone (Amazona autumnalis)
Alternate classification: Psittacus autumnalis
Also known as: Red-lored parrot
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Probably red-lored amazons flying gamboa. Source: OWN 2020-02-19 17.41.24 Central America
It's hard to overlook this parrot because of the incredible racket they make! In Manzanilla, Costa Rica, small groups of them (more properly called pandemoniums) flew past our house every morning and evening.
General: The red-lored amazon or red-lored parrot (Amazona autumnalis) is a species of amazon parrot, native to tropical regions of the Americas, from eastern Mexico south to Ecuador where it occurs in humid evergreen to semi-deciduous forests up to 1,100 m altitude. It is absent from the Pacific side of Central America north of Costa Rica. Not originally known from El Salvador, a pair - perhaps escaped from captivity - nested successfully in 1995 and 1996 in the outskirts of San Salvador[2] and the species might expand its range permanently into that country in the future.[3] This species has also established feral populations in several California cities.[4] [more]

Mealy parrot (Amazona farinosa)
Alternate classification: Psittacus farinosus
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Possibly mealy parrots in Manzanillo, Costa Rica. Source: OWN 2020-03-12 17.25.08 Central America

Genus Pionus:
White-capped parrot (Pionus senilis)
Also known as: White-crowned parrot
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Arenal white-crowned parrot tentative ID by Merlin. Source: OWN 2018-03-01 06.54.32 Central America
The white-capped parrot (Pionus seniloides) is a bird in the family Psittacidae formerly considered conspecific with the speckle-faced parrot (Pionus tumultuosus). The species is found in the Andes mountains from northwestern Venezuela, through Colombia and Ecuador, to northern Peru.[2] [more]

Genus Psittacara:
Crimson-fronted parakeet (Psittacara finschi)
Alternate classification: Conurus finschi
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City parrots in San Jose, Costa Rica, tentative iD crimson-fronted parakeet,. Source: OWN 2018-03-16 15.50.26 Central America
The crimson-fronted parakeet (Psittacara finschi), also known as Finsch's parakeet or Finsch's conure, is a small green Neotropical parrot. It is found in Nicaragua, Costa Rica and western Panama.Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest and heavily degraded former forest.[2] [more]

Order Podicipediformes (Grebes / Lappentaucher):

Family Podicipedidae (Grebes):
Genus Podilymbus:
Pied-billed grebe / Bindentaucher (Podilymbus podiceps)
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Wikipedia: Pied-billed grebe
besondere Ausnahmeerscheinung

Genus Podiceps:
Black-necked grebe / Schwarzhalstaucher (Podiceps nigricollis)
Also known as: Eared grebe
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Evtl Schwarzhalstaucher. Source: OWN 2021-03-07 11.13.08
General: The black-necked grebe or eared grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) is a member of the grebe family of water birds. It was described in 1831 by Christian Ludwig Brehm. There are currently three accepted subspecies, including the nominate subspecies. Its breeding plumage features a distinctive ochre-coloured plumage which extends behind its eye and over its ear coverts. The rest of the upper parts, including the head, neck, and breast, are coloured black to blackish brown. The flanks are tawny rufous to maroon-chestnut, and the abdomen is white. When in its non-breeding plumage, this bird has greyish-black upper parts, including the top of the head and a vertical stripe on the back of the neck. The flanks are also greyish-black. The rest of the body is a white or whitish colour. The juvenile has more brown in its darker areas. The subspecies californicus can be distinguished from the nominate by the former's usually longer bill. The other subspecies, P. n. gurneyi, can be differentiated by its greyer head and upper parts and by its smaller size. P. n. gurneyi can also be told apart by its lack of a non-breeding plumage. This species is present in parts of Africa, Eurasia, and the Americas. [more]

Order Procellariiformes (Petrels and albatrosses / Röhrennasen):

Family Procellariidae (Shearwaters and petrels / Sturmvögel):
Genus Puffinus:
Manx shearwater / Atlantiksturmtaucher (Puffinus puffinus)
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Wikipedia: Manx shearwater
The Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus) is a medium-sized shearwater in the seabird family Procellariidae. The scientific name of this species records a name shift: Manx shearwaters were called Manks puffins in the 17th century. Puffin is an Anglo-Norman word (Middle English pophyn) for the cured carcasses of nestling shearwaters. The Atlantic puffin acquired the name much later, possibly because of its similar nesting habits. [more]
Vocalization: Vocal at breeding ground. [Link]
Calls: The call is sharp and wailing, and consist of two parts. A drawn, "inhalation", is immediately followed by a trisyllabic "ka-ya-ya". [Link]
Physical details: length=31-36 cm, wingspan=76-88 cm, weight=375-459 g

Barolo shearwater / Kleiner Sturmtaucher (Puffinus baroli)
Alternate classification: Puffinus lherminieri baroli
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Wikipedia: Barolo shearwater
besondere Ausnahmeerscheinung

Genus Ardenna:
Great shearwater / Grosser Sturmtaucher (Ardenna gravis)
Alternate classification: Puffinus gravis
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Wikipedia: Great shearwater
General: The great shearwater (Ardenna gravis) is a large shearwater in the seabird family Procellariidae. Ardenna was first used to refer to a seabird by Italian naturalist Ulisse Aldrovandi in 1603, and gravis is Latin for "heavy".[3] [more]
Calls: Calls at breeding ground a deep, soft, moaning "oooh-aahh" ("surprised or shocked old lady"). Tone fairly clear, and pitch rising and falling. [Link]
Physical details: length=43-51 cm, wingspan=100-118 cm, weight=715-950 g

Sooty shearwater / Dunkler Sturmtaucher (Ardenna grisea)
Alternate classification: Puffinus griseus
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Wikipedia: Sooty shearwater
General: The sooty shearwater (Ardenna grisea) is a medium-large shearwater in the seabird family Procellariidae. Ardenna was first used to refer to a seabird by Italian naturalist Ulisse Aldrovandi in 1603, and grisea is medieval Latin for "grey".[2] [more]
Vocalization: Mostly heard at breeding ground. A peculiar, rhythmic, coarse moaning, with a disyllabic attack, followed by a deeper, cooing "in-breath". [Link]
Physical details: length=40-51 cm, wingspan=94-109 cm, weight=666-978 g

Order Strigiformes (Owls / Eulen):

Family Strigidae:
Genus Asio:
Short-eared owl / Sumpfohreule (Asio flammeus)
Alternate classification: Strix flammea
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Wikipedia: Short-eared owl
Brut-, Zugvogel, Wintergast

Genus Ciccaba:
Black-and-white owl (Ciccaba nigrolineata)
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Black-and-white owl near Punta Cahuita in Cahuita National Park, Costa Rica. Source: OWN 2020-03-18 10.22.31 Central America
General: The black-and-white owl (Strix nigrolineata) is a species of owl in the family Strigidae.[1][2] [more]

Family Tytonidae (Barn owls):
Genus Tyto:
Barn owl / Schleiereule (Tyto alba)
Alternate classification: Strix alba
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Wikipedia: Barn owl
The barn owl (Tyto alba) is the most widely distributed species of owl in the world and one of the most widespread of all species of birds, being found almost everywhere in the world except for the polar and desert regions, Asia north of the Himalayas, most of Indonesia, and some Pacific Islands. It is also known as the common barn owl, to distinguish it from the other species in its family, Tytonidae, which forms one of the two main lineages of living owls, the other being the typical owls (Strigidae). [more]
Vocalization: Large repertoire of mainly hissing and screeching sounds. [Link]
Song: Song consists of a single, drawn screech, lasting about a second and is often performed in flight. Starting in a very hoarse tone, then progressing with a rising pitch into a more burbling sound, before suddenly ending. [Link]
Physical details: length=33-35 cm, wingspan=80-95 cm, weight=240-350 g

Order Trogoniformes (Trogons and quetzals):

Family Trogonidae:
Genus Trogon:
Baird's trogon (Trogon bairdii)
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Uvita bairds trogon. Source: OWN 2018-03-05 13.36.20 Central America
General: Baird's trogon (Trogon bairdii) is a species of bird belonging to the family Trogonidae. This bird was named after Spencer Fullerton Baird, a 19th-century naturalist. [more]

Genus Pharomachrus:
Resplendent quetzal / Quetzal (Pharomachrus mocinno)
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Resplendent quetzal. Source: OWN 2020-03-04 10.43.26 Central America
Classification: ein grün- und scharlachrot gefärbter Vogel aus der Familie der Trogone. [Link]
We saw a nesting quetzal pair on the Pipeline Trail near Boquete, Panama, and it was a wonderful experience!
Appearance and identification: Der Quetzal ist 35–38 cm lang und etwa 210 g schwer, die Männchen mit Schwanzfedern können eine Länge von bis zu 1 m erreichen.[3] Die Bauchseite des Weibchens ist einfarbig grün. Bei den Männchen der beiden Unterarten P. m. mocinno und P. m. costaricensis bilden sich während der Fortpflanzungszeit stark verlängerte Oberschwanzdecken, die den Schwanz verdecken und nach der Brutzeit wieder ausfallen. Die Federn können bis zu 80 cm lang werden. Vor allem während der Brutzeit führen die Quetzalmännchen spektakuläre, wenige Sekunden dauernde Balzflüge aus. Aus den Bäumen im Kammbereich der Berge steigen sie rufend in welligem Flug nach oben, um dann im Sturzflug wieder in den Kronen zu verschwinden. Bei der Brut und Versorgung der meistens zwei Jungen wechseln sich die Geschlechter ab. Nach der Brutzeit wandern die Quetzale in tiefer gelegene Bereiche der Gebirge ab. ...Der Quetzal lebt ausschließlich in den Wolken- und Nebelwäldern Mittelamerikas [Link]

Superorder Galloanserae:

Order Galliformes (Landfowls / Hühnervögel):
Family Cracidae:
Genus Penelope:
Crested guan (Penelope purpurascens)
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La fortuna crested guan. Source: OWN 2018-02-26 10.56.06 Central America
General: The crested guan (Penelope purpurascens) is a member of an ancient group of birds of the family Cracidae, which are related to the Australasian mound builders. It is found in the Neotropics, in lowlands forests ranging from south Mexico and the Yucatán Peninsula to western Ecuador and southern Venezuela. The sexes are similar in appearance; the plumage is mainly dark brown with white spotting, an area of bare skin round the eye, bright red wattles, a bushy crest, a long broad tail and pink legs. It is a social bird, often seen in pairs or small family groups. It feeds in trees, mainly on fruit, and builds a nest of twigs on a branch. The two or three white eggs are incubated by the female. The International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated this bird's conservation status as "least concern". [more]

Genus Crax:
Great curassow (Crax rubra)
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Tikal great curassow. Source: OWN 2018-02-07 12.29.42 Central America
The great curassow (Crax rubra) (Spanish: hocofaisán, pavón norteño) is a large, pheasant-like bird from the Neotropical rainforests, its range extending from eastern Mexico, through Central America to western Colombia and northwestern Ecuador. Male birds are black with curly crests and yellow beaks; females come in three colour morphs, barred, rufous and black. These birds form small groups, foraging mainly on the ground for fruits and arthropods, and the occasional small vertebrate, but they roost and nest in trees. This species is monogamous, the male usually building the rather small nest of leaves in which two eggs are laid. This species is threatened by loss of habitat and hunting, and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated its conservation status as "vulnerable". [more]

Genus Chamaepetes:
Black guan (Chamaepetes unicolor)
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Curi cancha black guan. Source: OWN 2018-02-18 13.38.52 Central America
The black guan (Chamaepetes unicolor) is a species of bird in the family Cracidae. It is found in the Talamancan montane forests of Costa Rica and Panama. [more]

Family Phasianidae (Turkeys):
Subfamily Meleagridinae:
Genus Meleagris:
Ocellated turkey / Pfauentruthuhn (Meleagris ocellata)
Alternate classification: Agriocharis ocellata
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Ocellated turkey sign. Source: OWN 2018-02-07 11.30.46 Central America
The ocellated turkey (Meleagris ocellata) is a species of turkey residing primarily in the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico, as well as in parts of Belize and Guatemala. A relative of the North American wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), it was sometimes previously treated in a genus of its own (Agriocharis), but the differences between the two turkeys are currently considered too small to justify generic segregation. It is a relatively large bird, at around 70–122 cm (28–48 in) long and an average weight of 3 kg (6.6 lb) in females and 5 kg (11 lb) in males. [more]

Order Apodiformes (Swifts and hummingbirds / Segler):

Family Trochilidae (Hummingbirds):
Genus Amazilia:
Rufous-tailed hummingbird (Amazilia tzacatl)
Alternate classification: Trochilus tzacatl
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La tarde rufous-tailed hummingbird. Source: OWN 2018-03-10 07.58.50 Central America
The rufous-tailed hummingbird (Amazilia tzacatl) is a medium-sized hummingbird that breeds from east-central Mexico, through Central America and Colombia, east to western Venezuela and south through western Ecuador to near the border with Peru. The larger Escudo hummingbird from Isla Escudo de Veraguas in Panama is commonly considered a subspecies of the rufous-tailed hummingbird. This is a common to abundant bird of open country, river banks, woodland, scrub, forest edge, coffee plantations and gardens up to 1,850 m (6,070 ft). [more]

Genus Anthracothorax:
Green-breasted mango (Anthracothorax prevostii)
Alternate classification: Trochilus prevostii
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Funky bird on Bastimentos Island, Panama, possibly green-breasted mango. Source: OWN 2020-03-10 12.07.52 Central America
The green-breasted mango (Anthracothorax prevostii) is a hummingbird from tropical America. The scientific name of this bird commemorates the French naturalist Florent Prévost. [more]

Genus Florisuga:
White-necked jacobin (Florisuga mellivora)
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Arenal hummingbird tentative ID White-necked Jacobin. Source: OWN 2018-02-28 09.40.12 Central America
The white-necked jacobin (Florisuga mellivora) is a large and attractive hummingbird that ranges from Mexico, south to Peru, Bolivia and south Brazil. It is also found on Tobago (subspecies F. m. flabellifera) and in Trinidad (subspecies F. m. mellivora) [more]

Genus Heliodoxa:
Green-crowned brilliant (Heliodoxa jacula)
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Cloud forest green crowned brilliant hummingbird in tree. Source: OWN 2018-02-17 11.03.54 Central America
The green-crowned brilliant (Heliodoxa jacula) is a large, robust hummingbird that is a resident breeder in the highlands from Costa Rica to western Ecuador. It is also known as the green-fronted brilliant.[2] [more]

Classification errors:

Lesser violetear (Colibri cyanotus)

Also known as: Green violetear
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Green violetear and green crowned brilliants at cloud forest hummingbird feeder. Source: OWN 2018-02-17 18.04.19 Central America
The lesser violetear (Colibri cyanotus), also known as the mountain violet-ear, is a medium-sized, metallic green hummingbird species commonly found in forested areas from Costa Rica to northern South America. This species and the Mexican violetear were formerly considered as conspecific and named the 'green violetear'. [more]

Black-crested coquette / Schwarzschopfelfe (Lophornis helenae)

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La tarde Black-crested Coquette hummingbird. Source: OWN 2018-03-11 09.53.40 Central America
The black-crested coquette (Lophornis helenae) is a species of hummingbird in the family Trochilidae. It is found in Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, and Nicaragua. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest, subtropical or tropical moist montane forest, and heavily degraded former forest. [more]