Birds of Switzerland in taxonomic hierarchy

Birds as they appear in the taxonomic classification. A total of 288 species is included.

Class aves (Birds / Vögel):

Order Anseriformes (Ducks, geese and swans / Vögel):

Family anatidae (Anatidae / Entenvögel):

Subfamily Anatinae (Dabbling ducks plus extinct):
Tribe Mergini (Seaducks / Meerenten und Säger):
Genus Bucephala:
Common goldeneye / Schellente (Bucephala clangula)
Alternate classification: Anas clangula
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Schellente am Südende des Pfäffikersee Ich hätte gern ein besseres Foto aber die Schellenten waren nur etwa 100 Meter vom Weg entfernt und dazu hinter Schilf. Auch mein 600mm Objektiv hat nicht gereicht, aber zugegeben, ein Stativ hätte geholfen. 2021-01-26 15.36.26 Pfäffikersee
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
Wintergast am Pfäffikersee.
Etymology: Nabu: Schellenten verdanken ihren Namen dem pfeifenden und wie ein Klingeln («Schellen») tönenden Fluggeräusch. [Vogelwarte.ch erklärt: ]
Vocalization: Male display sound a dry nasal disyllabic "Ka-weerr". First note introductory and second longer and descending. Usually accompanied by back-throwing head motion. Female: dry harsh "aahrrrr aahrrrr aahrrrr ". Wings make a characteristic whistling sound. [Link]
Physical details: length=42-50 cm, wingspan=65-80 cm, weight=650-1200 g

Genus Mergus:
Goosander / Gänsesäger (Mergus merganser)
Also known as: Common merganser
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Gänsesäger am Nordende des Pfäffikersee 2021-01-26 17.02.58 Pfäffikersee
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
Zuerst gesehen am Pfäffikersee.
Vocalization: Male: Mostly heard when courting. A twanging, disyllabic "whip-ooooo", first syllable ascending and second whistle-like and rapidly falling. Female: A coarse "ahrrr ahrrrr", or a raspy drawn "ah-ahrrrrrr ah-ahrrrrr", slightly rising, then falling in pitch. Also various cackling sounds. [Link]
Physical details: length=58-66 cm, wingspan=82-97 cm, weight=900-2100 g

Red-breasted merganser / Mittelsäger (Mergus serrator)
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Mittelsaeger auf Lago Maggiore in Locarno. 2021-04-06 12.12.52 Northern Lago Maggiore
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
Zuerst gesehen in Lago Maggiore in Locarno

Genus Somateria:
Common eider / Eiderente (Somateria mollissima)
Alternate classification: Somateria mollisima
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Eiderente, vom Steg aus gesehen in Rapperswil. 2021-02-12 13.42.20 Rapperswil
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
Etymology: Nabu: Auch heute noch erinnert ihr wissenschaftlicher Name an die Bedeutung ihrer isolierenden Daunen für die Menschen. Übersetzt bedeutet ihr Name nämlich „die Allerweichste mit dem schwarzen Körper“. [Link]
Geography: Die im Norden Europas häufige und wegen ihren Daunenfedern bekannte Eiderente war in der Schweiz früher ein seltener Gast. Doch in der zweiten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts erfolgten mehrere grosse Einflüge. Dank der Wandermuschelvermehrung war das Nahrungsangebot ausreichend und die Vögel verbrachten zunehmend den Sommer bei uns. Mittlerweile gehört die Eiderente sogar zu den Brutvögeln, was für einen ans Meer angepassten Vogel bemerkenswert ist. [Link]
Calls: Males call a typical, pleasant, clear, 2-3 second long "aaaooooooh". Starting on a low note, slowly ascending and ending on a descending note. Usually accompanied by the female "ga ga ga ga". [Link]
Physical details: length=50-71 cm, wingspan=80-108 cm, weight=1500-2800 g

Tribe Anatini (Dabbling ducks / Schwimmenten):
Genus Anas (Ducks):
Mallard / Stockente (Anas platyrhynchos)
Alternate classification: Anas platyrhynchos f. domestica
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Mother and 4 of 9 babies on the Pfäffikersee 2020-05-20 09.12.44 Pfäffikersee
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
Common waterbird at Pfäffikersee
Etymology: Der heutige Name kann als Hinweis auf ihre Brutplätze verstanden werden, zu denen auf Stock gesetzte Weiden, Weidengebüsch oder auch Reisighaufen gehören. ['Stock' wird weiter erklärt: Als Stockausschlag bezeichnet man bei Bäumen und Sträuchern Triebe, die nach dem Verlust der primären Sprossachse neu aus dem Stumpf oder Stubben (der dann „Stock“ genannt wird) austreiben.] [Link]
The name 'was derived from the Old French malart or mallart for "wild drake"' [Link]
Vocalization: Female: A distinct coarse, laughing quacking; "haaa ha ha ha ha ha", with first note accented and then descending in pitch. Male: a more silent, very nasal "rriib". [Link]
Calls: Display call a high-pitched short whistle. [Link]
Physical details: length=50-65 cm, wingspan=81-98 cm, weight=750-1450 g

Eurasian teal / Krickente (Anas crecca)
Alternate classification: Nettion crecca
Also known as: Green-winged teal
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Krickente am Aa-Bach beim Südende des Pfäffikersee 2021-01-26 15.41.54 Pfäffikersee
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
Wintergast am Teich am Aa-Bach beim Südende des Pfäffikersee
Etymology: Die hellen «krrik»-Rufe der stimmfreudigen Erpel verhalfen dieser Art zu ihrem deutschen Namen. [Link]
Vocalization: Male: characteristic, short, highly resonant and metallic "plytt". A bit similar to Pintail, but higher pitched and lacking accompanying whistling sound. Female: various quacking sounds generally quicker paced, more nasal and noticeably higher pitched than Mallard. [Link]
Physical details: length=34-38 cm, wingspan=58-64 cm, weight=200-450 g

Call: Blup blup, fast wie vom Computer generiert, fur mich nohe Noten (obwohl Sonogram nur 2.5 KHz zeigt)
Krickente Ruf von XenoCanto

Krickente Ruf von XenoCanto Source: XENOCANTO (call)


Call attributes: Call melody: simple rhythmic, slow, Frequency: low (1-3 KHz),

Northern pintail / Spiessente (Anas acuta)
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Wikipedia: Northern pintail
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
General: The pintail or northern pintail (Anas acuta) is a duck with wide geographic distribution that breeds in the northern areas of Europe and across the Palearctic and North America. It is migratory and winters south of its breeding range to the equator. Unusually for a bird with such a large range, it has no geographical subspecies if the possibly conspecific duck Eaton's pintail is considered to be a separate species. [more]
Vocalization: Female: similar to Mallards coarse laughing sound, but with a more emphasized first "haaa", and a more silent accelerating subsequent "laugh". Male: Pleasant, resonant "plop" similar to Teal, but lower pitched, richer, mellower and not so metallic. Accompanied by a higher pitched, slightly raspy whistling "aiiooo" rising and falling in pitch. [Link]
Physical details: length=51-66 cm, wingspan=51-66 cm, weight=500-1100 g

Genus Mareca:
Gadwall / Schnatterente (Mareca strepera)
Alternate classification: Anas strepera, Chaulelasmus streperus
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Schnatterente am Greifensee bei Silberweide Es gab dutzende davon, dazwischen eine Krickente. 2021-02-08 15.45.18
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
In my mind this is the chocolate duck.
Etymology: The etymology of the word gadwall is not known, but the name has been in use since 1666.[9] [Link]
Nabu: Die Schnatterente fällt aber – wie ihr Name schon vermuten lässt – durch ihre Art der Nahrungssuche auf. Sie durchschnattert das Wasser mit ihrem Schnabel. [Link]
Appearance and identification: Nabu: Die Schnatterente ähnelt auf den ersten Blick so sehr der weiblichen Stockente, dass man diese schnell verwechseln kann. [Link]
Wintergast am Greifensee.
Calls: Males display-call a short dry rattling or croaking sound and some high whistling notes. Female quacking similar to Mallard, but drier and shriller. [Link]
Physical details: length=46-56 cm, wingspan=84-95 cm, weight=550-1000 g

Eurasian wigeon / Pfeifente (Mareca penelope)
Alternate classification: Anas penelope
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Pfeifente Erpel , Neeracher Ried. Die zehnte Entenart, die ich gefunden habe. 2021-02-24 14.05.08 Neeracherried
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Etymology: Es ist der Ruf des Männchens, der zu dem deutschen Namen der Art geführt hat. Das Männchen leitet seine kurzen, scharfen, zwei- bis dreisilbigen pfeifenden wiu-Rufe häufig mit einem krr krkrkrr ein. [Link]
Vocalization: Male: a pleasant high pitched whistle "piiiiuuu", rapidly rising in pitch and then falling. Quite vocal. Female: a harsh "kraaa kraaa kraa" more like female diving-ducks than other dabbling-ducks. [Link]
Physical details: length=45-51 cm, wingspan=75-86 cm, weight=500-1000 g

Call: Pfeifen, fast wie ein Rotmilan oder Maeusebussard. Ton steigt und faellt!
Pfeifente von XenoCanto

Pfeifente von XenoCanto Source: XENOCANTO (call)


Call attributes: Call melody: simple rhythmic, slow, Frequency: low (1-3 KHz),

Tribe Aythyini (Diving ducks / Tauchenten):
Genus Netta:
Red-crested pochard / Kolbenente (Netta rufina)
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Reiherenten und Kolbenente-Paar. 2021-02-12 10.49.46
Etymology: Nabu: Die Kolbenente hat ihren Namen wohl aufgrund des auffällig großen Kopfes des Männchens. Dieser Eindruck wird durch eine ausgeprägte rotbraune Federhaube auf dem Kopf erzeugt. Die Federhaube dürfte vor allem während der Balzzeit von Vorteil sein, wenn der Erpel ein ausgeprägtes Balzverhalten zeigt, um das Weibchen zu beeindrucken. [Link]
Appearance and identification: Erpel mit orangerotem, buschig dickem Kopf und korallenrotem Schnabel, Hals und Unterseite schwarz; Ente bräunlich mit weissgrauen Wangen, die sich scharf von der dunklen Kopfplatte abheben, Schnabel dunkelgrau; ruft knarrend "körr". [Link]

Genus Aythya:
Common pochard / Tafelente (Aythya ferina)
Alternate classification: Anas ferina
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Tafelente in Rapperswil. 2021-02-12 13.34.38 Rapperswil
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Wintergast am Greifensee.
Etymology: Die in der deutschen Sprache übliche Bezeichnung Tafelente ist ein Hinweis auf das als schmackhaft angesehene Fleisch dieses Entenvogels. [Link]
Vocalization: Female: a coarse "ahrrrrrrr-ahrrrrr-ahrrrr" with a vibrating quality. [Link]
Calls: Male courting call a pleasant, drawn out, nasal whistle "tweeeeep", rising in pitch, often followed by a falling "puuuh" (e.g a long disyllabic tweeepuuuuuuh). Also a sharper "ki-ki-ki" or "ki-ki-kiko". [Link]
Physical details: length=42-49 cm, wingspan=72-82 cm, weight=650-1200 g

Tufted duck / Reiherente (Aythya fuligula)
Alternate classification: Anas fuligula
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Reiherente closeup bei Jona. 2021-02-12 10.34.46 Jona
On a lake in wintertime.
Geography: 'Die Reiherente ... zählt zu den so genannten Tauchenten und gilt als die häufigste Süßwassertauchente. Es handelt sich um eine verhältnismäßig kleine, kompakt gebaute Ente. Auffällig sind der verhältnismäßig kurze Schnabel und der auffällig runde Kopf. Die Männchen haben am Hinterkopf einen langen, herabhängenden Schopf. Das Weibchen weist eine kurze Holle auf. Die Reiherente ist in Mitteleuropa ein verbreiteter Brut- und Jahresvogel', und in der Schweiz ein Wintergast. [Link]
Vocalization: Male display sound: High pitched short whistling-like noises, "pjuu-uu", not very audible. [Link]
Calls: Both sexes have harsh "ahrrrr" calls like other diving ducks, sometimes with a crow-like quality. [Link]
Physical details: length=40-47 cm, wingspan=67-73 cm, weight=500-1000 g

Ferruginous duck / Moorente (Aythya nyroca)
Alternate classification: Anas nyroca
Also known as: Ferruginous pochard
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Moorente. 2021-03-07 12.08.04
Etymology: The scientific name is derived from Greek aithuia an unidentified seabird mentioned by authors including Hesychius and Aristotle, and nyrok, the Russian name for a duck. [Link]
Calls: Female call similar to female Tufted Duck's "kerr kerr", but thinner and with a strong, peculiar bi-tone. Male display call mostly consists of various short "chk" sounds. [Link]
Physical details: length=38-42 cm, wingspan=63-67 cm, weight=450-700 g

Greater scaup / Bergente (Aythya marila)
Alternate classification: Anas marila
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Wikipedia: Greater scaup
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
Deutschland: Zugvogel, Wintergast RL R
Calls: Male call carries only a few meters: a whistling "po-ho" last syllable slowly descending. Female calls with harsh "harr-harrr-harrr". [Link]
Physical details: length=42-51 cm, wingspan=72-84 cm, weight=700-1300 g

Subfamily Tadorninae (Halbgänse):
Tribe Tadornini (Eigentliche Halbgänse):
Genus Alopochen:
Egyptian goose / Nilgans (Alopochen aegyptiaca)
Alternate classification: Anas aegyptiaca
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Nilgans am Südende des Greifensee 2021-02-08 15.21.56
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Wintergast am Greifensee. Invasiv. Nach Vogelwarte.ch: 'als Ziervogel im 18. Jahrhundert in Europa eingeführt... Ausgehend von einer in den 1970er Jahren in den Niederlanden und Belgien gebildeten Population breitete sich die Nilgans rasant dem Rhein und seinen Nebenflüssen entlang aus und hat inzwischen auch die Schweiz erreicht.
Vocalization: Quite vocal when interacting. [Link]
Calls: Female calls may resemble RS, but are coarser, harder and trills are more rolling. Single calls are longer, and falls markedly in pitch. Male calls quite different, with husky, wheezing or hissing "kaahhh", or with the same timbre in series lika a steam engine. [Link]
Physical details: length=63-73 cm, wingspan=134-154 cm, weight=1500-2250 g

Genus Tadorna:
Common shelduck / Brandgans (Tadorna tadorna)
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Wikipedia: Common shelduck
Deutschland: Brut-, Jahres-, Zugvogel, Wintergast
Vocalization: Male: Various whistling sounds. Often series of ricochet-like "piu" repeated with gradually rising and falling intensity. Also passerine-like "tzzrrrr". Female: different variants on deeper hoarse sounds like "ar-ar-ar-ar" sometimes with accented endings with rising pitch. [Link]
Physical details: length=58-67 cm, wingspan=110-133 cm, weight=800-1450 g

Genus Mergellus:
Smew / Zwergsäger (Mergellus albellus)
Alternate classification: Mergus albellus
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Wikipedia: Smew
Deutschland: Zugvogel, Wintergast
Vocalization: Mostly quiet except when displaying, and even then difficult to hear. Male: an ascending, froglike, rattling pulse of clicks. Also various grunting sounds. [Link]
Calls: Alarm call a harsh "Kraaa". [Link]
Physical details: length=38-44 cm, wingspan=55-69 cm, weight=500-800 g

Genus Clangula:
Long-tailed duck / Eisente (Clangula hyemalis)
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Wikipedia: Long-tailed duck
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
Deutschland: Zugvogel, Wintergast

Genus Melanitta:
Velvet scoter / Samtente (Melanitta fusca)
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Wikipedia: Velvet scoter
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
Deutschland: Zugvogel, Wintergast
Vocalization: Seldom heard. [Link]
Calls: Calls: Short accented "tup tup tup" and a shivering "gahhahahaha". [Link]
Physical details: length=51-58 cm, wingspan=90-99 cm, weight=1100-2000 g

European common scoter (Melanitta nigra)
Alternate classification: Oidemia nigra
Also known as: Common scoter
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This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Vocalization: More vocal than other Scoters. Short, whistling sounds, sometimes reminiscent of a male teal, but a little bit deeper in pitch. [Link]
Physical details: length=44-54 cm, wingspan=79-90 cm, weight=650-1300 g

Subfamily Anserinae (Gänse):
Tribe Anserini (Echten Gänse):
Genus Anser (Geese / Feldgänse):
Graylag goose / Graugans (Anser anser)
Alternate classification: Anas anser
Also known as: Greylag goose
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Graugans paar. 2021-03-07 12.23.32
Found on practically all Swiss lakes, especially north of the alps.
Appearance and identification: Grösste europäische Wildgans. [Link]
Vocalization: Various cackling and honking sounds "gaiiiaia-ga-ga". [Link]
Calls: Typically the first syllable is accented, and given with a register break into higher pitch (at 0:18 in recording). [Link]
Physical details: length=75-90 cm, wingspan=147-180 cm, weight=2100-4300 g

Taiga bean goose / Saatgans (Anser fabalis)
Alternate classification: Anser albifrons fabalis
Also known as: Bean goose
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Wikipedia: Taiga bean goose
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Deutschland: Zugvogel, Wintergast Bruten gehen auf entflogene Tiere zurück
Calls: Do not call as much as other grey geese. Sounds similar to the lower sounds of Pink-footed goose, with various reedy calls, but harder, less nasal and more of a "sore throat". [Link]
Physical details: length=66-84 cm, wingspan=142-175 cm, weight=2220-4060 g

White-fronted goose / Blässgans (Anser albifrons)
Alternate classification: Branta albifrons
Also known as: Greater white-fronted goose
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Wikipedia: White-fronted goose
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Deutschland: Zugvogel, Wintergast Bruten gehen auf entflogene Tiere zurück

Tribe Cygnini (Swans / Schwäne):
Genus Cygnus (Swans):
Mute swan / Höckerschwan (Cygnus olor)
Also known as: Höckerschwäne
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On the frozen Pfäffikersee with coots After a week of freezing temperatures, the lake developed a thin layer of ice. 2021-02-15 08.28.58
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Common waterbird at Pfäffikersee, very common on Lake Zurich.
Vocalization: Silent compared to other swans. A repertoire of snorting, grunting and hissing sound when interacting. No far carrying sounds. [Link]
Calls: Wings produce prominent singing sound which may function as a flight contact-call. [Link]
Physical details: length=145-160 cm, wingspan=208-238 cm, weight=7000-14000 g

Common whooper / Singschwan (Cygnus cygnus)
Also known as: Whooper swan
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Whooper swans, Iceland. 2015-06-03 16.01.12 Iceland
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
Deutschland: Zugvogel, Wintergast RL R
Vocalization: Quite vocal. Trumpet-like clear honks of half a second length most frequent in flight and take-off/landing. Often voiced with a register break. [Link]
Physical details: length=145-160 cm, wingspan=218-243 cm, weight=8500-10000 g

Tundra swan / Pfeifschwan (Cygnus columbianus)
Alternate classification: Olor columbianus
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Wikipedia: Tundra swan
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
General: The tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus) is a small Holarctic swan. The two taxa within it are usually regarded as conspecific, but are also sometimes[2][3] split into two species: Bewick's swan (Cygnus bewickii) of the Palaearctic and the whistling swan (C. columbianus) proper of the Nearctic. Birds from eastern Russia (roughly east of the Taimyr Peninsula) are sometimes separated as the subspecies C. c. jankowskii, but this is not widely accepted as distinct, with most authors including them in C. c. bewickii. Tundra swans are sometimes separated in the subgenus Olor together with the other Arctic swan species. [more]
Vocalization: More vocal than other swans. Both higher pitched and deeper sounds. Birds on the water often gives crooning, crane-like notes with less defined pitch. [Link]
Calls: Tone is less full-bodied in these calls. Flight call a deep, yelping, soft barking sound. Each call short, with a "helpless" quality. [Link]
Physical details: length=115-127 cm, wingspan=180-211 cm, weight=3400-7800 g

Order Suliformes:

Family Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and shags / Kormorane):

Genus Phalacrocorax:
Great cormorant / Kormorane (Phalacrocorax carbo)
Also known as: Kormoran
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Cormorant Cormorants' feathers lack the waterproofing that ducks have, so you often see them drying their wings on a convenient perch. 2021-01-26 15.56.30 Pfäffikersee
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Seasonal Behavior: Lokaler Brutvogel, regelmässiger, häufiger Durchzügler und Wintergast.[Brutpaare am Zuerichsee und Greifensee bei Moenchaltorf] [Link]
Vocalization: Mostly heard at breeding ground. Also deep, rattling and creaking sounds. [Link]
Calls: Coarse, vibrating calls "hahahahaharo". [Link]
Physical details: length=80-100 cm, wingspan=130-160 cm, weight=1700-3000 g

Order Pelecaniformes (Ibis, herons and pelicans):

Family Ardeidae (Herons / Reiher):

Genus Ardea (Great herons):
Grey heron / Graureiher (Ardea cinerea)
Also known as: Gray heron
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Graureiher mit Zöpfchen am Meteorwasserkanal Pfäffikersee 2021-02-15 09.08.30 Pfäffikersee
Frequent visitor.
Normally in the fields looking for food, also seen flying over or standing in the Luppmen (brook).
Vocalization: Quite vocal. At breeding ground a varied repertoire of harsh and clattering sounds. [Link]
Calls: Most common call a short, far reaching and extremely harsh, rasping sound. [Link]
Physical details: length=90-98 cm, wingspan=175-195 cm, weight=1020-2073 g

Purple heron / Purpurreiher (Ardea purpurea)
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Wikipedia: Purple heron
General: The purple heron (Ardea purpurea) is a wide-ranging species of wading bird in the heron family, Ardeidae. The scientific name comes from Latin ardea "heron", and purpureus, "coloured purple".[2] It breeds in Africa, central and southern Europe, and southern and eastern Asia. The Western Palearctic populations migrate between breeding and wintering habitats whereas the African and tropical-Asian populations are primarily sedentary, except for occasional dispersive movements. [more]
Vocalization: Quite similar to Grey Heron, but not so vocal. [Link]
Calls: Pitch slightly higher and remains stable throughout the short call. Volume muffled and timbre drier. [Link]
Physical details: length=78-90 cm, wingspan=120-150 cm, weight=525-1218 g

Genus Nycticorax (Night herons):
Black-crowned night-heron / Nachtreiher (Nycticorax nycticorax)
Also known as: Black-crowned night heron
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Wikipedia: Black-crowned night-heron
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
General: The black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), or black-capped night heron, commonly shortened to just night heron in Eurasia, is a medium-sized heron found throughout a large part of the world, except in the coldest regions and Australasia (where it is replaced by the closely related nankeen night heron, with which it has hybridized in the area of contact). [more]
Calls: Most commonly hear call is a nasal, soft croaking "roack", like cross between Raven and frog. [Link]
Physical details: length=58-65 cm, wingspan=105-112 cm, weight=500-800 g

Genus Egretta (Plumed egrets):
Little egret / Seidenreiher (Egretta garzetta)
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Wikipedia: Little egret
General: The little egret (Egretta garzetta) is a species of small heron in the family Ardeidae. The genus name comes from the Provençal French Aigrette, "egret", a diminutive of Aigron," heron". The species epithet garzetta is from the Italian name for this bird, garzetta or sgarzetta.[2] [more]
Vocalization: Sometimes utters a dry, rasping "kerrr" when flushed, but is mostly silent away from breeding ground. In colonies a peculiar gurgling and vibrating sound is heard; "ghala-la-la-la". [Link]
Physical details: length=55-65 cm, wingspan=88-95 cm, weight=350-550 g

Great egret / Silberreiher (Egretta alba)
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Silberreiher, Neeracherried. 2021-02-24 13.36.32 Neeracherried
General: The great egret (Ardea alba), also known as the common egret, large egret, or (in the Old World) great white egret[2] or great white heron[3][4][5] is a large, widely distributed egret, with four subspecies found in Asia, Africa, the Americas, and southern Europe. Distributed across most of the tropical and warmer temperate regions of the world, it builds tree nests in colonies close to water. [more]

Genus Botaurus (Brown bitterns):
Great bittern / Rohrdommel (Botaurus stellaris)
Alternate classification: Ardea stellaris
Also known as: Eurasian bittern
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Wikipedia: Great bittern
The Eurasian bittern or great bittern (Botaurus stellaris) is a wading bird in the bittern subfamily (Botaurinae) of the heron family Ardeidae. There are two subspecies, the northern race (B. s. stellaris) breeding in parts of Europe and across the Palearctic, as well as on the northern coast of Africa, while the southern race (B. s. capensis) is endemic to parts of southern Africa. It is a secretive bird, seldom seen in the open as it prefers to skulk in reed beds and thick vegetation near water bodies. Its presence is apparent in the spring, when the booming call of the male during the breeding season can be heard. It feeds on fish, small mammals, fledgling birds, amphibians, crustaceans and insects. [more]
Song: Song unmistakable and far reaching (up to 5 km). Pitch very deep, with timbre similar to blowing on a big empty bottle. At close range an "inbreath" is also audible (1-3 dampened, higher pitched introductory notes). [Link]
Calls: Flight call a deep croaking "graat". [Link]
Physical details: length=70-80 cm, wingspan=125-135 cm, weight=867-1940 g

Genus Bubulcus (Cattle egrets):
Cattle egret / Kuhreiher (Bubulcus ibis)
Alternate classification: Egretta ibis
Also known as: Western cattle egret
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Arenal cattle w cattle egrets. 2018-02-27 16.42.14 Central America
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
General: The cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) is a cosmopolitan species of heron (family Ardeidae) found in the tropics, subtropics, and warm-temperate zones. It is the only member of the monotypic genus Bubulcus, although some authorities regard two of its subspecies as full species, the western cattle egret and the eastern cattle egret. Despite the similarities in plumage to the egrets of the genus Egretta, it is more closely related to the herons of Ardea. Originally native to parts of Asia, Africa, and Europe, it has undergone a rapid expansion in its distribution and successfully colonised much of the rest of the world in the last century. [more]
Vocalization: Usually silent away from breeding ground. In the colonies a chorus of various coarse sounds can be heard. Most distinct is a disyllabic "rick-rack". Other sounds includes short, guttural utterings, or drawn, harsh shrieks. [Link]
Physical details: length=48-53 cm, wingspan=90-96 cm, weight=300-400 g

Genus Ixobrychus (Least bitterns):
Little bittern / Zwergdommel (Ixobrychus minutus)
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Wikipedia: Little bittern
General: The little bittern or common little bittern (Ixobrychus minutus) is a wading bird in the heron family, Ardeidae. Ixobrychus is from Ancient Greek ixias, a reed-like plant and brukhomai, to bellow, and minutus is Latin for "small".[2] [more]
Vocalization: Mostly silent except in breeding season. [Link]
Song: Song is a series of short, deep, frog-like "gorrk", repeated every 2 seconds. Tone is muffled and hollow, but far-carrying. [Link]
Calls: Flight-call a sharp "ki-ke-ke" or a nasal "ke". [Link]
Physical details: length=33-38 cm, wingspan=52-58 cm, weight=140-150 g

Genus Ardeola:
Squacco heron / Rallenreiher (Ardeola ralloides)
Alternate classification: Ardea ralloides
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Wikipedia: Squacco heron
General: The squacco heron (Ardeola ralloides) is a small heron, 44–47 cm (17–19 in) long, of which the body is 20–23 cm (7.9–9.1 in), with 80–92 cm (31–36 in) wingspan.[2] It is of Old World origins, breeding in southern Europe and the Greater Middle East. [more]

Family Threskiornithidae:

Genus Platalea:
Eurasian spoonbill / Löffler (Platalea leucorodia)
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Wikipedia: Eurasian spoonbill
Deutschland: Brut-, Zugvogel RL R
Vocalization: Mostly silent, and of little use for identification. Soft utterances can be heard when feeding, and when interacting at nest. [Link]
Physical details: length=80-90 cm, wingspan=115-130 cm, weight=1130-1960 g

Order Passeriformes (Passerine / Singvögel):

Suborder Passeri (Sperlingsvögel):

Superfamily Sylvioidea:
Family Aegithalidae (Long-tailed tits / Schwanzmeisen):
Genus Aegithalos:
Long-tailed tit / Schwanzmeise (Aegithalos caudatus)
Alternate classification: Parus caudatus
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Schwanzmeise am Pfäffikersee 2021-02-05 13.32.24 Pfäffikersee
Quite surprised to identify this bird at the Hungerseeli, but have since realized they can be found here in the woods and in the reeds. They're small birds that look bigger because they fluff up their feathers and have a very long tail, which is just what I saw when I first sighted a pair June 3, 2020 at the Hungerseeli.
Appearance and identification: The subspecies europaeus occurs in Switzerland; it has a broad dark stripe over each eye, whereas the nominate caudatus has a pure white head. 'The long-tailed tit was first classified as a true tit of the Parus group. Parus has since been split from the Aegithalidae.' [Link]

Call: Die fast ständig geäusserten, hohen Rufe verraten die kleinen, rastlosen Turner im Gezweig meist schon, bevor sie zu sehen sind. [Link]
Flight call from XenoCanto

Flight call from XenoCanto Source: XENOCANTO (flight call)


Call attributes: flight call Call melody: simple rhythmic, slow, Frequency: high (3-9 KHz),

Family Sylviidae (Old world warblers / Grasmücken):
Subfamily Acrocephalinae:
Genus Acrocephalus:
Sedge warbler / Schilfrohrsänger (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus)
Alternate classification: Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, Motacilla schoenobaenus
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Plainish brown-white bird with black accents usually hidden in the reeds. Source: WIKIPEDIA
General: The sedge warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus) is an Old World warbler in the genus Acrocephalus. It is a medium-sized warbler with a brown, streaked back and wings and a distinct pale supercilium. Sedge warblers are migratory, crossing the Sahara to get from their European and Asian breeding grounds to spend winter in Africa. The male's song is composed of random chattering phrases and can include mimicry of other species. The sedge warbler is mostly insectivorous. [more]
Song: Gesang sehr ähnlich dem Teichrohrsänger. Aber nicht so im Takt. Bevorzugte Tongebilde werden mehrmals wiederholt. Des öftern Singflug über dem Schilf. [Link]
Song vigorous and varied. [Link]
Calls: Rufe:“zäck“, „zieck“, „err“. [Link]
Alarm call a hard "check". Anxiety call a dry and rolling "rrrrr". A mixture of musical sounds, expert mimicry and characteristic harsh and strident calls. Not as rhythmic and evenly paced as Reed Warbler, but varies tempo a lot. [Link]
Physical details: length=13 cm, wingspan=17-21 cm, weight=9-15 g

Song: Constant stream of equally spaced sounds. Possibly a false analysis by BirdNet, as BirdLife Zürich says there are none here. ...so what is it? vogelwarte.ch has a sample that churrs and trills, similar rhythm to reed warbler / Teichrohrsänger, so maybe that's what it was. Listening on YouTube videos, you'd call it percussion rather than song!
Song attributes: Melody: improvised melodic, slow, Frequency: medium (1-5 KHz)

Great reed warbler / Drosselrohrsänger (Acrocephalus arundinaceus)
Alternate classification: Turdus arundinaceus
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Brown-white bird usually hidden in the reeds. Source: WIKIPEDIA
Zuerst in Bolle Magadino gesehen und gehoert.
50% groesser als der ähnlich aussehende Teichrohrsänger
Behavior: In der Sonntagszeitung von 23. Mai 2021 wurde über neue Erkenntnisse zum Zug von Drosselrohrsängern geschrieben. Durch neue, leichte Messgeräte konnte man sehen, dass die Vögel in der Nacht auf 2 km Höhe fliegen, beim Sonnenaufgang über eine Stunde hoch bis 5.5 km fliegen. Da sie das Mittlemeer und die Saharawüste überfliegen, wo sie nicht landen können, fliegen sie bis 34 Stunden non-stop. Das Fliegen erzeugt viel Körperwärme und die Höhe hilft ihnen abzukühlen. [(Abo erforderlich)]
Song: Gesang ähnlich Teichrohrsänger, aber viel lauter, Tonhöhenunterschiede 2-3 Oktaven. Karre-Kit-Sänger.. Sehr taktmässig. [Link]
Song similar to Reed Warbler in timbre, but much deeper and slower. [Link]
Calls: Rufe:“kerr“ (tief), „ tek“ [Link]
Contact call a grating, dry "kirrrat", where each rolling r is discernable. Fairly concise motifs typically consisting of two deep mono- or disyllabic notes followed by a few higher tones. I.e: "kerek kerek, trii trii trii". Clamorous Reed Warbler differs in more diffuse motifs. [Link]
Physical details: length=19-20 cm, wingspan=24-29 cm, weight=29-36 g

Song: Sounds to me like croak cheep cheep! Listening on YouTube videos, you'd call it percussion rather than song!
Song attributes: Melody: improvised melodic, slow, Frequency: medium (1-5 KHz) Special sounds: rasp

Eurasian reed warbler / Teichrohrsänger (Acrocephalus scirpaceus)
Alternate classification: Turdus scirpaceus
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Teichrohrsaenger wahrscheinlich. 2021-05-04 09.21.14
General: The Eurasian reed warbler, or just reed warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) is an Old World warbler in the genus Acrocephalus. It breeds across Europe into the temperate western Palaearctic. It is migratory, wintering in sub-Saharan Africa. [more]
Song: Gleichmässiges Tempo! Man kann den Takt schlagen dazu.( Metronomsänger) Oft 2-3x wiederholte kurze Motive. Viele schnarrende Töne. [Link]
By far easiest to identify by song: Characteristic, almost metric and even rhythm, very different from Sedge Warbler. Squeaky timbre with many, almost bizarre, harmonics. Phrases generally repeated 2-3 times. [Link]
Calls: Rufe:“tsche, tschkt , schreeh, tschrä“,“err“ [Link]
Alarm call a harsh, dry and rolling "kraaaat". [Link]
Physical details: length=13 cm, wingspan=17-21 cm, weight=10-16 g

Song: Weird, squeaky, urgent.
Song attributes: Melody: stereotype melodic, fast, Frequency: medium (1-5 KHz) Special sounds: weird

Marsh warbler / Sumpfrohrsänger (Acrocephalus palustris)
Alternate classification: Notiocichla palustris
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Teichrohrsaenger wahrscheinlich. 2021-05-04 09.21.14
General: The marsh warbler (Acrocephalus palustris) is an Old World warbler currently classified in the family Acrocephalidae. It breeds in temperate Europe and the western Palearctic and winters mainly in south east Africa. It is notable for incorporating striking imitations of a wide variety of other birds into its song. [more]
Song: Der Virtuose unter den Rohrsängern! Meisterhafter Imitator anderer Vogelstimmen. Viele wirbelnde und zwirlende Laute, wenig schnarrende. Variable Tempi. [Link]
Song extremely varied and full of mimicry of both European and African species. Up to 75 species imitated by the same bird. Phrases often repeated 2-4 times, and different phrases may overlap. Nevertheless, clearly defined phrases with marked pauses. Sometimes more flowing streams of notes, but less so than Icterine Warbler. Most similar to Icterine and Blyth's Reed Warbler. Softer timbre than Icterine, and not so loud. [Link]
Calls: Sehr ähnlich der Obigen Art. [Link]
More defined pauses and staccato tempo, and lacks Icterine Warbler's nasal high-pitched calls. Differs from Blyth's Reed Warbler in fewer repetitions of each phrase, and lack of said species' whistling, arpeggio-like calls. Typical sequence is a hoarse, drawn "ti-chaaa". Alarm call a short "chepp" with clipped ending. [Link]
Physical details: length=13 cm, wingspan=18-21 cm, weight=10-15 g

Song: Weird, squeaky, urgent, more variable than reed warbler, with imitations of European and African birds.
Song attributes: Melody: stereotype melodic, fast, Frequency: medium (1-5 KHz) Special sounds: mimicry, weird

Aquatic warbler / Seggenrohrsänger (Acrocephalus paludicola)
Alternate classification: Sylvia paludicola
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Wikipedia: Aquatic warbler
Deutschland: Brut-, seltener Zugvogel RL 1

Genus Hippolais:
Icterine warbler / Gelbspötter (Hippolais icterina)
Alternate classification: Hippolais hippolais
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Wikipedia: Icterine warbler
General: The icterine warbler (Hippolais icterina) is an Old World warbler in the tree warbler genus Hippolais. It breeds in mainland Europe except the southwest, where it is replaced by its western counterpart, melodious warbler. It is migratory, wintering in sub-Saharan Africa. [more]
Song: Song very virtuous and varied. Most similar to Marsh Warbler, but timbre and attack harder and more powerful. Tempo varied with many pauses, but includes longer, and more flowing sequences than Marsh Warbler. Song frequently interrupted by characteristic, nasal, high-pitched squeaks unlike Marsh Warbler. Master of mimicry. Imitations are often repeated several times before changing to melodious motifs or more "noisy" phrases. [Link]
Calls: Contact call distinct. A hard, trisyllabic "che-che-fink" , or "che-che-weet" with upward inflection. [Link]
Physical details: length=13 cm, wingspan=20-24 cm, weight=10-15 g

Melodious warbler / Orpheusspötter (Hippolais polyglotta)
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Wikipedia: Melodious warbler
Deutschland: Brut-, Zugvogel

Subfamily Sylviinae:
Genus Sylvia:
Black cap warbler / Mönchsgrasmücke (Sylvia atricapilla)
Also known as: Eurasian blackcap
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This fellow is singing in a bush across the street from us, at Bahnhofstrasse 18 They seldom like to show themselves, so I was pleased to see him. 2020-04-15 09.20.34 Bahnhofstrasse 18
On a tree branch, but not usually on the treetop.
Etymology: Grayish bird with black cap (or brown in the case of females), for which reason the German name refers to them as monks. [Link]
Song: Mit schwätzendem Vorgesang, (kann auch kurz sein oder ganz fehlen) der dann in klare, kräftige, zum Ende hin in wehmütige Flötentöne übergeht (Überschlag) [Link]
Song pleasing, varied and loud. Sometimes very similar to Garden Warbler. A typical phrase starts with soft, staccato chattering and mimicry, which after a few seconds changes to a much louder, pure and resonant stream of notes for about 3-5 seconds. No fixed motif, but may end phrases with recurring notes. Often deviates from the characteristic type of song, and identification from song alone may be impossible. May sing first part of song for extended periods without ever reaching the characteristic ending. [Link]
Calls: „täck“ oft wiederholt [Link]
Alarm call a hard "check", similar to Lesser White-throat. Sometimes with an additional hoarse and nasal "cherrrr". [Link]
Physical details: length=13 cm, wingspan=20-23 cm, weight=16-25 g

Song: They sometimes sing like a blackbird on speed - also non-stereotypic, seemingly improvised, in short bursts. Our local guy ends most of his songs with the same seven notes, which I find a good way to confirm the identification. In Ticino we often heard the 'Leiern' sound - the warblers would sing just the first 3 notes of a longer song, then stop. The order varied; high-medium-low I call 'Figaro' as in the opera, low-high-medium 'whiskey bar', as it sounded to me like the Kurt Weill lyrics, 'O-oh-show me-the-way to-the-next whis-ke-bar' - but the warbler usually stopped after 'way' or 'next' The British authors of The Sound Approach claim to hear 'a warblel and a whistle'.
Song attributes: Melody: improvised melodic, fast, Frequency: 2-5 KHz Special sounds: mimicry Singing season: 03-01 - 07-31 Dawn chorus start, 45 minutes before dawn.
Call: General: Sputtery/stoney, but may have other calls too.
Call: The Blackcap may generate a perplexing variety of territorial calls, though the typical contact call is a hard, tongue-clicking "teck teck" which has a scolding quality to it. It's not dissimilar to the 'pebble-clacking' call of the Stonechat. [Suffex Wildlife Trust]
Call attributes: Call melody: one note, slow, Frequency: high (3-9 KHz), Special sounds: sputter/pebble-clatter

Lesser whitethroat / Klappergrasmücke (Sylvia curruca)
Alternate classification: Curruca curruca, Sylvia curruca
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Wikipedia: Lesser whitethroat
Had hoped to hear and see it in Toggenburg but I didn't; said to be possible in Engadin.
Song: Klappernd. (Müllerchen) An Berglaubsänger erinnernd. Klappertöne (5-8) Aber oft mit leisem schwatzendem Vorgesang, der fehlen kann. Kann auch an Sumpfmeise erinnern, doch sind bei dieser die Klappertöne mehr von oben her angeschlagen. [Link]
Song typically consists of two parts. An indistinct chattering and warbling, subsong-like part similar to Whitethroat, which is usually followed by a dry, fast and rattling trill. The trill carries much further than the chattering part. May be difficult to identify if trill is omitted. [Link]
Calls: „tze“ oder „tett“ [Link]
Warning call a hard "check" similar to Blackcap but slightly softer. [Link]
Physical details: length=12-13 cm, wingspan=16-20 cm, weight=10-14 g

Song: Song typically consists of two parts. An indistinct chattering and warbling, subsong-like part similar to [common] Whitethroat, which is usually followed by a dry, fast and rattling trill. The trill carries much further than the chattering part. May be difficult to identify if trill is omitted. [Link]
Song attributes: Melody: simple rhythmic, slow, Frequency: 3-5 KHz Special sounds: trill
Call: BirdID says: Warning call a hard "check" similar to Blackcap but slightly softer

♫ (call)

Call attributes: Call melody: one note, slow, Frequency: 2-7 KHz, Special sounds: sputter/pebble-clatter

Garden warbler / Gartengrasmücke (Sylvia borin)
Alternate classification: Sylvia simplex
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Vogelwarte Gartengrasmuecke. Source: VOGELWARTE
Nondescript, shy.
Hidden in the branches. Does change trees though.
Appearance and identification: Nabu: Das Hauptbestimmungsmerkmal dieser sehr unauffällig gefärbten Grasmücke ist, dass sie kein besonderes Merkmal besitzt.
Im gegensatz zu ihrem Namen kommt die Gartengrasmücke eher seltener in Gärten vor, häufiger ist sie in Hecken und grossen Büschen in waldrandlage anzutreffen, wo sie recht versteckt lebt.
[Aus der NABU Android-App]
Song: Sprudelnd, orgelnd, die längsten Strophen aller hiesigen Grasmücken. Mit vielen reinen, volltönenden Tönen. Ohne Überschlag der Mönchsgrasmücke. [Link]
Song: a full bodied, flowing, melodious stream of notes, distinguished by its almost constant, warbled quality and lack of clear whistling notes (see Blackcap). Tempo is fairly even. Beware confusion possibility with occasional subsong of Blackcap that never reaches the whistling part! Call a nasal "che". [Link]
Calls: Alarm call a hard "check", and a hoarse "tcherr". [Link]
Physical details: length=14 cm, wingspan=20-24 cm, weight=16-22 g

Song: Hard to distinguish from mönchsgrasmücke/black cap.
Song attributes: Melody: improvised melodic, fast, Frequency: medium (1-5 KHz)
Presence: 04-15 - 10-05
Breeding: 04-30 - 08-10
Migration in: 04-15 - 05-30
Migration out: 08-01 - 10-05

Common whitethroat / Dorngrasmücke (Sylvia communis)
Also known as: Greater whitethroat
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Wikipedia: Common whitethroat
General: The common whitethroat (Curruca communis) is a common and widespread typical warbler which breeds throughout Europe and across much of temperate western Asia. This small passerine bird is strongly migratory, and winters in tropical Africa, Arabia, and Pakistan. [more]
Vocalization: Variable. Usually recognized by fairly concise phrase, usually with three ascending and descending parts. [Link]
Song: Often ends with more indistinct mimicry, or subsong. May omit characteristic phrase and sing more cryptic for periods of time, and may be more difficult to identify. [Link]
Calls: Warning call a harsh, drawn "weeet", usually with accented ending, sometimes rising abruptly in pitch. [Link]
Physical details: length=14 cm, wingspan=18-23 cm, weight=13-18 g

Barred warbler / Sperbergrasmücke (Sylvia nisoria)
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Wikipedia: Barred warbler
Deutschland: Brut-, Zugvogel RL 3
Vocalization: Varied repertoire, but mostly silent when not breeding. Phrases usually quite short, with rapid alternations between sequences of squeaky, high-pitched sounds and warbling, fluty (often disyllabic) notes. This creates a slightly bouncing rhythm, different from Garden Warbler. [Link]
Song: Song varies among individuals and location, but is generally quite similar to Garden Warbler. Often contains mimicry of Red-backed Shrike, and other species. Sometimes includes contact call in song, which makes ID easier. [Link]
Calls: Contact call a rolling, dry "trrrrrrrrr-r-r-t, often with ritardando ending, of 1-2 seconds length. Also a Blackcap-like "check". [Link]
Physical details: length=15 cm, wingspan=23-27 cm, weight=22-28 g

Genus Curruca:
Eastern subalpine warbler (Curruca cantillans)
Alternate classification: Sylvia cantillans
Also known as: Subalpine warbler
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General: The eastern subalpine warbler (Curruca cantillans) is a small typical warbler which breeds in the southernmost areas of Europe. It was first described by the German naturalist Peter Simon Pallas in 1764 and given the binomial name Motacilla cantillans.[2][3][4] The specific cantillans is Latin for "warbling" from canere, "to sing".[5] [more]

Genus Regulus:
Common firecrest / Sommergoldhähnchen (Regulus ignicapillus)
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Sommergoldhaehnchen, bever - oder wintergoldhaehnchen. 2021-07-28 17.29.06 Engadin
The common firecrest (Regulus ignicapilla), also known as the firecrest, is a very small passerine bird in the kinglet family. It breeds in most of temperate Europe and northwestern Africa, and is partially migratory, with birds from central Europe wintering to the south and west of their breeding range. Firecrests in the Balearic Islands and north Africa are widely recognised as a separate subspecies, but the population on Madeira, previously also treated as a subspecies, is now treated as a distinct species, the Madeira firecrest, Regulus madeirensis. A fossil ancestor of the firecrest has been identified from a single wing bone. [more]

Goldcrest / Wintergoldhähnchen (Regulus regulus)
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Wintergoldhähnchen beim Meteorwasserkanal am Pfäffikersee. Endlich habe ich einen bei uns gesehen! 2020-10-30 16.44.10 Pfäffikersee
I'd often heard the high-pitched song and call in the woods by Fehraltorf but had doubts I'd ever see one (they're the smallest bird in Switzerland, fairly shy, and I seemed to only hear them in very tall trees). I didn't see one until hiking at the Pragelpass. And finally in October 2020, I saw them near Rumlikon and at the Pfaeffikersee, where I took the new profile picture. In December I saw give of them cruise through the bushes beside our house, hopping from branch to branch, snapping up insects - something I'd never have believe in spring 2020.
Song: Kurze Reihe von sehr hohen, leisen Tönen in auf-absteigender Tonhöhe, an das „W“-im Namen erinnernd. [Link]
Song: a very high-pitched, undulating series of arpeggiated notes moving down and up again, repeated 4-5 times ending with a marked "conclusion" (like "trying to start a tiny motor and failing"). Timbre of song similar to contact call. [Link]
Calls: 'sisisi' [Link]
Contact call a very high pitched "zit zit zit", only similar to Firecrest and treecreepers. Treecreepers usually calls with longer "zzzziiiiit" repeated at regular intervals, while Goldcrest calls in phrases with two to four calls in series in an uneven rhythm. Firecrest contact calls lower pitched than Goldcrest, and in a softer tone (but quite similar). [Link]
Physical details: length=9 cm, wingspan=13-15 cm, weight=4-7 g

Song: Vogelwarte.ch says high-pitched song that gently rises and falls.
Song attributes: Melody: stereotype melodic, slow, Frequency: high (3-9 KHz)

Common firecrest / Sommergoldhähnchen (Regulus ignicapilla)
Alternate classification: Regulus regulus ignicapillus
Also known as: Firecrest
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Wikipedia Sommergoldhaehnchen (Regulus ignicapilla) weiblich. Source: WIKIPEDIA
General: The common firecrest (Regulus ignicapilla), also known as the firecrest, is a very small passerine bird in the kinglet family. It breeds in most of temperate Europe and northwestern Africa, and is partially migratory, with birds from central Europe wintering to the south and west of their breeding range. Firecrests in the Balearic Islands and north Africa are widely recognised as a separate subspecies, but the population on Madeira, previously also treated as a subspecies, is now treated as a distinct species, the Madeira firecrest, Regulus madeirensis. A fossil ancestor of the firecrest has been identified from a single wing bone. [more]
I heard one in the woods by Neschwil. Unfortunately, they prefer perches in the tops of trees, which were 30m or more tall - little chance of seeing one, even if we had lingered.
Vocalization: A slow crescendo of short "tze" sounds in a phrase rising slightly in pitch, without the repeated arpeggiated movements of goldcrest. [Link]
Song: Wie [beim Wintergoldhähnchen] aber auf gleicher Tonhöhe bleibend. [Link]
Song: Similar in timbre to Goldcrest, but much more monotonous. [Link]
Calls: „sisisi“ [Link]
Call: a thin "tsi tsi tsi" similar to Goldcrest, but not so sharp. [Link]
Physical details: length=9 cm, wingspan=13-16 cm, weight=4-6 g

Song: Very high rhythmic repetition of about 3 seconds
Song attributes: Melody: simple rhythmic, fast, Frequency: 6-8 KHz

Genus Panurus:
Bearded reedling / Bartmeise (Panurus biarmicus)
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Wikipedia: Bearded reedling
Deutschland: Brut-, Jahres-, Zugvogel
Vocalization: More often heard than seen. [Link]
Song: Song a primitive, 3-syllable phrase, consisting of contact call-like sounds. [Link]
Calls: Usually identified by contact call; a ringing, explosive "tschin" with a characteristic "dirty" timbre. Also a hard and very short "pit", often mixed with the previous. [Link]
Physical details: length=12 cm, wingspan=16-18 cm, weight=12-18 g

Family Hirundinidae (Swallows / Schwalben):
Genus Hirundo:
Barn swallow / Rauchschwalbe (Hirundo rustica)
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Rauchschwalben schenkel farm, farbe betont für ID. 2020-04-16 10.09.16 Luppmen
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
Seen every evening from spring to fall, need good picture.
Etymology: In früheren Jahrhunderten flogen sie vielfach durch die Öffnungen im Giebel ein und aus, durch die auch der Rauch des Herdfeuers abzog. So erhielten sie den Namen Rauchschwalben. [Link]
Song: Characteristic calls and song. Song a sparkling, squeaky energetic improvisation with interspersed contact calls, often with diagnostic ending; an electric and drawn-out "su-eerrrrrrrrrrrrrrr". [Link]
Calls: Contact call a short and sharp "weet" or "kee-weet". [Link]
Physical details: length=17-19 cm, wingspan=32-34 cm, weight=16-22 g

Genus Cecropis:
Red-rumped swallow (Cecropis daurica)
Alternate classification: Hirundo daurica
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Wikipedia: Red-rumped swallow
General: The red-rumped swallow (Cecropis daurica) is a small passerine bird in the swallow family. It breeds in open hilly country of temperate southern Europe and Asia from Portugal and Spain to Japan, India, Sri Lanka and tropical Africa. The Indian and African birds are resident, but European and other Asian birds are migratory. They winter in Africa or India and are vagrants to Christmas Island and northern Australia. [more]

Genus Riparia:
Bank swallow / Uferschwalbe (Riparia riparia)
Also known as: Sand martin
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Wikipedia: Bank swallow
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
The sand martin (Riparia riparia) or European sand martin, bank swallow, and collared sand martin in India, is a migratory passerine bird in the swallow family. It has a wide range in summer, embracing practically the whole of Europe and the Mediterranean countries and across the Palearctic to the Pacific Ocean. It is a Holarctic species also found in North America. It winters in eastern and southern Africa, South America, and the Indian Subcontinent. [more]
Song: Song a primitive improvisation on the contact call. [Link]
Calls: Contact call a mono- or disyllabic "trrrrt". Similar to House Martin but more raucous and less crisp, with less rolling r's, and with stable pitch throughout. Alarm call similar to House Martin; a sharp plaintive "tseep", but somewhat purer and more drawn. [Link]
Physical details: length=12 cm, wingspan=26-29 cm, weight=11-16 g

Genus Ptyonoprogne:
Eurasian crag-martin / Felsenschwalbe (Ptyonoprogne rupestris)
Also known as: Eurasian crag martin
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Wikipedia: Eurasian crag-martin Europe
Deutschland: Brut-, Zugvogel RL R
Vocalization: Most heard is a House Martin-like, but less rolling, "prit" or "check". Other contact sounds include a plaintive "peeuuu". [Link]
Song: Song an inconspicuous, staccato series of twittering notes, with a wagtail-like timbre. [Link]
Physical details: length=14 cm, wingspan=32-34 cm, weight=17-30 g

Genus Delichon:
Common house martin / Mehlschwalbe (Delichon urbicum)
Alternate classification: Delichon urbica
Also known as: Common house-martin
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Mehlschwalben in Maienfeld. 2021-05-29 08.11.14 Maienfeld
General: The common house martin (Delichon urbicum), sometimes called the northern house martin or, particularly in Europe, just house martin, is a migratory passerine bird of the swallow family which breeds in Europe, north Africa and across the Palearctic; and winters in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical Asia. It feeds on insects which are caught in flight, and it migrates to climates where flying insects are plentiful. It has a blue head and upperparts, white rump and pure white underparts, and is found in both open country and near human habitation. It is similar in appearance to the two other martin species of the genus Delichon, which are both endemic to eastern and southern Asia. It has two accepted subspecies. [more]
Song: Song a merry improvisation of chirping, contact call-like sounds (sometimes recalling a budgerigar). [Link]
Calls: Contact call a rolling "krreet". Similar to Sand Martin but noticeably dryer, more rolling and less raucous. Typically varies the pitch of the call more. Warning call a sharp and plaintive "tsreee". [Link]
Physical details: length=12 cm, wingspan=26-29 cm, weight=15-23 g

Family Alaudidae (Larks / Lerchen):
Genus Alauda:
Eurasian skylark / Feldlerche (Alauda arvensis)
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Wikipedia Eurasian Skylark (Alauda arvensis). Source: WIKIPEDIA
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America (introduced), Africa.
Geography: Introduced population in North America is gradually declining. [Link]
Stark gefährdet durch Verlust von geeignetem Lebensraum. Eine Massnahme ist die Erstellung von Lerchenfenstern auf den Feldern - eine kleine Fläche mitten im Feld, die nicht bepflanzt oder gemäht wird. So was sieht man bei uns, z.B. zwischen Freudwil und Gutenswil, wobei ich nicht genau weiss, ob Feldlerchen das Ziel davon sind. Die Infos habe ich vom FOK Kurs 2021-2022 von Christina Ebneter.
Song: Song a pleasing energetic stream of chirping, merry trills, interspersed with mimicry. Trills quite resonant with fairly full tone. Song usually given in flight high in the air. Less characteristic, shorter, weaker and more varied song when given from ground. [Link]
Calls: Most typical flight call a short trilling "chirrup", with the end note noticeably lower pitched than the start. Also several other more cryptic calls. [Link]
Physical details: length=18-19 cm, wingspan=30-36 cm, weight=26-50 g

Genus Calandrella:
Greater short-toed lark / Kurzzehenlerche (Calandrella brachydactyla)
Alternate classification: Calandrella cinerea brachydactyla
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Wikipedia: Greater short-toed lark
General: The greater short-toed lark (Calandrella brachydactyla) is a small passerine bird. The current scientific name is from Ancient Greek. The genus name, Calandrella, is a diminutive of kalandros, the calandra lark, and brachydactila is from brakhus, "short", and daktulos, "toe".[2] [more]

Genus Lullula:
Wood lark / Heidelerche (Lullula arborea)
Also known as: Woodlark
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Wikipedia: Wood lark
Deutschland: Brut-, Zugvogel RL V
Song: Song: Distinct and quite slow for a lark. Consists mainly of varied, disyllabic elements, or single syllables repeated in descending, accelerated phrases. Starting soft and hesitantly, then gaining in strength and speed. [Link]
Physical details: length=15 cm, wingspan=27-30 cm, weight=25-35 g

Family Phylloscopidae (Laubsänger):
Genus Phylloscopus:
Common chiffchaff / Zilpzalp (Phylloscopus collybita)
Also known as: Weidenlaubsänger
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In our back yard in Fehraltorf 2020-10-03 12.44.50 Luppmen
In the survey of 2008, there was only 1 Chiffchaff in Fehraltorf for every 7 blackbirds, and it was ranked 19th in the village. Yet in summer 2020 I heard them in nearly every recording I make, whether at home by the brook (Luppmen) or in the woods. I presume their population has exploded in the last 10 years.
I see them in middle branches, but not in particularly exposed places.
Song: [Translated from German:] From the middle of August till the end of September the chiffchaff offers regular autumn song. [Link]
Lange Reihen (6-20) von „zilp-zalp“-Rufen, meist abwechselnd in Tonhöhe. (Als bemühe sich der Sänger vergeblich den ersten Ton wieder zu treffen , ohne jedoch weit zu verfehlen.) „Zins zahl, Zins zahl, zahl Zins, Zins Zins zahl“ („Zins“ etwas höher als „zahl“) [Link]
Song a very distinct: "chiff-chaff-chiff-chiff-chaff-chiff", in a regular clock-like rhythm. Each syllable at seemingly random pitch, but no large intervals tonally. Sometimes "get stuck" at one note. [Link]
Calls: Rufe :einsilbiges „hüid“, hinaufgezogen, wandelbar. [Link]
Contact/alarm call a soft, plaintive ascending "hooeet". Similar to W.Warbler, but shorter with a monosyllabic feel. [Link]
Physical details: length=10-11 cm, wingspan=15-21 cm, weight=6-10 g

Song: Seems to consist of 3 notes repeated randomly, occasionally just 2 notes. Though NABU.de says they stop singing at the end of July, I do hear their 3-note song occasionally in October, but just one or two repetitions.
Song attributes: Melody: simple rhythmic, slow, Frequency: high (3-9 KHz) Singing season: 03-01 - 07-31 Dawn chorus start, 35 minutes before dawn.
Call: Repeated rising note, not too loud

♫ Source: XENOCANTO (contact call)


Call attributes: Call melody: one note, slow, Frequency: 2-4 KHz, Special sounds: whoop

Willow warbler / Fitis (Phylloscopus trochilus)
Also known as: Fitislaubsänger
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WikiCommons Fitis 13901013023. Source: WIKIPEDIA
General: The willow warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus) is a very common and widespread leaf warbler which breeds throughout northern and temperate Europe and the Palearctic, from Ireland east to the Anadyr River basin in eastern Siberia. It is strongly migratory, with almost all of the population wintering in Sub-Saharan Africa.[2][3] [more]
Song: Reihe v. Pfeiflauten (ca 12) etwas abfallend. Klingt ähnlich Buchfink, aber etwas traurig, melancholisch, wie in moll-Tonart. [Link]
By far most easily identified by it's call or song. Song: A 3-5 second, falling phrase of soft, rippling "svi-svi" sounds, starting high with some attack, and then falling in a mellow manner. The phrase lacks any conclusion, and diminishes both in strength and tempo. [Link]
Calls: ähnlich oben, aber mehr zweisilbig [Link]
Contact/alarm call a soft, plaintive ascending "hoo-eet". Similar to Chiff-chaff, but first part more drawn, giving it a disyllabic feel. [Link]
Physical details: length=10-11 cm, wingspan=16-22 cm, weight=7-12 g

Song: Song similar to common chaffinch but higher, faster, tendency to descend but with more ups and downs.
Song attributes: Melody: stereotype melodic, fast, Frequency: high (3-9 KHz) Singing season: 04-01 - 06-30 Dawn chorus start, 22 minutes before dawn.
Call: Whoop very similar to chiffchaff, etc. but starts at an even level, then ascends.
Call recorded in UK, sounds typical to me, and spiced up by a yellowhammer in the background and several other birds

Call recorded in UK, sounds typical to me, and spiced up by a yellowhammer in the background and several other birds Source: XENOCANTO (call)


Call attributes: contact call Call melody: simple rhythmic, slow, Frequency: 2-4 KHz, Special sounds: whoop

Western bonelli's warbler / Berglaubsänger (Phylloscopus bonelli)
Also known as: Western bonelli's warbler
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Wikipedia Berglaubsaenger Phylloscopus bonelli. From Sébastien Bertru - https://www.flickr.com/photos/aigledayres/5911604938/, CC BY-SA 2.0, Link Source: WIKIPEDIA
Roman von Sury likes them, but notes that their habitat is increasingly disappearing in Switzerland.
Song: Reihe(5-10) von gleichhohen Schlägen, ähnlich dem Schwirren der obigen Art, aber langsamer, einzelne Töne deutlich getrennt, etwas scheppernd. Kann mit Klappergrasmücke verwechselt werden) [Link]

Wood warbler / Waldlaubsänger (Phylloscopus sibilatrix)
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Wikipedia: Wood warbler
Deutschland: Brut-, Zugvogel
Song: Song distinct. An accelerating series of sharp, metallic "swee-swee-swee-swee". Alternative (piping) song a series of 4-6 piping, plaintive and descending "pew - pew" calls. Resembles Willow Tit's song, but is softer with each note more evenly pitched. Contact call similar to individual syllables of piping song, but with heavier accent on the ending. [Link]
Calls: Typically with a staccato beginning. Pitch drops as the speed increases and the syllables fuses into a continuous trill. Often described as the sound of a spinning coin coming to rest on a glass table. Some phrases may be given in an almost even tempo, and may recall Bonelli's Warbler. [Link]
Physical details: length=12 cm, wingspan=19-24 cm, weight=8-12 g

Family Locustellidae:
Genus Locustella:
Savi's warbler / Rohrschwirl (Locustella luscinioides)
Alternate classification: Locustella luscinoides
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Wikipedia - Rohrschwirl Chiemgau. Source: WIKIPEDIA
General: Savi's warbler (Locustella luscinioides) is a species of Old World warbler in the grass warbler genus Locustella. It breeds in Europe and the western Palearctic. It is migratory, wintering in northern and sub-Saharan Africa. [more]
Song: Gesang ähnlich obiger Art. Tiefere Tonlage, höhere Frequenz. Strophen meist kürzer [Link]

Common grasshopper warbler / Feldschwirl (Locustella naevia)
Also known as: Common grasshopper-warbler
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Wikipedia: Common grasshopper warbler
Deutschland: Brut-, Zugvogel RL 3
Song: Song insect-like and high-pitched. A monotonous stream of even clicks similar to a running fishing line. Maintained for seemingly endless periods, and often hard to locate. Song most similar to Savi's Warbler but is slower (each click more separated), and higher pitched with a metallic, ringing quality. Short sequences of song also functions as contact call. Also a Robin-like "tick". [Link]
Physical details: length=12-13 cm, wingspan=15-19 cm, weight=11-16 g

Superfamily Passeroidea:
Family Passeridae (Sparrows / Sperlinge):
Genus Passer:
House sparrow / Haussperling (Passer domesticus)
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Pair of house sparrows in a tree near Zürichstrasse, Fehraltorf 2020-04-11 07.54.30 Luppmen
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America (introduced), South America, Africa.
One of the most common birds anywhere in Europe and North America. In Fehraltorf there are 5 house sparrows for every one tree sparrow. Eugene Schieffelin brought house sparrows and starlings to North Ameria. As a Shakespeare fan, it is often claimed that he wanted to introduce all species to North America that are mentioned in Shakespeare, but apparently this is not supported by any records
Found practically everywhere. Often on the ground or on your table in a cafe (they're very bold) or in groups in bushes and hedges
Song: Song a primitive, monosyllabic, or slightly disyllabic "chilp", hard to distinguish from Tree Sparrow. [Link]
Calls: Most calls very similar to Tree Sparrow, but lacks said species' distinct high pitched call (chew-itt), and alarm call is less dry and raucous. [Link]
Physical details: length=14-15 cm, wingspan=21-25 cm, weight=24-38 g

Song: An monotone chirping. Mainly 2-5 KHz with higher overtones.
Song attributes: Melody: simple rhythmic, slow, Frequency: 2-5 KHz Singing season: 01-01 - 08-31 Dawn chorus start, 30 minutes before dawn.

Eurasian tree sparrow / Feldsperling (Passer montanus)
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In tree by First, ZH. 2020-05-04 17.33.32 Luppmen
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America (introduced), Africa.
Similar to the house sparrow, but with the black cheek patch seen here. in Fehraltorf there are 5 times as many house sparrows as tree sparrows.
Geography: Brought from Germany, about 20 of these birds were released in St. Louis in 1870. The population took hold there, and they might have spread except that the House Sparrow, seemingly more aggressive and adaptable, reached the St. Louis area at about the same time. Eurasian Tree Sparrows are still found in parts of Missouri and Illinois, and have reached southeastern Iowa, but they are fairly local in farmland and suburbs. The tougher House Sparrow may keep them out of other areas. [Link]
Vocalization: Most other sounds similar to House Sparrow, and may be difficult to identify. [Link]
Song: Chattering sounds are generally harder, and song slightly higher pitched than House Sparrow. [Link]
Calls: Distinct, high-pitched and explosive contact-call; "che-witt" typically given in flight. Second syllable rising rapidly in pitch. [Link]
Physical details: length=14 cm, wingspan=20-22 cm, weight=18-29 g

Song: Monotone chirping, rougher than that of the house sparrow. Most 2-7 KHz mit many overtones, i.e. somewhat higher than the house sparrow.
Song attributes: Melody: simple rhythmic, slow, Frequency: 2-7 KHz

Italian sparrow / Italiensperling (Passer italiae)
Alternate classification: Passer hispaniolensis italiae
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Italiensperling an Lago Maggiore, Locarno. 2021-04-06 13.17.26 Northern Lago Maggiore
Classification: It is intermediate between the house sparrow, and the Spanish sparrow, a species of the Mediterranean and Central Asia closely related to the house sparrow. [Link]
Within Switzerland it's mostly seen in Ticino.

Genus Prunella:
Dunnock / Heckenbraunelle (Prunella modularis)
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Wikpedia photo because never seen. Source: WIKIPEDIA
Heard at Hungerseeli and near Lendikon but not yet seen. They hide well!
Song: Singt schon im Vorfrühling. Klangfarbe ähnlich Gartenbaumläufer. Aufbau ähnlich Zaunkönig, aber ohne Triller. Viel leiser und dünner. [Link]
Song a fast and evenly paced, high pitched stream of clear notes. No consistent phrasing. Similar in timbre to Robin, but does not vary tempo or pitch nearly as much. Often compared to the sound of a squeaky wheelbarrow. [Link]
Calls: Hohe „zi“ „tsi“. Auf dem Zug „zieht“. Etwas absinkend.. [Link]
Contact call a dry, thick trill "trrr", and a short King Fisher-like, high-pitched "zeep". [Link]
Physical details: length=14 cm, wingspan=19-21 cm, weight=16-25 g

Song: High-pitched, repetitive but complex little tune.
Song attributes: Melody: stereotype melodic, fast, Frequency: high (3-9 KHz) Singing season: 02-15 - 07-31 Dawn chorus start, 45 minutes before dawn.
Call: Swooping staccato call 0.5 seconds long heard near Lendikon. Repeated irregularly after 1-3.5 seconds.

♫ Source: XENOCANTO (call)


Call attributes: Call melody: one note, fast, Frequency: 5-7 KHz, Special sounds: swoop

Alpine accentor / Alpenbraunelle (Prunella collaris)
Alternate classification: Sturnus collaris
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Wikipedia: Alpine accentor
Deutschland: Brut-, Jahres-, Zugvogel RL R
Song: Song is a varied stream of melodious and chattering notes, more resembling skylark than the much higher pitched Dunnock. [Link]
Calls: Most common call a noisy "tchrt", often repeated in short, retarding series. Also has a more pleasant, ringing Snow Bunting-like "prrrriitt". [Link]
Physical details: length=18 cm, wingspan=30-32 cm, weight=37-43 g

Genus Montifringilla:
White-winged snowfinch / Schneesperling (Montifringilla nivalis)
Alternate classification: Fringilla nivalis
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Wikipedia: White-winged snowfinch
Deutschland: Brut-, Jahresvogel RL R
Vocalization: Rich repertoire. [Link]
Song: Song a staccato, variable phrase, consisting of short burst of sharp chattering in uneven tempo. The timbre is ringing, rich in harmonics and partly rolling. [Link]
Calls: Among the various contact call the commonest are a high-pitched, sharp "zeet", a deeper, Brambling-like "veet, or a sparrow-like "peea". Alarm call a rolling "trr-r-r-rt", resembling Crested Tit. [Link]
Physical details: length=17 cm, wingspan=34-38 cm, weight=35-45 g

Family Fringillidae (Finken):
Subfamily Fringillinae:
Genus Fringilla:
Common chaffinch / Buchfink (Fringilla coelebs)
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In tree by First, ZH. 2020-05-04 17.33.36 Luppmen
Heard everywhere locally but less often seen. In winter 2020-2021 it often accompanied tits to our feeder. While they grabbed sunflower seeds, the chaffinch would hunt for food on the ground or in bushes.
I've caught it on stubby branches of an evergreen, in a lone tree in a farmyard, and in Brittany even on a lightpost. And I seem to see one every time I go to Zurich, so they're happy in an urban setting.
Etymology: Als Kontakt- und Alarmruf dient «pink», von dem wahrscheinlich die deutsche Bezeichnung «Fink» herkommt. [Von BirdLifes Schweizer 'bird song' Website]
Appearance and identification: Interesting tidbit: the chaffinch is one bird that can change colors without molting. Its new feathers in autumn are grayish, but by late spring the edges of the feathers have worn away, revealing the chaffinch's brightest colors of the year. [Lovette and Fitzpatrick's Handbook of Bird Biology]
Song: Song a falling 5 sec. phrase "zitt-zitt-chep-chepp-chu-chu-churrurrwitt". Structurally similar to Willow Warbler, but with a conclusive, ascending and accented ending, and with a much harder, finch-like, timbre. [Link]
Physical details: length=14 cm, wingspan=24-28 cm, weight=18-29 g

Song: General: A medium long phrase that slowly descends (I think of it bouncing down a staircase), then usually takes a jump up before a final descent.
Song: In Bavaria the mnemonic for the typical chaffinch song is: „Ich hätte gerne ein Weizenbier“, i.e. "I'd like another Weizenbier". [DasHaus]
Song attributes: Melody: stereotype melodic, slow, Frequency: medium (1-5 KHz) Singing season: 02-01 - 07-31 Dawn chorus start, 10 minutes before dawn.
Calls: 1: General: Repeated ascending note, faster than the long starling whoops, but compare with the black redstart. There are many different calls, the Marler book describes the 'chink' call as functioning as a mobbing and separation call. At XenoCanto I find calls described as "ping", "pik" (same thing?), "pchew", "duit", "huit", "ti-huit".
Call: Der sogenannte Regenruf der Männchen, „schrrüt“, der selbst in benachbarten Ortsteilen deutlich variieren kann, erklingt nur während der Brutzeit. Als Regenruf wird er bezeichnet, weil er kurz vor oder sogar während des Regens zu hören ist, wenn die anderen Vögel verstummen. [DasHaus]
Rain call from XenoCanto

Rain call from XenoCanto Recorded by Paul Driver in Mundford, Norfolk, UK Source: XENOCANTO (rain call)


2: Call: Als Alarmsignal dient ein mehrsilbiges „pink“. [DasHaus]
Ping call from XenoCanto

Ping call from XenoCanto Source: XENOCANTO (alarm call)


Call attributes: rain call Call melody: one note, slow, Frequency: 3-5 KHz, Special sounds: whoop
Presence: 01-01 - 12-31
Breeding: 04-01 - 07-31
Migration in: 02-20 - 04-15
Migration out: 09-10 - 11-15

Brambling / Bergfink (Fringilla montifringilla)
Also known as: Mountain finch
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Wikipedia Bergfink. Foto: Source: WIKIPEDIA
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Geography: the Brambling appears regularly in small numbers in Alaska during migration, straying the short distance across the Bering Sea. Some of those that stray across in autumn apparently then continue south on the American side, and there have been winter records for numerous states and provinces east to the Atlantic Coast and south to Colorado. Many of these vagrant Bramblings have been found visiting bird feeders. [Link]
Vocalization: Large repertoire of mostly characteristic sounds. [
Link]
Song: Song very distinct; a soft, wheezing, drawn-out single note. Repeated at the same pitch in a monotonous manner. [Link]
Calls: Contact calls include a short, nasal, ascending "keeaa", a short high-pitched, piercing "tzeet" and a linnet-like "chepp". May be mistaken for Greenfinch, but note softer timbre and stable pitch throughout the call. [Link]
Physical details: length=14 cm, wingspan=25-26 cm, weight=17-30 g
Habitats: forest

Song: General: Bergfink - call cheep plus two ascending Grünfink squawks. Song? Grünfink squawk but not descending, every 3-4 seconds.
Song: Song very distinct; a soft, wheezing, drawn-out single note. Repeated at the same pitch in a monotonous manner. [Link]
Song attributes: Melody: simple rhythmic, slow, Frequency: medium (1-5 KHz) Special sounds: rasp Singing season: 04-14 - 09-15

Subfamily Carduelinae:
Genus Serinus:
European serin / Girlitz (Serinus serinus)
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Wikipedia Girlitz Serinus serinus. Von Andreas Trepte - Eigenes Werk, CC BY-SA 2.5, Link Source: WIKIPEDIA
I'm doubtful that all the recordings below are really serin...better check them out.
Song: Song a hectic, jingling, continuous trill, like the pouring of broken glass. The highest notes are constantly modulated to form vague motifs. Timbre comparable to Corn Bunting. [Link]
Calls: Ringing trill also used as contact call, with slightly falling pitch "trrilrlitlitlit". Alarm call a short, redpoll-like "weee-eeet", with an accented high-pitched middle part. [Link]
Physical details: length=11 cm, wingspan=20-23 cm, weight=11-14 g

Song: General: Weird hectic song, and you'll probably hear them but not see them, which is a shame, because they're a colorful yellow bird. The song seems to defy description - described variously as the jingling of a bunch of keys, like crushing glass or the pouring of broken glass (the German Wikipedia refers to a nickname 'Glasscutter'), the sound of a cork twising in a bottle (Thomas Seilnacht on digitalefolien.ch), and one source I can no longer find talked about a ruined cassette tape. A Portuguese web site aptly calls it 'a high-pitched and fast rambled sum of indistinctive elements', and U. Cornell's ebird.org calls it frantically fast, oiseaux-birds.com 'a prolonged, wheezy, chirping', beautyofbirds.com 'a buzzing trill'.
Song: Das Gesangsrepertoire umfasst über 50 komplexe Silben, die in einem sehr schnellen Tempo und einer sehr stereotypen Reihenfolge eigene Lieder bilden. Starke Variationen finden sich im Übergang von einer Tour (zusammenhängenden Abfolge von Silben, also (Teil-)Strophe) in eine andere (Modulation). Das Gesangsrepertoire ist unter den Stieglitzartigen (Carduelinae) einzigartig.[1] Zudem umfasst es eine variable Menge an Silben, die auch im Gesang anderer Vögel verwendet werden. Es konnte bewiesen werden, dass die Komposition des Repertoires geographisch variiert. [Wikipedia setzt sich ernsthaft mit dem Gesang auseinander]
Song attributes: Melody: non-musical, very fast, Frequency: 4-10 KHz

Citril finch / Zitronenzeisig (Serinus citrinella)
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Wikipedia: Citril finch
General: The citril finch (Carduelis citrinella), also known as the Alpine citril finch, is a small songbird, a member of the true finch family, Fringillidae. For a long time, this cardueline finch was placed in the genus Serinus, but it is apparently very closely related to the European goldfinch (C. carduelis).[2] [more]

Genus Carpodacus:
Common rosefinch / Karmingimpel (Carpodacus erythrinus)
Alternate classification: Erythrina erythrina
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Deutschland: Brut-, Zugvogel
Song: Song very characteristic. A melodious, pure and short whistle, often rendered as "pleased to meet you". Each note with a smooth gliding change of pitch. Number of syllables may vary. [Link]
Calls: Contact call a short ascending "hueet" resembling Siskin in timbre. [Link]
Physical details: length=14-15 cm, wingspan=24-26 cm, weight=19-27 g

Genus Carduelis:
European goldfinch / Stieglitz (Carduelis carduelis)
Also known as: Distelfink
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Nach Disteln mögen sie Sonnenblumenkerne 2020-10-13 09.21.10 Luppmen
One of the more colorful birds in our area, but fairly shy and skittish, so you don't see them much. Supposedly a bit smaller than a sparrow or a great tit, but to me they look bigger and heavier?
Well hidden in the tree branches; at thistles or sunflowers.
My first (multilingual) notes: Stieglitz like Grünfink, fast, high, occasional trills. Occasionally ends a bit with falling note like buchfink
Mir wurde erst in St. Moritz in Juli 2021 bewusst wie aehnlich der Steiglitz wie ein Gruenfink klingt - beide koennen lange Gesang mit Trillern und rauhen sinkenden Toenen singen, und ich habe Stieglitz v.a. durch dieses Stoehnen fuer Gruenfink gehalten.
Song: Contact-call distinct, and also constitutes a major part of the song. A sharp and explosive "witt", or "tzee-witt". Sometimes given as a single syllable, di- or trisyllabic, or as continuous series. The song is comprised of rapid series of the contact call, interrupted by drawn-out melodic notes and trills. [Link]
Calls: Other calls: A harsh budgerigar or house martin-like "trrrtt-trrrrt". [Link]
Physical details: length=12 cm, wingspan=21-25 cm, weight=14-19 g

Song: General: Hectic sing-song, quite chaotic in feeding groups. But kept as songbird, so I guess more melodic when singing solo.
Song attributes: Melody: stereotype melodic, fast, Frequency: 2-7 KHz Special sounds: fluting, rattle Singing season: year round Only pauses singing while molting and thus endangered. Dawn chorus start, 20 minutes before dawn.
Call: Wild melody (remember these birds are also kept as songbirds in cages. the German name Stieglitz imitates its call (sti-ge-lit) - though I don't hear that! [Link]
Xeno-Canto recording

Xeno-Canto recording Adult call recorded in the UK. Source: XENOCANTO (call)

Xeno-Canto recording

Xeno-Canto recording Record in Lège-Cap-Ferret, France byStanislas Wroza and described by him as a 'tik' call and a flight call. Source: XENOCANTO (call)


Call attributes: Call melody: stereotype melodic, fast, Frequency: 2-8 KHz,

Common redpoll - Wikipedia / Birkenzeisig (Carduelis flammea)
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Wikipedia: Common redpoll - Wikipedia
Deutschland: Zugvogel, Wintergast

Genus Acanthis (Redpolls):
Lesser redpoll (Acanthis cabaret)
Alternate classification: Fringilla cabaret
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Wikipedia: Lesser redpoll
General: The lesser redpoll (Acanthis cabaret) is a small passerine bird in the finch family, Fringillidae. It is the smallest, brownest, and most streaked of the redpolls. It is sometimes classified as a subspecies of the common redpoll (Acanthis flammea) but has recently been split from that species by the British Ornithologists' Union. It is native to Europe and has been introduced to New Zealand. Many birds migrate further south in winter, but the mild climate means that it can be found all year round in much of its range, and may be joined by the other two redpoll species in winter. [more]

Genus Pyrrhula:
Eurasian bullfinch / Gimpel (Pyrrhula pyrrhula)
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Wikipedia Bullfinch male. Von © Francis C. Franklin / CC-BY-SA-3.0, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=37675952 Source: WIKIPEDIA
1 note call w slight dip? Song NABU 1 parakeet like puppy-dog whining, NABU 2 whistles, 2-syllable peek-a-boo, ...
Song: Song a quiet, modest mix of contact call and various chirping sounds, with peculiar harmonics. [Link]
Calls: Contact call a soft, full-bodied, descending, pure whistle; "peeuu". [Link]
Physical details: length=14-16 cm, wingspan=22-29 cm, weight=27-38 g

Genus Coccothraustes:
Hawfinch / Kernbeisser (Coccothraustes coccothraustes)
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Deutschland: Brut-, Jahres-, Zugvogel, Wintergast
Calls: Most typical call a sharp and explosive "tzek", with abrupt, emphasized, cut-off ending. Quite similar to Robin, but harder, with each syllable marginally longer with a slightly wheezing timbre. Repetitions are slower and more singular than Robin. Diagnostic when interspersed with high frequency notes. [Link]
Physical details: length=18 cm, wingspan=29-33 cm, weight=46-70 g

Genus Loxia:
Red crossbill / Fichtenkreuzschnabel (Loxia curvirostra)
Alternate classification: Loxia curvirostris
Also known as: Common crossbill
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Wikimedia Red Crossbills (Male). Source: WIKIPEDIA
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Forests with conifers. Some spend the winter in Switzerland, others are here year-round.
Appearance and identification: Nabu.de: das Männchen schon von weitem durch seine ziegelrote Farbe auf. Das Weibchen dagegen ist unscheinbar graugrün gefärbt.Größe: 15 bis 17 Zentimeter Zugtyp: Teilzieher Beobachtungszeitraum: Oktober bis April, im Mittelgebirge und Alpenraum ganzjährig. [Link]
New research suggests that there may be as many as eight different full species of Red Crossbills on [North America]. [Link]
Behavior: Wikipedia: a small passerine bird in the finch family Fringillidae, also known as the Common Crossbill in Eurasia. Crossbills have distinctive mandibles, crossed at the tips, which enable them to extract seeds from conifer cones and other fruits. [Link]
Song: The song consist of improvised, resonant twittering, and series of contact calls with no apparent phrases. It is generally faster, with less marked pauses than in Parrot Crossbill, and the phrasing seems more random. [Link]
Calls: Contact call similar to Parroy Crossbill's "tupp", but is on average higher and less powerful, with a "cut-off" ending. In sum: Parrot Crossbill; hard attack, soft ending, Crossbill: softer attack, cut-off ending. Beware regional variations and overlap in pitch of calls with Parrot. [Link]
Physical details: length=16 cm, wingspan=27-30 cm, weight=35-50 g

Song: Repeated hi-low pattern...well, doesn't always sound like that. The very short beginning of my Stazersee recording before the static sets in does, as well as a song found online. One recording reminds me of cicada sounds.
Song attributes: Melody: stereotype melodic, slow, Frequency: 2-10 KHz

Genus Spinus (Siskins):
Eurasian siskin / Erlenzeisig (Spinus spinus)
Alternate classification: Carduelis spinus
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Erlenzeisig bei Rapperswil. 2021-02-12 13.07.42 Rapperswil
Also lives in North America!
Song: Distinct calls and song. The contact call is also prominent in the improvised song. Other typical sounds in the song includes a peculiar wheeze, like someone sucking their teeth, and lots of expert mimicry. [Link]
Calls: Most often heard is the sharp and disyllabic contact call: "doo-lee", with both notes descending. Sometimes given a in monosyllabic manner "dlyy". [Link]
Physical details: length=12 cm, wingspan=20-23 cm, weight=11-18 g

Genus Chloris:
European greenfinch / Grünfink (Chloris chloris)
Alternate classification: Carduelis chloris
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Finally saw one in the birch tree on the Luppmen 2020-07-14 12.00.23 Luppmen
Vogelewarte.ch: Neben Haussperling und Amsel ist er einer der zahlreichsten Vögel der Städte und Dörfer. Ich habe Monate lang nur eins in Pfäffikon gehört, dann ein Schwarm im Fehraltorfer Industriegebiet. Endlich in Juli 2020 ist eine Gruppe zu uns gezogen und entweder im Birkenbaum oder hinter der Kinderkrippe zu hören gewesen. Im Birkenbaum habe ich endlich eins fotografieren können.
In Laubbäumen
Song: Song composed of various sequences of linked sounds, repeated in a vibrating manner; "trrrrrrrrr", "chechechecheche". Sometimes resembles Brambling when making the wheezy "rrrrrrrrr" sound, but differs in being harsher and by "pulling" the pitch downwards (or sometimes upwards) at the end. [Link]
Calls: Contact call a fairly resonant "chep-chep", resembling Redpoll, but less nasal and with a fuller tone. Also a sharp, drawn, ascending "kooeee", (perhaps not obviously recognized as a finch). [Link]
Physical details: length=15 cm, wingspan=24-27 cm, weight=17-34 g

Song: General: Sequence of 4-6 rhythmic elements at different pitches. A sort of trill is often start or end of the sequence, there are slides.
Song attributes: Melody: stereotype melodic, fast, Frequency: 2-7 KHz Special sounds: rasp, trill Singing season: 01-01 - 07-31 Dawn chorus start, 15 minutes before dawn.
Call: Raspy descending note
Call attributes: Call melody: one note, slow, Frequency: medium (1-5 KHz), Special sounds: swoop, rasp

Genus Linaria:
Eurasian linnet / Bluthänfling (Linaria cannabina)
Alternate classification: Carduelis cannabina
Also known as: Common linnet
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Wikipedia: Eurasian linnet
Deutschland: Brut-, Jahres-, Zugvogel, Wintergast RL V
Song: Song a varied, sweet stream of contact calls, mimicry and trills with a staccato feel. [Link]
Calls: Flight-call a quick and "bouncing" "gig-gig" or "tchett-tchett". Most often disyllabic utterances, while Twite seems to vary more the number of syllables. Tone harder and more bouncing. Most easily recognized by the frequently interwoven, disyllabic contact calls. [Link]
Physical details: length=13 cm, wingspan=21-25 cm, weight=15-22 g

Subfamily Emberizinae:
Tribe Emberizini:
Genus Emberiza (Buntings):
Common reed bunting / Rohrammer (Emberiza schoeniclus)
Alternate classification: Schoeniclus schoeniclus
Also known as: Reed bunting
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Eventuell Rohrammer, neben Pfaeffikersee. 2021-04-27 17.43.26 Pfäffikersee
General: The common reed bunting (Emberiza schoeniclus) is a passerine bird in the bunting family Emberizidae, a group now separated by most modern authors from the finches, Fringillidae. The genus name Emberiza is from Old German Embritz, a bunting. The specific schoeniclus is from Ancient Greek skhoiniklos, a now unknown waterside bird.[2] [more]
Song: Song variable between individuals and breeding status: A short sequence of 3-5 brittle and buzzing sounds, repeated consistently with marked pauses. Last sound in phrase often has a conclusive feel, but not always. Paired males sing slower than unpaired. Unpaired male song also more contracted, making the pauses between each phrase stand out. [Link]
Calls: Contact call a sharp, descending and drawn "tseeeoo". A bit similar to Yellow Wagtail, but not as sharp and explosive. In migration a thick, and unmusical "chong" is often heard. [Link]
Physical details: length=15-16 cm, wingspan=21-28 cm, weight=16-25 g

Yellowhammer / Goldammer (Emberiza citrinella)
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Goldammer am Aabach, Wetzikon. 2021-03-10 10.36.28 Wetzikon
Habe ihn im Fehraltorfer-Wald endlich gesehen als er von einem Baum in die Spitze eines anderen geflogen ist.
The English language Wikipedia page for bunting says: The genus name Emberiza is from Old German Embritz, a bunting.[6] The origin of the English "bunting" is unknown. I always though it makes little sense that these birds are Ammer in German and Hammer in English, though neither seems logical. Ammer is just a corruption of Embritz, and Hammer presumably a folk etymology - 'oh, this sounds a bit like hammer, let's call it that!'.
vogelwarte.ch says it prefers areas around agriculture: hedges, orchards, fields, meadows. Heard in the woods next to farmer's fields in Fehraltorf. (Weidholzweg, next farm is Tuschacher. The breast has a checkerd pattern apparently typical of buntings (Emberizidae), that to me resembles that of many thrushes - but this seems to be coincidence.
Song: Kurzes Liedchen. „ Wie wie wie hab ich dich liiieb“ Das „Lieb“ ist meist etwas tiefer, kann aber auch höher sein oder doppelt, dabei das eine höher und das andere tiefer. Sehr variabel! [Link]
Song a series of 6-8 (or more) slightly ascending "tze" 's, rising in volume and ending on a sustained note, which may be lower or higher than the others. Often rendered as "little-bit-of-cheese-and-no-bread". Last note is often omitted, which may lead to confusion with Cirl Bunting. Timbre with prominent harmonics as in other bunting songs. [Link]
Calls: „zick“ „zeck“ [Link]
Distinct contact call: A short and brittle "zeet", rich in harmonics. [Link]
Physical details: length=16 cm, wingspan=23-29 cm, weight=25-36 g

Song: High-pitched, two notes that sound like one, repeated 10-12 times, often followed by whistle that sounds higher to me but usually shows up on the sonogram as the same range. The mnemonic for the staccato song in German is: «Wie, wie, wie, wie hab ich dich lieb». See the image for dialects noted by yellowhammers.net - the most common Swiss dialect is said to be XlB, though I haven't been able to hear a higher note myself.
Song attributes: Melody: simple rhythmic, fast, Frequency: 4-8 KHz Singing season: year round Dawn chorus start, 45 minutes before dawn.

Cirl bunting / Zaunammer (Emberiza cirlus)
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Zaumammer in den Reben bei Maienfeld. 2021-05-29 08.48.26 Maienfeld
Als Anfänger, hätte ich gedacht, dies wäre eine Goldammer, da beide gelb mit braunen Details sind. Das Männchen ist eher gelb und hat was für mich wie drei brauen Streifen im Gesicht aussehen. Die Goldammer hat kaum braun am Kopf. Das Weibchen ist weniger gelb und mehr braun. Siehe BirdID für gute Bilder und Beschreibung der Erkennungsmerkmale.
BirdID says song like yellowhammer with no ending. I see what they mean - it's more like 16 or so repetitions of the same note, and no leap up to 'lieb' as in the German Goldammer mnemonic.
Song: Wie Goldammer, aber ohne das „lieb“.und etwas tiefer. Ähnlich Klappergrasmücke. [Link]
Song variable, but can generally be described as a Yellowhammer phrase with no ending, or an Arctic Warbler with bunting timbre. Tempo also variable, but rhythm always even. [Link]
Calls: Sehr ähnlich denen der obigen Art. [Link]
Alarm call a thin "tseeep", similar to Rock Bunting, but more drawn out. [Link]
Physical details: length=15 cm, wingspan=22-25 cm, weight=21-29 g

Ortolan bunting / Ortolan (Emberiza hortulana)
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Wikipedia: Ortolan bunting
Deutschland: Brut-, Zugvogel RL 3
Vocalization: Distinct bunting-like timbre with very prominent harmonics. [Link]
Song: Song simple, but varies from region to region. Sometimes structurally similar to yellowhammer, but slower, more melancholic, and with more clearly audible harmonics f.ex. "tze-ti tze-ti tze-ti tweeeee". Beginning with repeated alternating notes (tze-ti) and ending on a lower note fading out with a rising pitch. Sometimes without the ending note (like yellowhammer). [Link]
Calls: Calls: a vaguely House Sparrow-like "chepp", with a ringing quality, and a sharper cut-off "zeep". [Link]
Physical details: length=16-17 cm, wingspan=23-29 cm, weight=81-96 g

Corn bunting / Grauammer (Emberiza calandra)
Alternate classification: Miliaria calandra
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Wikipedia: Corn bunting
Deutschland: Brut-, Jahres-, Zugvogel, Wintergast RL 3
Vocalization: Repeated in a monotonous manner, to form a typical soundscape of fields where it is numerous. Often compared to the sound of a chain of small keys. The phrase starts with a few staccato, ticking sounds that progress into a dry trill, followed by a short ritardando. [Link]
Song: Song diagnostic. A brittle, jingling and accelerating phrase of about 2 seconds duration. [Link]
Calls: Calls with a dry "chep" or a brittle "vitt". [Link]
Physical details: length=17-18 cm, wingspan=26-32 cm, weight=35-63 g

Rock bunting / Zippammer (Emberiza cia)
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Wikipedia: Rock bunting
Deutschland: Brut-, Jahres-, Zugvogel RL 1
Song: Song variable, but usually distinct. [Link]
Calls: Recalls stuttering Dunnock. Jerky, uneven thythm and tempo, with fairly large register and recognizible bunting timbre. May include mimicry. Alarm call a thin, short "seeeep", with clipped ending, similar to Cirl Bunting. [Link]
Physical details: length=16 cm, wingspan=21-27 cm, weight=21-29 g

Genus Plectrophenax:
Snow bunting / Schneeammer (Plectrophenax nivalis)
Alternate classification: Calcarius nivalis
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Wikipedia: Snow bunting
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
Deutschland: Wintergast
Song: Song simple and melodic. 2-5 syllable motifs with fairly wide tonal range. Can be confused with Lapland Bunting, but is much purer in tone with a less jingling timbre. Local dialects. [Link]
Calls: Contact call a short, melodic and rapidly descending "peeuu". Often alternating with a rattling "trrreet". "Peeuu"-call quite similar to Lapland Bunting, but harder, purer in tone and less nasal. [Link]
Physical details: length=16-17 cm, wingspan=32-38 cm, weight=28-50 g

Family Motacillidae (Stelzenverwandte):
Genus Anthus:
Tree pipit / Baumpieper (Anthus trivialis)
Alternate classification: Alauda trivialis
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Wikipedia baumpieper Anthus trivialis. Von Vogelartinfo - Eigenes Werk, GFDL 1.2, Link Source: WIKIPEDIA
General: The tree pipit (Anthus trivialis) is a small passerine bird which breeds across most of Europe and the Palearctic as far East as the East Siberian Mountains. It is a long-distance migrant moving in winter to Africa and southern Asia. The scientific name is from Latin. Anthus is the name for a small bird of grasslands, and the specific trivialis means "common", from trivium, "public street".[2] [more]
Song: Mehrere unterschiedliche Tonreihen aneinandergefügt. Zuletzt „zia zia zia ziah“. Zuerst auf Baum sitzend, dann im Singflug, Zia-Rufe während Gleitflug (Fallschirmvogel) [Link]
Song characteristic. Starts with a series of Chaffinch-like "che-che-che" which gives way to long, descending, "ricocheting" whistling notes (especially at the end of song-flight). [Link]
Calls: “psiet“ etwas nach unten gezogen. Auch „zieh“ [Link]
Flight call a short buzzing "tzzzeet". Given at even pitch, and in a fuller tone than Red-Throated Pipit. [Link]
Physical details: length=15 cm, wingspan=25-27 cm, weight=18-29 g

Red-throated pipit / Rotkehlpieper (Anthus cervinus)
Alternate classification: Motacilla cervina
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Wikipedia: Red-throated pipit
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
General: The red-throated pipit (Anthus cervinus) is a small passerine bird which breeds in the far north of Europe and the Palearctic, with a foothold in northern Alaska. It is a long-distance migrant moving in winter to Africa, south and east Asia and west coast United States. It is a vagrant to western Europe. [more]

Tawny pipit / Brachpieper (Anthus campestris)
Alternate classification: Alauda campestris
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Wikipedia: Tawny pipit
Deutschland: Brut-, Zugvogel RL 1
Song: Song simple. Consists of three notes merged in a short, continuous and ringing "tsee-ro-ee", given every 1-2 seconds. Timbre is wagtail-like and intonation variable, but consistent in each song. Flight call similar in timbre, like a cross between Yellow Wagtail and House Sparrow (song). Thinner and more wagtail-like than Richard's Pipit. [Link]
Physical details: length=16 cm, wingspan=25-28 cm, weight=24-32 g

Meadow pipit / Wiesenpieper (Anthus pratensis)
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Wikipedia: Meadow pipit
Deutschland: Brut, Zugvogel, Wintergast RL V
Song: Song very similar to Rock Pipit, but tone less full and more brittle. Lacks Rock Pipit's closing trill, and beginning is less "hammering". [Link]
Calls: Contact call a short "eest". Similar to Rock Pipit but shorter,cleaner and most often in quick series. Warning call a sharp, high pitched "tzeet". Also a rattling "trrrrt". [Link]
Physical details: length=14 cm, wingspan=22-25 cm, weight=15-22 g

Water pipit / Bergpieper (Anthus spinoletta)
Alternate classification: Pipastes spinoletta
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Bergpieper, bin ich der Meinung, obwohl wir auch den Baump gesehen und gehört haben. 2021-06-27 05.38.28 Wildhaus
Deutschland: Zugvogel, Wintergast
Vocalization: Similar to Rock Pipit. [Link]
Song: Song slightly more melodious, often with Tree Pipit like glissandi at end of phrase. [Link]
Calls: Contact call sharper and more drawn. [Link]
Physical details: length=17 cm, wingspan=24-29 cm, weight=19-27 g

Genus Motacilla:
White wagtail / Bachstelze (Motacilla alba)
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White wagtail at edge of field near Mesikon 2020-04-25 07.21.02 Luppmen
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
General: The white wagtail (Motacilla alba) is a small passerine bird in the family Motacillidae, which also includes pipits and longclaws. The species breeds in much of Europe and the Asian Palearctic and parts of North Africa. It has a toehold in Alaska as a scarce breeder. It is resident in the mildest parts of its range, but otherwise migrates to Africa. In Ireland and Great Britain, the darker subspecies, the pied wagtail or water wagtail[2] (M. a. yarrellii) predominates. In total, there are between 9 and 11 subspecies. [more]
Song: Song either slow and primitive, consisting of sharp falling notes given by perched birds, or longer fast and energic bursts in excited song-flight. [Link]
Calls: Contact calls short and sharp. Usually with disyllabic, "bouncing" quality, and with each syllable only accented, not clearly separated from the other (see Grey Wagtail). [Link]
Physical details: length=18 cm, wingspan=25-30 cm, weight=17-25 g
Presence: 03-01 - 10-28

Grey wagtail / Gebirgsstelze (Motacilla cinerea)
Also known as: Gray wagtail
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Wikipedia: Grey wagtail
General: The grey wagtail (Motacilla cinerea) is a member of the wagtail family, Motacillidae, measuring around 18–19 cm overall length. The species looks somewhat similar to the yellow wagtail but has the yellow on its underside restricted to the throat and vent. Breeding males have a black throat. The species is widely distributed, with several populations breeding in Eurosiberia and migrating to tropical regions in Asia and Africa. The species is always associated with running water when breeding, although they may use man-made structures near streams for the nest. Outside the breeding season, they may also be seen around lakes, coasts and other watery habitats. Like other wagtails, they frequently wag their tail and fly low with undulations and they have a sharp call that is often given in flight. [more]
Song: Song simple but variable. Sometimes with more elaborate song-flight like White Wagtail. [Link]
Calls: Contact call short, metallic and with a clipped ending. Often disyllabic, "tzeet-tzeet", with each syllable more separated than in White Wagtail, and timbre more "dirty". Often starts with the contact call, followed by short melodic phrases. [Link]
Physical details: length=18-19 cm, wingspan=25-27 cm, weight=14-22 g

Western yellow wagtail / Wiesenschafstelze (Motacilla flava)
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Wikipedia: Western yellow wagtail
General: The western yellow wagtail (Motacilla flava) is a small passerine in the wagtail family Motacillidae, which also includes the pipits and longclaws. [more]
Song: Song primitive and less striking. Beware differences in calls and songs between different subspecies. [Link]
Calls: Contact call characteristic and widely used; a sharp, drawn out "pseeeoo" with an accented ending falling in pitch. A variable phrase with two or three notes resembling the contact call in timbre. [Link]
Physical details: length=17 cm, wingspan=23-27 cm, weight=14-21 g

Family Paridae (Titmice / Meisen):

Genus Parus:
Great tit / Kohlmeise (Parus major)
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Kohlmeise auf ast. 2020-04-13 10.29.27 Luppmen
Most common year-round bird at our house. Often seen at the suet balls we hang out, or in fall at our sunflowers. It's said that they will sound a false alarm at a feeding source, knowing that other birds listen for their alarms and flee! There are many entertaining stories in the Norwegian book 'The Secret Life of Small Birds'.
It's a favorite food of the Eurasian sparrowhawk, though I'm sure cats are the greater danger.
They flit from tree to tree in small scattered groups, and often avail themselves of the seeds on our sunflowers. They can be heard on the Luppman in Fehraltorf at any time of year and day.
Etymology: (Conrad) Gessner also notes that the coal tit was known as Kohlmeiß in German – the literal equivalent of its English name, though in its modern orthography Kohlmeise it refers to the great tit (Parus major). That bird was in Gessner's day usually called Spiegelmeiß ("multicoloured tit"[5]), Brandtmeiß ("burnt tit") or grosse Meiß ("great tit") in German. [Link]
Behavior: 'Studies in Europe on tits showed a 2-way doubly asymmetric interaction: the great tit (Parus major) is dominant over the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) during the nonbreeding season (Haftorn 1993), and the smaller blue tit is competitively dominant during the breeding season (Dhondt 1989).' Another cited work notes that the coal tit is considered the bottom of the hierarchy in Scandinavia. [Interspecific dominance relationships and hybridization between black-capped and mountain chickadees | Behavioral Ecology]
Like all tits it is a cavity nester, usually nesting in a hole in a tree. [Link]
Sie lernen voneinander und sogar von den verwandten Blaumeisen und finden neue Nahrungsquellen. Aber sie merken es sich auch, wenn sie sehen das andere Vögel etwas fressen, was ihnen nicht zukömmlich ist. [Schlaue Kohlmeisen gucken voneinander ab]
Song: Song highly variable, but usually consisting of two to three notes repeated in a motif. Same birds have many different motifs but generally repeat them many times before switching. Identified by its timbre and often metallic resonant quality, more than by actual phrasing (which is very variable). Often includes buzzing sounds in song. [Link]
Calls: Generally more full-bodied and resonant calls than blue tit, and not so high-pitched. Characteristic Chaffinch-like "tink tink tink" often uttered by male. [Link]
Physical details: length=14 cm, wingspan=22-25 cm, weight=14-22 g

Song: Said to have a repertoire as a species of 50 or more different songs, albeit simple ones, up to 10 per individual. Females prefer a male with a large repertoire. One two-note song sounds like a squeaky bed.
Song attributes: Melody: simple rhythmic, slow, Frequency: medium (1-5 KHz) Singing season: 01-01 - 06-30 Dawn chorus start, 30 minutes before dawn.
Call: Chuck-a-chuck-a-chuck, sometimes preceded by higher 'wheat!'
Call from Xeno-Canto

Call from Xeno-Canto Illustrates higher 'wheat' before the 'chuck-a-chuck' Source: XENOCANTO (call)

Call from Xeno-Canto

Call from Xeno-Canto Source: XENOCANTO (call)


Call attributes: Call melody: simple rhythmic, fast, Frequency: 1-7 KHz,

Willow tit / Weidenmeise (Parus montanus)
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Wikipedia: Willow tit
General: Parus montanus [more]

Genus Lophophanes:
European crested tit / Haubenmeise (Lophophanes cristatus)
Alternate classification: Parus cristatus
Also known as: Crested tit
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Wikipedia - Haubenmeise - Lophophanes cristatus - 01 - Carlos Delgado. Source: WIKIPEDIA
The European crested tit, or simply crested tit (Lophophanes cristatus) (formerly Parus cristatus), is a passerine bird in the tit family Paridae. It is a widespread and common resident breeder in coniferous forests throughout central and northern Europe and in deciduous woodland in France and the Iberian peninsula. In Great Britain, it is chiefly restricted to the ancient pinewoods of Inverness and Strathspey in Scotland, and seldom strays far from its haunts. A few vagrant crested tits have been seen in England. It is resident, and most individuals do not migrate. [more]
Gesehen nah bei Pragelpasshöhe, zusammen mit Tannenmeisen, Haubenmeisen und Sommergoldhähnchen
Song: Song: an improvisation over previously described calls. [Link]
Calls: Call a characteristic vibrating rolling trill "Trrrrurrrurrrit", with last syllable emphasized and ending with ascending pitch. Often preceded by a couple of introductory "tzi tzi". [Link]
Physical details: length=11 cm, wingspan=17-20 cm, weight=10-13 g

Song: Higher-pitched than great tit - how distinguish from coal tit, etc?
Song attributes: Melody: simple rhythmic, fast, Frequency: high (3-9 KHz) Special sounds: slur

Genus Cyanistes:
Eurasian blue tit / Blaumeise (Cyanistes caeruleus)
Alternate classification: Parus caeruleus
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Erste Blaumeise aufgenommen in Fehraltorf Ich hatte sie lange gehoert aber als Kohlmeise miserkannt (es ist oft aehnlich und ich war Anfaenger. Dann habe ich diesen auf einem Baum gesehen, und es wurde klar, dass sie wirklich auch bei uns leben. 2020-04-15 19.12.31 Luppmen
Ich habe das erste mal eine Blaumeise bei uns daheim erkannt in April 2020, eine junge erst Juni 2020, und den Unterschied zwischen Jugendkleid und Schlicht/Prachtkleid erst in Juli 2021 kennengelertn.
In How to be a Bad Birdwatcher, Simon Barnes nicely explains hierarchies in feeding groups and how niches prevent blue tits from being starved by the larger, more dominant great tits. Normally they forage differently, he says, and at feeders it's simply clear to both that the great tit goes first. However in May 2021, we watched a blue tit repeatedly chase off a great tit that landed at the feeder where he was already enjoying some sunflower seeds! There are always exceptions to the rules!
Song: Song: Characteristic, clear, high-pitched, vibrating call. Usually introduced by a couple of accenting syllables, followed by ringing vibrating notes: "ti ti chuhuhuhuhuhuhuhuhuhu". [Link]
Calls: Scolding alarm call: "tee-tee-tee-chirruwitt" similar to Great Tit. [Link]
Physical details: length=11 cm, wingspan=17-20 cm, weight=9-12 g
Social groups can include up to 12 members. Can appear in social groups with other species: Great tit.

Song: High-pitched, often descending, occasionally ascending.
Song attributes: Melody: simple rhythmic, slow, Frequency: 3-9 KHz Special sounds: trill Singing season: 01-01 - 06-30 Dawn chorus start, 35 minutes before dawn.
Call: Low-high-high, with lightly raspy start, rather high. Christina compares it to a tennis ball - that might be a different call?
Call attributes: Call melody: simple rhythmic, slow, Frequency: high (3-9 KHz),

Genus Poecile:
Marsh tit / Sumpfmeise (Poecile palustris)
Alternate classification: Parus palustris
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Photographed on the Luppmen in September 2019 I didn't recognize it then but I'm pretty sure now. 2019-09-22 18.45.30 Luppmen
I've seen these twice at the Luppmen or our house, and once by Mesikon. BirdNet suggested a Wiesenmeise, but those are rare here and Sumpfmeisen not uncommon according to BirdLife Zurich
Etymology: Auch Nonnenmeise genannt - weil es auch eine Moenchmeise gibt? [Link]
Vocalization: Most easily identified by sound. Especially in areas where plumage is less distinct compared to Willow Tit, like in Britain. [Link]
Song: Klapperlied. Reihe (6-8) weich angeschlagene Töne mittlerer Höhe. Ähnlich der Klappergrasmücke aber weicher. (Sumpf ist weich) Oft auch Rufe wie „psja“ zu hören. Ziemlich scharf u. gepresst. [Link]
Song: A simple one or two note call repeated in series. Usually rising slightly in pitch, and with a "liquid" quality. Sometimes also a ringing, vibrating song. Generally has a much sharper tone than the soft song of willow tit. [Link]
Calls: Most typical call an explosive, sneeze-like "pee-choo", starting high-pitched and ending on a lower note.

Error loading Flash for sound!
See sound file


Also calls "chaa chaa chaa" but not so nasal and drawn-out as willow tit. Other calls: Various high pitched sound. Often quite explosive.
Error loading Flash for sound!
See sound file


.
[Link]
Physical details: length=11 cm, wingspan=18-19 cm, weight=10-13 g

Song: Higher-pitched than great tit, sometimes repetitive 1- and 2-note tunes like them, sometimes simple melodies, usually pure, sometimes chirpy or raspy.
Song attributes: Melody: simple rhythmic, fast, Frequency: 2-10 KHz
Call: Falling note, relatively long, sometimes repeated
Call from Xeno-Canto

Call from Xeno-Canto Source: XENOCANTO (call)

'Swooping' call on the Luppmen

'Swooping' call on the Luppmen Chiffchaff calls go up, marsh tit calls down! Source: BirdNet 2020-10-21 08.38.51 Luppmen (call)

Call attributes: Call melody: one note, slow, Frequency: 6-9 KHz, Special sounds: swoop

Genus Periparus:
Coal tit / Tannenmeise (Periparus ater)
Alternate classification: Parus ater
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Coal tit in Wikipedia. Source: WIKIPEDIA
Periparus ater at Xeno-Canto - a small classification fight
Etymology: The German Wikipedia page says 'ater' from the genus 'Periparus ater' is Latin for 'düster' meaning dark or even gloomy. [Link]
In German the name means fir tit - so obviously found in woods with many firs [Link]
Appearance and identification: Nabu: Mit ihrem schwarzen Kopf und den weißen Wangen erinnert sie an eine kleine Kohlmeise, jedoch ist die Unterseite der Tannenmeise eher beige statt gelb, und ihr fehlt der dunkle Längsstreifen an der Unterseite. [Link]
Song: Song: Various repeated motifs, consisting of two to three notes with alternating accents. Slightly similar to Great Tit, but faster, not so metallic and with a less full tone. Can be mistaken for Marsh Tit when singing single or double notes, but tone is softer and notes more clearly separated (if disyllabic). [Link]
Calls: Call: short soft and clear "piu", first rapidly rising and then falling in pitch. [Link]
Physical details: length=11 cm, wingspan=17-21 cm, weight=8-10 g

Song: Higher-pitched than great tit, with more slurs instead of pure notes. Usually 2 or 3 notes in varied order. To me it seems they have a repertoire of songs, like their 'big brothers', the great tits.
Song attributes: Melody: simple rhythmic, fast, Frequency: 3-9 KHz Special sounds: slur
Call: Analyze stuff at XC vs my BirdNet 962 - several notes, not sure if all coal tit as BirdNet suggested. XC has two-note high-low alarm call but simple song-like calls too
Call attributes: Call melody: simple rhythmic, slow, Frequency: high (3-9 KHz),

Genus Remiz:
Eurasian penduline-tit / Beutelmeise (Remiz pendulinus)
Also known as: Eurasian penduline tit
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Wikipedia: Eurasian penduline-tit
Deutschland: Brut-, Zugvogel
Calls: Call a sharp clear high pitched whistle "pju-eee-uu", with the middle part accented and with a raised pitch Or just an all descending whistle "pjuuuuuuu". [Link]
Physical details: length=11 cm, wingspan=16-17 cm, weight=8-10 g

Family Sturnidae (Starlings / Stare):

Genus Sturnus:
Common starling / Star (Sturnus vulgaris)
Also known as: European starling
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Im richtigen Licht schimmern die Federn. 2020-04-11 07.54.52 Luppmen
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America (introduced), Africa.
In trees or in the fields by the cows.
Frequently seen here, for instance by their nests under the eaves of one of the Toblerone houses. Introduced to North America from Europe by Eugene Schieffelin.
Eine der Vogelarten, die gleichzeitig zwei Töne singen kann!
Vocalization: Among the best of imitators. Mimics birds, animals and mechanical noises. Often makes several sounds at the same time. [Link]
Song: Song a highly varied mix of falling whistles, bill-clappering and various masterful mimicry. [Link]
Calls: Other calls; a harsh "chaee" and a short sharp "tink". [Link]
Physical details: length=21 cm, wingspan=37-42 cm, weight=60-90 g

Song: I find their individual song amusing, with its (long) whoops and weird noises. As a group, they're just noisy!
Song attributes: Melody: improvised melodic, slow, Frequency: medium (1-5 KHz) Special sounds: mimicry, whoop, weird Singing season: 01-01 - 09-30 Dawn chorus start, 15 minutes before dawn.
Call: I hear this occasionally and really enjoy it - a long rising 'whoop', as I call it', starting low at 1 1/2 KHz and rising to 6 1/2 KHz!

♫ Source: BirdNet 2021-08-23 17.26.09 Fehraltorf (call)

Call attributes: Call melody: one note, slow, Frequency: 1-6 KHz, Special sounds: whoop

Family Turdidae (Thrushes / Drosseln):

Genus Turdus:
Common blackbird / Amsel (Turdus merula)
Also known as: Eurasian blackbird
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Amsel bei friedliweid. 2020-04-13 10.28.42 Friedliweid
The first bird I loved listening to
Song: Melodisch flötend dazwischen auch zerquetschte Töne. Die Elemente werden nicht wiederholt. Singt von Singwarte aus. Ca. 100 verschiedene Strophentypen. [Link]
One of the most appreciated song birds. Very melodious and resonant, with long mellow notes and a large register. Less high pitched sounds than Song Thrush, and seldom repeats a phrase. Timbre fuller than both Song Thrush and Mistle Thrush. Well defined pauses between phrases, giving the song a relaxed pace. [Link]
Calls: Je nach Situation, „duck duck duck“, „tix-tix-tix“ in rascher Folge, „srieh“ (auch als Flugwarnruf) [Link]
Large repertoire of calls. Most characteristic is a hysterical rattle often given when flushed. Sometimes preceded by a hard "tok tok", which then accelerates into a panicky arpeggio-like crescendo. Contact call a thin redwing-like "srrreee". Alarm calls: a sharp "tink, tink" or a very high pitch falling whistle. [Link]
Physical details: length=24-25 cm, wingspan=34-38 cm, weight=80-125 g

Song: Other: Gut zu erkennen ist die Amsel. Sie singt melodiös, erklärt Heller, «zuerst flötend und dann gegen Schluss so schnirpslig». Die Amsel singe gerne dort, wo sie gut gehört werde, etwa vor Hauswänden, die den Schall nicht schlucken. Ich wollte schauen was schnirpslig heisst, aber diese ist diese einzige Verwendung, die Google kennt! Der flötende Teil ist relativ tief, 1.5-3 KHz, der schnirpslige aber 2.5-7 KHz. (Schnirpslig ist ein schones Wort das der Redner erfunden hat - Google findet nur diese eine Webseite mit dem Wort!) [Von der SRF Webseite:]
Song attributes: Melody: improvised melodic, slow, Frequency: 1-7 KHz Special sounds: flourish Singing season: 02-01 - 07-31 Dawn chorus start, 45 minutes before dawn.
Call: Loud falling series of notes, unlike anything else you hear from a blackbird
Call attributes: alarm call Call melody: simple rhythmic, slow, Frequency: medium (1-5 KHz),

Song thrush / Singdrossel (Turdus philomelos)
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Singdrossel Isle de Brehat, Brittany. 2019-06-16 15.35.33 Île-de-Bréhat
General: The song thrush (Turdus philomelos) is a thrush that breeds across the West Palearctic. It has brown upper-parts and black-spotted cream or buff underparts and has three recognised subspecies. Its distinctive song, which has repeated musical phrases, has frequently been referred to in poetry. [more]
Vocalization: Very melodious, varied and a master imitator. Still easily distinguished by its tendency to repeat introductory motives two or more times, and its many high pitched themes. Each phrase is loud and penetrating and the tempo deliberate. [Link]
Song: Klangfarbe ähnlich obiger Art, aber jedes Element 2-4mal wiederholt, Pausen zwischen den Phrasen.(klingt oft wie „Philipp“, oder „Judith“) Einzige Drossel unseres Gebietes die diese Wiederholungen macht. Singt oft nicht von Baumspitze aus, sondern aus dem Geäst. [Link]
Calls: Rufe :“zipp“, oft beim abfliegen. [Link]
Most heard (but easily overlooked) contact call is a dry and very short "zip", sometimes given as a two syllable call "zip-ip". [Link]
Physical details: length=23 cm, wingspan=33-36 cm, weight=65-100 g

Song: Paced like a blackbird, humorous mix of elements like a nightingale. Huge range, elements from 2-5 KHz, others 6.5-9 KHz
Song attributes: Melody: improvised melodic, slow, Frequency: 2-9 KHz Special sounds: swoop, repetitions Singing season: 02-01 - 07-31 Dawn chorus start, 60 minutes before dawn.
Call: One or two high chirps followed by long pause of 1-2 seconds
Call attributes: contact call Call melody: one note, slow, Frequency: 7-10 KHz, Special sounds: repetitions

Redwing / Rotdrossel (Turdus iliacus)
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Rotdrossel in einem baum neben dem Luppmen, rot unter den Fluegeln gut erkennbar, auch weisser Ueberaugenstreif. 2020-12-30 10.33.36 Luppmen
In Switzerland these are migrants or winter guests that breed in Scandinavia. I saw a group that landed in a tree by the Luppmen. Some sang an odd song that I didn't recognize but unfortunately couldn't record. They were rather nervous and quickly flew off.
I had an interesting educational experience with fieldfares! At the end of December 2020 I saw redwings in Fehraltorf for the first time. They're a winter guest that breeds in Scandinavia. Jan 2021 I saw one from our dining room window, and two days later saw 31 of them land in four trees along the Luppmen brook, and spontaneously decided to report them via the eBird app. The next day I got an automated response saying this was an unusually high number, and that I should document the sighting further. I added pictures of the group in the trees pus one of an individual close up. Then I got a nice e-mail from eBird volunteer Raphaël Nussbaumer, an Earth Science PhD and postdoc at the Swiss Ornithological Institute, saying that my redwings were fieldfares. I checked the guide books and apps, and that seemed plausible. I was surprised that none of them mentioned the danger of confusing the two, which are actually quite similar (and related). I checked the closeup I took on December 31 and asked Raphaël if it was actually a redwing, and he confirmed it. So I actually found two (to me) new thrushes within 3 weeks. He noted 'they are often found mixed with fieldfare or mistle thrush, so one has to be careful to check the entire group and not assume that all are redwings. I saw 8 similar looking birds when I saw the actual redwing, and while I think there's more than one redwing there, I can't see the whole flock well enough to be sure.
Appearance and identification: Vogelwarte.ch describes just what I saw. In translation, somewhat smaller than a song thrush and distinguishable from them by the prominent white stripe above the eye and the rust-red feathers under the wings. [Link]
Geography: Nabu: 'Die ursprüngliche Heimat dieser nordischen Drossel ist die Sibirische Taiga. Vor etwa 200 Jahren begann ihre Ausbreitung in den südwestlichen Raum Europas.'Wie der Misteldrossel vertreibt der Wacholderdrossel Feinde wie Elster, Rabenkrähe oder Bussard vom Nestgebiet mit Kotbomben. ['Die Wacholderdrossel - Turdus pilaris Ein Wintergast wird heimisch', von Paul Laakmann aus Buntspecht 3/1986]
Vocalization: First a simple, melodic phrase of 3 - 6 notes, usually followed by a more silent, indistinct, fast and less melodic, chattering sequence. First part highly variable from place to place, but constant in individuals. Often causes confusion when a new dialect is heard at a distance, since only the first part is far-reaching, and the diagnostic two-part structure gets lost. [Link]
Song: Song delivered in two parts. [Link]
Calls: Contact call a thin, drawn and sharp "sreee". Often heard at night during migration. Alarm call harder, dryer and more raucous than other thrushes. [Link]
Physical details: length=21 cm, wingspan=33-34 cm, weight=50-75 g

Mistle thrush / Misteldrossel (Turdus viscivorus)
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Misteldrossel. 2020-05-07 12.56.02 Hungerseeli
After a long outing in the woods with no 'new' discoveries where I hoped there might be, I followed a woodpecker-like rattle deep into the woods, and eventually managed a clear view of a mistle thrush (German Misteldrossel) while standing directly under the tree where I heard it. I believe it was a pair, but I only got a picture of one. The breast has that checkerboard look that thrushes have.
I initially saw them in the woods but later by Neschwil they came out of the woods into the fields to feed.
Song: Gesang ähnlich dem der Amsel, aber weniger abwechslungsreich und melancholisch, fast weinerlich klingend. Meist von Tannenspitze aus. [Link]
Song loud, far reaching and melodic. Most similar to Blackbird, but pitch is higher, phrases shorter (3-6 notes) and most notably, pauses between phrases are much shorter. All which gives the song a much more hurried feel than that of the Blackbird. Timbre is thinner and slightly shivering, and tonal range more limited. May have recurring favourite motifs, but does not repeat phrases like Song Thrush. Sometimes adds higher pitched parts and imitations. [Link]
Calls: Rufe:schnarrend „kerr“, daneben „tück-tück-tück“ [Link]
Other calls; a dry rattle, likened to the sound of a piece of wood drawn over a coarse comb, and a Fieldfare-like "chuck". [Link]
Physical details: length=27 cm, wingspan=42-47 cm, weight=100-150 g

Song: General: I mistook this one for a woodpecker the first time I heard it, partly because BirdNet also did! Rattle generated in vocal tract, not with the beak!
Song attributes: Melody: non-musical, fast, Frequency: 2-9 KHz Special sounds: rattle

Fieldfare / Wacholderdrossel (Turdus pilaris)
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Wacholderdrossel am Luppmen in Fehraltorf 2021-01-16 14.28.10
I had an interesting educational experience with fieldfares! Check it out under Redwing.
Appearance and identification: The fieldfare is 25 cm (10 in) long, with a grey crown, neck and rump, a plain brown back, dark wings and tail and white underwings. [Link]
Behavior: Misteldrossel greifen Voegel an die ihr Nest bedrohen koennten. Das nennt man eine Kopropolemische Reaktion - vom griechischen für Kot under Krieg. Mester meint Hauptziel der Angriffe waere meistens der Kopf. Woanders wurde erwahnt, dass der Kot der Misteldrosseln besonders klebrig ist, eben weil der Vogel viele Mistelbeeren frisst, und wenn die Feder zusammenkleben, koennt das Opfer nicht optimal fliegen. [Artikel 'Defensive Defaekation in der Vogelwelt' von Horst Mester, erschienen Oktober 1976 in 'Der Ornithologische Beobachter']
Vocalization: Very vocal. [Link]
Song: Gesang nicht melodisch,aus gepressten, quietschenden Tönen bestehend, fast nur im Flug vorgetragen. [Link]
Song a mix of dry contact calls; "trrrt trrrrt", and high pitched, drawn out, chattering improvisations. [Link]
Calls: Schackernd, ähnlich obiger Art, aber weicher. Am Brutplatz raue krächzende Rufe. [Link]
Scolding call a hard "check", often given in decelerating series. Contact call in migration a soft, pleasant but, buzzy "weet". Typically bursts into continuos, squeaky chattering at takeoff. [Link]
Physical details: length=25 cm, wingspan=39-42 cm, weight=80-120 g

Ring ouzel / Ringdrossel (Turdus torquatus)
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Ringdrossel bei der Bergstation, Gamsalp. 2021-06-27 03.25.30 Wildhaus
Deutschland: Brut-, Zugvogel
Song: Song a primitive, plaintive series of short phrases. Often with only one or two syllables. Interspersed with eerie, higher pitched sounds, reminiscent of Song Thrush. [Link]
Calls: Alarm call a series of "chok-chok". Thicker and more resonant than Redwing. [Link]
Physical details: length=23-24 cm, wingspan=38-42 cm, weight=92-138 g

Genus Erithacus:
European robin / Rotkehlchen (Erithacus rubecula)
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Rotkehlchen. 2020-04-02 09.39.00 Luppmen
Red face and breast, light colored belly, brown and gray back and wings.
Singing in a tree, searching for food on the ground.
Song: Song medium to very high pitched, with mostly clear tones with a liquid quality. Timbre reminiscent of Wren or Dunnock, but with a much more varied structure and tempo. Pitch ranges from very high to low, almost thrush-like, notes. No recognizable motifs. Often ends on a rising or falling pitch, giving it a "Chinese" accent. [Link]
Calls: Alarm call a thin, electric "tick", often in series with decelerating tempo. [Link]
Physical details: length=14 cm, wingspan=20-22 cm, weight=14-21 g

Song: General: High pitched but also going low, e.g. 2.9-7.7 KHz.
Song: Only for a short period in late summer while they are moulting and inconspicuous do robins stop singing. Both sexes sing. [RSPB article]
Song attributes: Melody: improvised melodic, fast, Frequency: high (3-9 KHz) Special sounds: fluting Singing season: 02-01 - 07-31 Only pauses singing while molting and thus endangered. Dawn chorus start, 50 minutes before dawn.
Calls: 1: "ticking call", "tik", "tek", . Personal: A single note usually repeated twice. Somewhat sputtery. BirdID refers to 'a thin, electric "tick". In one source said to be used as alarm call.
Call: A variety of calls is also made at any time of year, including a ticking note indicating anxiety or mild alarm. [Link]
I heard 3 or 4 scattered birds calling it in woods with underbrush but saw no birds. BirdNet told me they were robins, which I found hard to believe, but on comparing it with recordings at XenoCanto, I was convinced! Maybe they were telling each other "Don't show yourself to that alarming guy!".

I heard 3 or 4 scattered birds calling it in woods with underbrush but saw no birds. BirdNet told me they were robins, which I found hard to believe, but on comparing it with recordings at XenoCanto, I was convinced! Maybe they were telling each other "Don't show yourself to that alarming guy!". 2021-07-03 08.05.14 (call)

2: "srii". Low chirpy to sputtery monotone
Xeno-Canto recording by Stanislas Wroza noted as 'srii' call

Xeno-Canto recording by Stanislas Wroza noted as 'srii' call Source: XENOCANTO (call)


3: "tsii". General: A longer falling note (9Khz-7Khz) called a tsii by the recordist.
Call: Sound Approach: If you listen carefully you may notice that in the daytime, apart from the ubiquitous tik call, Robins also give a shrill tsi rather frequently. It is this tsi that they adapt for use as a nocturnal flight call. Nfc=night flight call. [Link]
In the sonogram it's a longer, falling note.

In the sonogram it's a longer, falling note. Source: XENOCANTO (call)


4: Here is an audio of a high-pitched hawk call (7.5-8.5 KHz). See also a YouTube video comparing ground threats from aerial threats.

♫ Source: XENOCANTO (alarm call)

Call attributes: Call melody: one note, slow, Frequency: 4-9 KHz, Special sounds: sputter/pebble-clatter

Genus Monticola:
Blue rock-thrush / Blaumerle (Monticola solitarius)
Alternate classification: Monticola solitaria
Also known as: Blue rock thrush
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Wikipedia: Blue rock-thrush
General: The blue rock thrush (Monticola solitarius) is a species of chat. This thrush-like Old World flycatcher was formerly placed in the family Turdidae. It breeds in southern Europe, northwest Africa, and from Central Asia to northern China and Malaysia. The blue rock thrush is the official national bird of Malta and was shown on the Lm 1 coins that were part of the country's former currency. [more]

Common rock thrush / Steinrötel (Monticola saxatilis)
Also known as: Rufous-tailed rock-thrush
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Wikipedia: Common rock thrush
The common rock thrush (Monticola saxatilis),[2] also known as rufous-tailed rock thrush or simply rock thrush, is a chat belonging to the family Muscicapidae. It was formerly placed in the family Turdidae. The scientific name is from Latin. Monticola is from mons, montis "mountain", and colere, "to dwell", and saxatilis means "rock-frequenting", from saxum, "stone" .[3] [more]

Genus Luscinia:
Common nightingale / Nachtigall (Luscinia megarhynchos)
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Luscinia megarhynchos - common nightingale in Wikipedia. Source: WIKIPEDIA
The common nightingale, rufous nightingale or simply nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos), is a small passerine bird best known for its powerful and beautiful song. It was formerly classed as a member of the thrush family Turdidae, but is now more generally considered to be an Old World flycatcher, Muscicapidae.[2] It belongs to a group of more terrestrial species, often called chats. [more]
Vocalization: It consists of extremely resonant, full-bodied notes and lacks the, dry, rolling, rattling sounds of T.N. Most distinct species specific sound is the interwoven series of slightly ascending, plaintive notes (0.04 - 0.10 in recording). May mimic Thrush Nightningale!. [Link]
Song: The song is the best characteristic to separate it from T. Nightingale. [Link]
Calls: Alarm call either a thin, flycatcher-like "weeet", or a Chiff-chaff-like "piuu". Also a characteristic (but similar to Thrush Nighitingale) dry, rattling, frog-like "rrrrr". [Link]
Physical details: length=16 cm, wingspan=23-26 cm, weight=17-24 g

Song: Can be a sequence of unrelated weird but musical sounds - trills, churrs, human-like whistles - very amusing.
Song attributes: Melody: improvised melodic, slow, Frequency: medium (1-5 KHz) Special sounds: whoop, weird, repetitions, trill Singing season: 04-15 - 06-30

Bluethroat / Blaukehlchen (Luscinia svecica)
Alternate classification: Erithacus svecius
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Wikipedia: Bluethroat
Deutschland: Brut-, Zugvogel seit 2016 nicht mehr auf der Vorwarnliste
Song: Song: Structure slightly similar to Nightingale, but tone much thinner and less full-bodied. A good impersonator and various imitations are interwoven among metallic, ringing sounds to form a complex, intriguing song. [Link]
Calls: Call: "pju-check". Double syllable starting as a descending whistle, and ending on a short "check". [Link]
Physical details: length=14 cm, wingspan=20-22 cm, weight=15-25 g

Family Muscicapidae (Old world flycatchers / Schnäpperverwandte):

Genus Ficedula:
Collared flycatcher / Halsbandschnäpper (Ficedula albicollis)
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Wikipedia: Collared flycatcher
General: The collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) is a small passerine bird in the Old World flycatcher family, one of the four species of Western Palearctic black-and-white flycatchers. It breeds in southeast Europe (isolated populations are present in the islands of Gotland and Öland in the Baltic Sea, Sweden) and Eastern France to the Balkan Peninsula and Ukraine and is migratory, wintering in sub Sahara Africa.[2] It is a rare vagrant in western Europe. [more]

European pied flycatcher / Trauerschnäpper (Ficedula hypoleuca)
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Trauerschnaepper. 2021-05-04 09.33.06 Flachsee am Reuss
The European pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) is a small passerine bird in the Old World flycatcher family. One of the four species of Western Palearctic black-and-white flycatchers, it hybridizes to a limited extent with the collared flycatcher.[2] It breeds in most of Europe and across the Western Palearctic. It is migratory, wintering mainly in tropical Africa.[1][3] It usually builds its nests in holes on oak trees.[4] This species practices polygyny, usually bigamy, with the male travelling large distances to acquire a second mate. The male will mate with the secondary female and then return to the primary female in order to help with aspects of child rearing, such as feeding.[2][5] [more]
Song: Song a pleasant, tuneful, simple but varied phrase. [Link]
Calls: Alarm call a sharp, energetic "wit", often in combination with a short "tic"; "whit-tic". Typically starts with disyllabic notes being repeated 3-5 times, diminishing in pitch and intensity like an echo of the first two syllables. Occasionally throws in a quick diagnostic ascending scale excercise. Clear notes and well defined pauses between phrases. [Link]
Physical details: length=13 cm, wingspan=21-24 cm, weight=10-15 g

Genus Muscicapa:
Spotted flycatcher / Grauschnäpper (Muscicapa striata)
Alternate classification: Motacilla striata
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In a pinch barbed wire will do instead of a tree branch. Source: WIKIPEDIA
Heard in woods near Staldenweiher. Has streaks on crown and breast, rather than spots. Medium brown on head and back, light colored belly. 'Pincette-shaped beak'.
Perches on limbs in forest to swoop for insects and return to perch, specifically heard in woods near Staldenweiher.
Song: Song a primitive, slow series of various buzzing and very high pitched sounds. No recurring phrases. [Link]
Calls: The discreet calls often goes unnoticed. Most calls high pitched with a buzzing, "electric" timbre. Alarm call a sharp, drawn "tzreeeee-check", with the second syllable abruptly clipping the sound. [Link]
Physical details: length=14 cm, wingspan=23-25 cm, weight=14-20 g

Song: High (6-8 KHz?) short sound repeated every half to 5 seconds.
Song attributes: Melody: simple rhythmic, slow, Frequency: 6-8 KHz
Call: General: To me something between a one-note and an extremely simple melody, namely med-med chk-hi-med-med, with a very irregular speed, not at all like a metronome.
Call: Most calls high pitched with a buzzing, "electric" timbre. [Link]
Sounds similar to what I know.

Sounds similar to what I know. Source: XENOCANTO (call)


Call attributes: Call melody: stereotype melodic, slow, Frequency: 4-7 KHz,

Genus Saxicola:
Stonechat / Schwarzkehlchen (Saxicola rubicola)
Alternate classification: Saxicola torquata rubicola
Also known as: European stonechat, Europäisches Schwarzkehlchen
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Schwarzkehlchen, Pfaeffikersee. 2021-04-27 16.49.48 Am Aabach (Robenhausen)
Etymology: Nabu: Der wissenschaftlich Name „rubicola“ bedeutet „Brombeerstrauch-Bewohner“. Einzelne Sträucher auf einer sonst offenen Fläche fliegt das Schwarzkehlchen gerne an. [Link]
They breed in heathland, coastal dunes and rough grassland with scattered small shrubs and bramble, open gorse, tussocks or heather. [Link]
Song: Gesang ähnlich obiger Art. Reine und kratzende Laute abwechselnd, wellenförmig [Link]
The song is a sweet stream of scratchy notes. Much more even, and less chattering than the Whinchat. Almost like a short and scratchy Dunnock phrase. [Link]
Calls: hart „track“ oder „fiet-track-track“ [Link]
Alarm call an alternation of a high-pitched "weet" and a hard "check", like other chats. The "weet" is much higher pitched than the similar call of Whinchat, and Stonechat repeats the "check" more frequently. [Link]
Physical details: length=12 cm, wingspan=18-21 cm, weight=13-17 g

Whinchat / Braunkehlchen (Saxicola rubetra)
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Mysterium im Rapsfeld von Friedliweid 2020-04-27 11.29.08 Luppmen
Die bauen ein Nest auf dem Boden auf einer Wiese oder Feld und brauchen relativ lang bis die Jungen flugge sind, darum hoffe ich, dass sie weitergezogen sind. Da Felder selten so lang ungestört bleiben im Mittelland, sind sie immer mehr in höheren Lagen zu finden.
Diesen Vogel haben wir paarweise in einem Rapsfeld entdeckt. Von weitem konnte man nur etwas orange Farbe entdecken. Ich habe ihn 2 Tage später im gleichen Feld gesucht und bin um das ganze Feld gelaufen. Erst am Ende habe ich ihn gesehen: am Anfang, sicher 100m von mit entfernt und um 2 Ecken. Da habe ich dieses Foto gemacht und in Büchern, Apps und Internet nach seiner Identität gesucht. Als ich ein sehr ähnliches Bild auf ornitho.ch gefunden habe, wo er auch auf einer Rapspflanze drauf sitzt, sah ich es als bestätigt, dass es ein Braunkelchen war.


Vocalization: The "peeu"-sound is depper and more resonant than similar sounds by Wheatear and Stonechat. [Link]
Der Gesang (bei Vogelwarte.ch) klingt für mich ähnlich wie eine Mönchsgrasmücke, aber nur in sehr kurzen Phrasen
Song: Kurzes (3-7 Töne) Liedchen mit 1-2 Kreischlauten, (ähnlich der Mittellaute b. Hausrotschwanz) variabel. Ahmt auch andere Vögel nach. [Link]
Song variable with lots of mimicry. The short phrases starts with dry, rattling or sneering trills, followed by clear whistling notes and expert mimicry. More varied, both in tone and tempo, than both Stonechat and Wheatear. [Link]
Calls: „teck, teck“ (ähnlich wie wenn man zwei Steine zusammen schlägt) [Link]
Contact call resembles many of it relatives. A short, soft "peeu", followed by a hard "check" (like hitting two rocks together). [Link]
Physical details: length=12 cm, wingspan=21-24 cm, weight=14-19 g
Presence: 03-20 - 10-15
Breeding: 05-10 - 08-10
Migration in: 03-20 - 05-15
Migration out: 07-20 - 10-15

Common stonechat / Afrikanische Schwarzkehlchen (Saxicola torquatus)
Alternate classification: Saxicola torquata
Also known as: European stonechat, African stonechat
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Wikipedia: Common stonechat

Genus Phoenicurus:
Black redstart / Hausrotschwanz (Phoenicurus ochruros)
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Black redstart singing atop a tree This black redstart was singing in the tree by the tennis club behind the train station in Fehraltorf in April 2020 2020-04-23 11.17.18 Fehraltorf
Look for them in a treetop or the peak of a roof - they like to be heard and don't mind being seen.
Etymology: The English name Redstart intrigued me. According to Wikipedia, it comes from Middle English stert meaning tail, so it's a redtail, which makes sense. As to black, they often look rather gray to me. [Link]
Vocalization: Next part is rather unique, and sounds as if shaking a handful of gravel. The phrase then usually closes with a couple of trills. [Link]
Song: Other: Einige Arten wie der Hausrotschwanz singen zudem im Herbst, bevor sie in ihr Winterquartier ziehen. Die Männchen legen dann ihre Reviere bereits «provisorisch» fest. [Link]
Am Morgen der erste Sänger: Kurzes dreiteiliges Liedchen, meist von Warte aus gesungen. Mittelstück aus rauen gequetschten Tönen. (als ob kurz die Stimme verloren) [Link]
Song consists of three parts and is distinct if heard well. It opens with some clear notes that may form a trill, which are then followed by a pause. The "gravel-part" does not carry as far as the rest of the song. [Link]
Calls: „hüid-tze“ das tze deutlich tiefer. [Link]
Alarm call is a chat-like alternation between short, high-pitched "wit" sounds, and series of hard and dry "teck". [Link]
Physical details: length=14 cm, wingspan=23-26 cm, weight=13-19 g

Song: The song is two parts and unvarying. If it were a pop song, you'd call it ABABAB... The second part starts with a sputtering trill. The RSPB in the UK says 'warble with crackling trills.' Vogelwarte.ch says 'Der gepresst knirschende Gesang setzt meist lange vor Sonnenaufgang ein und ist der Auftakt für das Vogelkonzert.' BirdLife-Zuerich.ch says 'Einziger Sänger morgens um drei in den Häuserschluchten'. Obwohl NABU.de meint, sie singen nicht mehr nach Juli, war ich angenehm überrascht sie in Oktober im Tessin zu hören.
Song attributes: Melody: stereotype melodic, slow, Frequency: high (3-9 KHz) Special sounds: churr Singing season: 03-01 - 07-31 Dawn chorus start, 70 minutes before dawn.
Calls: 1: XC560014 matches exactly waht BirdID describes: 'Alarm call is a chat-like alternation between short, high-pitched "wit" sounds, and series of hard and dry "teck".' The high-pitched call I heard recently was between 5 and 6 KHz, which could help to distinguish between other birds with a deeper voice. The whooping call is sometimes listed as an alarm call.

♫ Source: XENOCANTO (call)


♫ Very high notes. Source: XENOCANTO (call)


2: Begging call sputters

♫ Source: XENOCANTO (begging call)


Call attributes: Call melody: one note, slow, Frequency: 4-5 KHz, Special sounds: whoop, sputter/pebble-clatter

Common redstart / Gartenrotschwanz (Phoenicurus phoenicurus)
Alternate classification: Motacilla phoenicurus
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Common redstart on a cable In Locarno-Monti 2020-06-17 14.29.54 Locarno
I'd only seen them in Locarno - but I liked them! Later in our FOK expediton to cultural areas around Maienfeld, they were quite common. They were also reported in Kaltbrunner-Riet (and no one reported the black redstart while we there), though I don't understand exactly why. Earlier none had been reported in that area.
In Locarno in 2020, they were often hidden in trees but also visible on powerlines. In 2021 one sang every morning at 5:00 in a gingko tree next to our room in Casa Egner.
Song: Fängt immer mit denselben 3 Tönen an, einem „dih dede“, wobei das dih etwa ein bis zwei Töne höher liegt. Dann folgt eine kurze Strophe mehr oder weniger reine Töne. Das Ganze ist ziemlich individuell. [Link]
Song distinct, with three parts: First an ascending single note, immediately followed by a trill, then concluding with a squeaky, rattling improvisation that usually contains some mimicry. [Link]
Calls: „Füid-tack“ das füid ähnlich dem des Fitislaubsängers, das tack schnalzend. (wie wenn man die Zunge schnell vom Gaumen abzieht) [Link]
Alarm call a slightly drawn, Willow Warbler-like "huit" with a rising pitch, followed by a short, soft "tuc". [Link]
Physical details: length=14 cm, wingspan=20-24 cm, weight=11-19 g

Song: I though I had these guys figured out after hearing them in Locarno several times, but they're hard to get a handle on! At BirdID they are described the first two parts of a three-part song like this: 'an ascending single note, immediately followed by a trill', whereas in Locarno I heard an initial high-low-high-low, sometimes without the final low, perhaps also a quick middle note, and no trill. Then a relatively short blackbird-like tune of maybe 5-8 notes. Listening to more recordings at XenoCanto has completely confused me now! BirdID also says the song is similar to the black redstart, which I sometimes hear at XenoCanto, but never did in Locarno! They also note a similarity to the Lesser Whitethroat (Klappergrasmücke), which I hope to hear in Maienfeld.
Song attributes: Melody: stereotype melodic, slow, Frequency: high (3-9 KHz) Singing season: 04-01 - 07-31 Dawn chorus start, 80 minutes before dawn.
Call: At least in French, this is called the huit call. Not very consistent in tone from one note to another. Some stick to 3-4 or 3-4.5 KHz, others 2.5-5.5.

♫ Source: XENOCANTO (call)


♫ Seine-et-Marne, Île-de-France recorded by Julien Rochefort - perhaps this isn't a good example as he writes 'An independent juvenile. Its calls are quite irregular. Difficult to distinguish from Phylloscopus collybita, when they don't insert the "tec tec" calls between "huit ...... huit"! But it was really a phoenicurus phoenicurus juvenile, easy to see, perched 15m from me.' Source: XENOCANTO (call)


♫ Source: XENOCANTO (alarm call)


Call attributes: contact call Call melody: one note, slow, Frequency: 2-5 KHz, Special sounds: whoop
Presence: 03-20 - 10-25
Breeding: 05-01 - 07-15
Migration in: 03-20 - 05-07
Migration out: 07-15 - 10-25

Genus Oenanthe:
Northern wheatear / Steinschmätzer (Oenanthe oenanthe)
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Male northern wheatear, photo by Andreas Trepte - Own work, CC BY-SA 2.5 Source: WIKIPEDIA
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
General: I thought after seeing these at over 2700 meters that they must be a typical mountain bird (and in the FOK Zurich materials they were in the mountain section), however Wikipedia explains that such a stony landscape is the key, whether that is high or not:
Geography: The northern wheatear is a migratory insectivorous species breeding in open stony country in Europe and east across the Palearctic with footholds in northeastern Canada and Greenland as well as in northwestern Canada and Alaska. It nests in rock crevices and rabbit burrows. All birds spend most of their winter in Africa. ... Miniature tracking devices have recently shown that the northern wheatear has one of the longest migratory flights known - 30,000 km (18,640 miles), from sub-Saharan Africa to their Arctic breeding grounds.[15] [Link]
Strangely the residence and migration maps differ greatly by source: in Wikipedia the northern wheatear spends winter in subsaharan Africa, while the authoratitive Kosmos-Vogelführer shows some in northern Africa like Morocco. Most other sources agree with Wikipedia and Sub-Saharan Africa.
I thought the German name Steinschmätzer, presumably stone kisser (no one explains it, oddly enough) to be much more logical than the English northern wheatear. I was greatly amused to look it up and find it to be a 'folk etymology of "white" and "arse"' (Wikipedia).
Etymology: The genus name Oenanthe is derived from the Greek oenos (οίνος) "wine" and anthos (ανθός) "flower". It refers to the northern wheatear's return to Greece in the spring just as the grapevines blossom. [Link]
It has an evil-looking black eye stripe like the shrike. (I liked Nici Baiker's description of it in the FOK field ornithology course as 'Zorro look'.) I saw one flying on Muottas Muragl and thought the striking gray oval surrounded by dark feathers has to be typical and seems unique to the northern wheatear.
In den FOK Unterlagen werden die Zugrouten von Alaska und von nordosten Kanada gezeigt, die beide fuer Winter nach Afrika ziehen. Die aus Alaska fliegen ueber Asien unglaubliche 15000 Kilometer! Die in Kanada haben es auch nicht leicht, da sie zuerst ueber den Atlantik nach Spanien fliegen!
Vocalization: Each phrase is often introduced by the "weet" sound, then followed by hastened, creaking, rattling and warbling sounds of 1-2 seconds duration. [Link]
Song: Kurze, wechselvolle Strophe mit vielen unreinen Tönen. Meist von erhöhter Warte aus oder in kurzem Singflug vorgetragen. [Link]
The Wheatear song consists of short phrases with marked pauses. The "check" sound is also often included in the song. [Link]
Calls: „Tschack“ auch „hiit“ (saugend) [Link]
Contact and alarm call a high pitched, sharp "weet", followed by a hard "check", like hitting two rocks together. The "weet" sound is much sharper than the similar sound in Whinchat and Stonechat. Wheater usually repeats the "weet" sound more frequently than the "check" sound. The "check" of Stonechat is less pure and more gritty. [Link]
Physical details: length=14-15 cm, wingspan=26-32 cm, weight=18-29 g

Family Sittidae (Kleiber):

Genus Sitta:
European nuthatch / Kleiber (Sitta europaea)
Also known as: Eurasian nuthatch
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Kleiber schwaendi. 2020-04-04 15.28.00 Luppmen
Vocalization: Other: Eurasian Nuthatch is very vocal. It gives loud calls when excited, an abrupt ‘twit”, only one, or in slow series, but often in phrases of 3-4 notes in rapid succession. But in great excitement, it utters phrases of about ten notes per second! We can also hear some shrill “sirrrr”, becoming harsher in alarm call. The contact call is a thin “tsit” uttered before to take off. The song is very variable, with rising and falling notes, sometimes with repetition of excitement calls. [Link]
Very varied voice. [Link]
Song: Song a simple series of loud notes. [Link]
Calls: The Eurasian nuthatch calls frequently, usually with a loud, sharp dwip normally repeated twice, sometimes more often if excited. It has a shrill sirrrr or tsi-si-si alarm call, and a thin tsit pre-flight call. The song is a slow whistled pee-pee-pee with many variants, including a faster version, and may be intermingled with the call. [Link]
Other: Very varied voice. Ranging from very high pitched whistles and melodic resonant calls, to chattering and nasal mocking sounds. Song a simple series of loud notes. Characteristic warning call a hard "check" or "chwit", often in rapid series, like a pebble bouncing on hollow ice. [Link]
Ranging from very high pitched whistles and melodic resonant calls, to chattering and nasal mocking sounds. Characteristic warning call a hard "check" or "chwit", often in rapid series, like a pebble bouncing on hollow ice. [Link]
Physical details: length=14 cm, wingspan=22-27 cm, weight=21-26 g

Song: Song: Song a simple series of loud notes [Link]
Song attributes: Melody: one note, fast, Frequency: medium (1-5 KHz) Singing season: 02-01 - 07-31 Dawn chorus start, 10 minutes before dawn.
Calls: 1: A long fast sequence of notes - is it the 'twit' call mentioned above?
Long fast sequence, possibly 'twit' call.

Long fast sequence, possibly 'twit' call. Source: XENOCANTO (call)

A bird calling while moving up a pine tree (says recordist Nick Talbot).

A bird calling while moving up a pine tree (says recordist Nick Talbot). Source: XENOCANTO (call)


2: The Nuthatch whoop call is similar to that of the chaffinch. It repeats it about 4 times.
3: Recordist Stanislav Wroz says flight call.
Flight call in Dampierre-en-Yvelines, Yvelines, Île-de-France. Wikipedia describes a 'thin tsit pre-flight call'.

Flight call in Dampierre-en-Yvelines, Yvelines, Île-de-France. Wikipedia describes a 'thin tsit pre-flight call'. Source: XENOCANTO (flight call)


Call attributes: Call melody: one note, fast, Frequency: 2-3 KHz,

Genus Tichodroma:
Wallcreeper / Mauerläufer (Tichodroma muraria)
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Wikipedia: Wallcreeper
Deutschland: Brut-, Jahresvogel RL R
Song: Song variable in length, but main characteristic a sequence of 4-6 long, ascending whistles with timbre recalling whistling kettle. More complex and varied phrases are mixed with the long whistles. Both male and female sings. [Link]
Calls: Alarm call a thin trilling "vuiirrrrrrr". Flight call one or several soft whistles, often with (very) short trill as attack or tail. [Link]
Physical details: length=16 cm, wingspan=27-32 cm, weight=15-19 g

Family Certhiidae (Baumläufer):

Subfamily Troglodytinae:
Genus Troglodytes:
Eurasian wren / Zaunkönig (Troglodytes troglodytes)
Alternate classification: Nannus troglodytes
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Eurasian Wren foraging in the reeds at the frozen Lake Pfaeffikon 2021-02-15 08.41.30 Pfäffikersee
Etymology: The scientific name is taken from the Greek word "troglodytes" (from trogle a hole, and dyein to creep), meaning "cave-dweller",[4] and refers to its habit of disappearing into cavities or crevices whilst hunting arthropods or to roost. [Link]
Song: Auffällig laut für den kleinen Vogel. Singt auch im Winter! Schmetternd, mit einem bis zwei Trillern als letztes oder vorletztes Glied. [Link]
Song surprisingly loud. A high-pitched stream of clear notes resembling Robin and Dunnock in timbre. Differs from those in showing frequent shifts in pitch with much larger register than Dunnock, and by the unique, numerous, interspersed long trills. [Link]
Calls: „zerr“ (z-und rr-gleichzeitig) auch durchdringendes „tzr“(Gezetter) [Link]
Warning call a short hard "teck", like banging two rocks together. Often repeated in series when excited to form machine-gun-like "firing". [Link]
Physical details: length=9-10 cm, wingspan=13-17 cm, weight=7-12 g

Song: High-pitched, melodic, very variable with many trills and whistles.
Song attributes: Melody: improvised melodic, fast, Frequency: high (3-9 KHz) Special sounds: trill Singing season: 02-01 - 07-31 Dawn chorus start, 40 minutes before dawn.
Call: Sputtery/trilly repeated notes at 3-8 KHz
Call attributes: Call melody: one note, slow, Frequency: 3-8 KHz, Special sounds: sputter/pebble-clatter

Subfamily Certhiinae:
Genus Certhia:
Short-toed treecreeper / Gartenbaumläufer (Certhia brachydactyla)
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Gartenbaumlaeufer, Mesikomerweg, Pfaeffikersee. 2021-04-27 17.01.28 Pfäffikersee
General: The short-toed treecreeper (Certhia brachydactyla) is a small passerine bird found in woodlands through much of the warmer regions of Europe and into north Africa. It has a generally more southerly distribution than the other European treecreeper species, the common treecreeper, with which it is easily confused where they both occur. The short-toed treecreeper tends to prefer deciduous trees and lower altitudes than its relative in these overlap areas. Although mainly sedentary, vagrants have occurred outside the breeding range. [more]
Song: Kurz u. bündig! (Gartenwege sind kurz.) Tonreihe am Schluss ansteigend. „Hesch du gseh woni bi? [Link]
Calls: scharf „tiit, sri“ [Link]

Song: General: It sounds to me like a 5-7 note song like 'five k low high higher'. The individual notes have the same backward checkmark shape as the call. It's basically the same across Europe.
Song: The song of the nominate subspecies is an evenly spaced sequence of notes teet-teet-teet-e-roi-tiit. [Link]
Its song is short, loud and rhythmic. [Link]
[In comparison with the visually similar Eurasian treecreeper, it] has a clearer, louder more staccato contact call of ‘sreet’ or ‘sree’ and a short ‘wit’ during normal activity [Link]
Song attributes: Melody: stereotype melodic, slow, Frequency: 4-7 KHz
Call: General: See the sonogram how the song may descend rapidly from 7Khz to and then climb from 5 to 5.75 KHz, a kind of reversed checkmark. However I find it hard to distinguish from a single note. I'm not a bird ;-(
Call: calls with a loud (Wikipedia says shrill) “tyt tyt” [Link]
A recording from Jorge Leitão in the Netherlands that I assume is the tyt tyt call.

A recording from Jorge Leitão in the Netherlands that I assume is the tyt tyt call. Source: XENOCANTO (call)


Call attributes: Call melody: one note, slow, Frequency: 5-7 KHz,

Eurasian treecreeper / Waldbaumläufer (Certhia familiaris)
Also known as: treecreeper
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As seen creeping up a tree trunk Source: WIKIPEDIA
General: The Eurasian treecreeper or common treecreeper (Certhia familiaris) is a small passerine bird also known in the British Isles, where it is the only living member of its genus, simply as treecreeper. It is similar to other treecreepers, and has a curved bill, patterned brown upperparts, whitish underparts, and long stiff tail feathers which help it creep up tree trunks. It can be most easily distinguished from the similar short-toed treecreeper, which shares much of its European range, by its different song. [more]
General: Gesehen nah bei Pragelpasshöhe, zusammen mit Tannenmeisen, Haubenmeisen und Sommergoldhähnchen
AppearanceAndIdentification: Other: Baumläufer sind klein, ihr Pinzettschnabel leicht abwärts gebogen. Ihr Gefieder ist fleckig braun, unterseits heller, oft weißlich. Die Geschlechter unterscheiden sich nicht. ... So weit, so gut. Am Anfang einer Birder-Karriere ist man ja schon glücklich, den kleinen Piepmatz überhaupt als Baumläufer zu erkennen und schnell ist man versucht, anhand des Habitats eine Zuordnung vorzunehmen. Aber so einfach ist es leider nicht. Auch Waldbaumläufer sind gerne mal in Gärten oder Parks anzutreffen und umgedreht. Daher lohnt es sich, sich einige spezifische Merkmale zur Unterscheidung der beiden Arten zu merken... Gesang: kurz und mit einer Pause vor der Mitte scharf "tit tit tit" vom GBL, länger, aus zwei dünnen Trillern einem hohen folgt ein gleichmässig abfallender "tsii tsii tsii, tissi siii tsii" vom WBL. [Und für mich sieht der Schnabel beim GBL kurviger aus als den von WBL. - Bill] [Link]
Song: Lang u. Klar! (Waldwege sind lang). Tonreihe im Ganzen absinkend, nur letzter Ton höher. [Link]
Song a short, continuous three-part phrase. [Link]
Calls: weniger scharf, „srih,“ weniger eindringlich als oben [Link]
Contact call a drawn, high-pitched "tzreeee". Similar to Goldcrest in timbre, but of longer duration with a vibrating and slightly rolling tone. Generally repeated in evenly paced, slow series (unlike Goldcrest). Each phrase starts with a few contact call-like notes followed by a Willow Warbler-like descending part, which then jumps to a few descending high notes to form a marked conclusion. Note that "mixed singers" are not uncommon in areas where both species of treecreepers occur. [Link]
Physical details: length=12 cm, wingspan=17-21 cm, weight=8-11 g

Song: Wikipedia says: The contact call is a very quiet, thin and high-pitched sit, but the most distinctive call is a penetrating tsree, with a vibrato quality, sometimes repeated as a series of notes. The male's song begins with srrih, srrih followed in turn by a few twittering notes, a longer descending ripple, and a whistle that falls and then rises.
Song attributes: Melody: stereotype melodic, slow, Frequency: medium (1-5 KHz)
Call: General: Fairly regularly spaced single tseep at 7-9KHz
Call: Contact call a drawn, high-pitched "tzreeee". Similar to Goldcrest in timbre, but of longer duration with a vibrating and slightly rolling tone. Generally repeated in evenly paced, slow series (unlike Goldcrest). [Link]
Call attributes: Call melody: one note, slow, Frequency: 7-9 KHz,

Family Bombycillidae (Seidenschwänze):

Genus Bombycilla:
Bohemian waxwing / Seidenschwanz (Bombycilla garrulus)
Alternate classification: Lanius garrulus
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This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
Deutschland: Zugvogel, Wintergast, Invasionsvogel
Song: Song more or less a variation on the contact call. [Link]
Calls: Contact call weak, but distinct and typically alert one to the presence of a flock. A thin, high pitched, ringing "tzrrrrrrr". [Link]
Physical details: length=18 cm, wingspan=32-35 cm, weight=50-75 g

Family Cinclidae (Wasseramseln):

Genus Cinclus:
White-throated dipper / Wasseramsel (Cinclus cinclus)
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Wikipedia - Cinclus cinclus, Wasseramsel. Source: WIKIPEDIA
I saw a bird in Meride on a tree limb that showed three bands of strong colors that I recall as black, white and red-brown. Unfortunately I discovered that my camera battery was dead, so I can only rely on a very shaky memory. I've speculatively identified it as a White-throated Dipper (German Wasseramsel), which are present in that area, though are most expected at water (there's a river nearby though). At least I'll have this bird on my radar now.
Expected near rivers and streams.
Song: Song a mid tempo, staccato improvisation on contact call-like sounds. Not unlike a budgerigar. Both sexes sing, the female less melodic and more staccato than the male. [Link]
Calls: Contact call a short, metallic and explosive "zrreet", often betraying its presence perched among boulders or when flying up and down a stream. [Link]
Physical details: length=18 cm, wingspan=25-30 cm, weight=49-84 g

Song: Wonderfully weird sequence of chirps, cheeps, growls. Elements often repeated twice. In a quiz, I mistook it for a starling.
Song attributes: Melody: improvised melodic, fast, Frequency: 1-7 KHz Special sounds: weird, repetitions, rasp
Call: Chirp repeated 1-2s.
Call attributes: Call melody: one note, slow, Frequency: 4-7 KHz,

Superfamily Corvoidea:

Family Laniidae (Shrikes / Würger):
Genus Lanius:
Red-backed shrike / Neuntöter (Lanius collurio)
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Patrick Brontë's annotated copy of Thomas Bewick’s 'A History of British Birds' Part of a collection sold at Sotheby's in June 2021 and expected to bring 1-2 million dollars. The page shown in the newspaper features the red-backed shrike, a bird whose habitat loss in less intensive agricultural land has led to shrinking populations.
Kulturland. Im Gebüsch an der Stillen Reuss.
Saw this masked bandit at Maienfeld. I was also told where to find it in the hedges at the Stille Reuss in Rottenschwil.
Culture: The BirdLife Switzerland bird of the year of 2020, the red-backed shrike or Neuntöter, made a surprising appearance in the New York Times in May 2021 when a private collection of manuscript and books from the Brontë family was put up for sale. Among the books is father Brontë's copy of Thomas Bewick’s 'A History of British Birds,' which Jane Eyre leafs through in a scene in Charlotte's novel of the same name. [NY Times, 'A Lost Brontë Library Surfaces', by Jennifer Schuessler, May 25, 2021]
Etymology: Er spiesst Beutetiere oft an Dornen oder spitzen Seitenästen auf, um sie zu bearbeiten und zu zerteilen oder als Vorrat zu halten. Seinen Namen soll der Neuntöter dieser Eigenart verdanken: Man hat früher irrtümlicherweise angenommen, dass er immer erst neun Tiere aufspiesst, bevor er wieder eines verzehrt. [Link]

Song: Reminds me a bit of a Rohrsaenger with its short, varied bits. BirdID says Song surprisingly varied with many expert imitations of small passerines, interwoven with bell-like ringing and dry chirping sounds. May be confusing and hard to identify if bird not seen. Song not very loud, but phrases can be very long. 'May be confusing' - tell me about it! What's not confusing about trying to tell apart 422 species of Swiss birds!
Song attributes: Melody: improvised melodic, slow, Frequency: medium (1-5 KHz) Special sounds: mimicry

Northern shrike / Raubwürger (Lanius excubitor)
Also known as: Great gray shrike
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Wikipedia: Northern shrike
Deutschland: Brut-, Jahres-, Zugvogel, Wintergast RL 2
Song: Song varied. During breeding season a varied subdued song is heard from both sexes. [Link]
Calls: Alarm call very harsh, nasal and noisy. Dry and not as deep or resonant as crows. Territorial call before breeding starts is simple, loud and resonant. Consisting of pleasant sounding single or double syllables, with well defined pauses and peculiar harmonics. [Link]
Physical details: length=24-25 cm, wingspan=30-35 cm, weight=48-81 g

Woodchat shrike / Rotkopfwürger (Lanius senator)
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Wikipedia: Woodchat shrike
Deutschland: Brut-, seltener Zugvogel RL 1
Song: Territorial song loud and varied. Often repeats phrases and includes mimicry. Alternativ song a more continuous chattering with impressive mimicry similar to Red-backed and Lesser Grey Shrike, and difficult to separate from those. [Link]
Calls: Alarm call a dry, magpie-like "che-che-che-che-che", or a nasal, ascending oriole-like "weea". [Link]
Physical details: length=18 cm, wingspan=26-28 cm, weight=30-40 g

Family Corvidae (Krähenverwandte):
Genus Corvus (Crows):
Carrion crow / Aaskrähe (Corvus corone)
Also known as: hooded crow, Rabenkrähe
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Kraehe am luppmen. 2020-04-15 09.15.28 Luppmen
General: The carrion crow (Corvus corone) is a passerine bird of the family Corvidae and the genus Corvus which is native to western Europe and the eastern Palearctic. [more]
Vocalization: Probably impossible to tell from Hooded Crow by sound with certainty, but tends to sound harder, and more mean. [Link]
Physical details: length=45-47 cm, wingspan=93-104 cm, weight=370-650 g

Song: Graak!
Song attributes: Melody: non-musical, slow, Frequency: low (1-3 KHz) Special sounds: cawing

Common raven / Kolkrabe (Corvus corax)
Also known as: Northern raven
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Kolkrabe am Aabach, Wetzikon. 2021-03-10 09.49.56 Wetzikon
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
The raven is often mentioned in word puzzles as the largest songbird.
Good to know: Other: A flock of ravens may be called an unkindness [Literary names of groups and flocks]
Etymology: Kolk, die erste Silbe seines seit dem 16. Jahrhundert bezeugten deutschen Namens, ist vermutlich lautmalerischen Ursprungs, ahmt also den Ruf des Vogels nach. [Link]
Appearance and identification: It is one of the two largest corvids, alongside the thick-billed raven, and is possibly the heaviest passerine bird [Link]
Vocalization: Quite varied repertoire. Most heard sound a short, coarse, but resonant "korrk. Other sounds may be surprisingly resonant and pure, like a ringing "clong" etc. Shows even more variation when courting. [Link]
Physical details: length=64 cm, wingspan=120-150 cm, weight=800-1560 g

Song: Graak!
Song attributes: Melody: non-musical, slow, Frequency: low (1-3 KHz) Special sounds: cawing

Hooded crow / Nebelkrähe (Corvus cornix)
Alternate classification: Corvus corone cornix
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Hooded crow, Locarno Monti. 2020-06-16 18.19.00 Locarno
Von Linnaeus als eigener Genus erfasst, heute Unterart der Aaskrähe (neben Rabenkrähe).
Ich kenne sie aus dem Tessin, auch in der Ghisla Kunstsammlung.
Vocalization: Cawing is aggressive and more raucous than in Rook, with more rolling r's. [Link]
Song: Has a large repertoire of seldom heard calls, and even sub-song. [Link]
Calls: Many of these calls are surprisingly resonant and pleasant sounding, and sometimes resembles Raven. Probably impossible to tell from Carrion Crow with certainty by sound alone. [Link]
Physical details: length=45-47 cm, wingspan=93-104 cm, weight=370-650 g

Rook / Saatkrähe (Corvus frugilegus)
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Wikipedia: Rook
Deutschland: Brut-, Jahres-, Zugvogel, Wintergast
Vocalization: Makes similar caws as Carrion Crow, but is harsher, softer, flatter with less rolling r's. [Link]
Song: Also gives a varied song of soft gurgling and rattling sounds, interwoven with calls at breeding ground. [Link]
Physical details: length=44-46 cm, wingspan=81-99 cm, weight=280-340 g

Jackdaw / Dohle (Coloeus monedula)
Alternate classification: Corvus monedula
Also known as: Eurasian jackdaw
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Wikipedia: Jackdaw
Deutschland: Brut-, Jahres-, Zugvogel, Wintergast je nach Bundesland: RL V; RL 3

Genus Pica (Magpies):
Eurasian magpie / Elster (Pica pica)
Alternate classification: Corvus pica
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Elster bei friedliweid. 2020-04-13 10.26.40 Friedliweid
Very common in Fehraltorf. Monogamous. Clever. Female larger than male!
In trees, on roofs or the lawn - frequently underway and too big to hide.
Habitat: In den 1950er-Jahren sind die Elstern in unsere Städte eingezogen. Zu der Zeit veränderte sich ihr natürlicher Lebensraum. Offene Kulturlandschaften mit Gebüsch und hohen Bäumen verschwanden zunehmend, und in Gebieten mit intensiv genutztem Ackerland fanden die Elstern weder genügend Brutplätze noch ausreichend Nahrung. Dabei haben die Fast-Allesfresser vielfältige Vorlieben. Sie laben sich an Insekten, Reptilien, Amphibien, sie fressen überfahrene Tiere am Strassenrand, und vor allem im Spätsommer ernähren sie sich oft vegetarisch von Früchten und Samen. [Elstern sind besser als ihr Ruf]
Song: Rich repertoire includes soft and surprisingly varied sub-song. [Link]
Calls: Most notable sound a harsh, chattering "chechechecheche" used as warning call, or when mobbing predators. [Link]
Physical details: length=44-46 cm, wingspan=52-60 cm, weight=182-272 g

Song: Familiar rattle
Song attributes: Melody: non-musical, slow, Frequency: low (1-3 KHz) Special sounds: rattle

Genus Garrulus:
Eurasian jay / Eichelhäher (Garrulus glandarius)
Alternate classification: Corvus glandarius
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Eichelhaeher for profile. 2020-04-17 08.48.34 Wald Fehraltorf
General: The Eurasian jay (Garrulus glandarius) is a species of bird occurring over a vast region from western Europe and north-west Africa to the Indian subcontinent and further to the eastern seaboard of Asia and down into south-east Asia. Across its vast range, several very distinct racial forms have evolved to look very different from each other, especially when forms at the extremes of its range are compared. [more]
Vocalization: Large repertoire. Many other social sounds. [Link]
Song: Quiet and varied subsong with mimicry, resembling a small passerine heard from both sexes. [Link]
Calls: Most heard call a short, drawn and very hoarse, raspy sound, often given in quick successions. Also a Buzzard-like, mewing "peeeaaa" (more drawn and less full tone than Siberian Jay). [Link]
Physical details: length=34-35 cm, wingspan=52-58 cm, weight=140-190 g

Song: Harsh crow-like call, or quiet questioning, 'grumbling', or plaintive cries.
Song attributes: Melody: non-musical, fast, Frequency: medium (1-5 KHz) Special sounds: cawing
Call: Typically harsh jay call. I would say a contact call usually means 'Here I am', answered by 'Good, here I am.' Listening to two jays in the Swiss mountains of Toggenburg, it sounded like 'HEY IDIOT, HERE I AM...WHERE THE HECK ARE YOU?' 'WHAT? YOU HAVEN'T FIGURE IT OUT? OF COURSE I'M OVER HERE. PEABRAIN.' On the other hand, anthropomorphism is always dangerous, usually completely wrong approach.
Call attributes: Call melody: one note, slow, Frequency: medium (1-5 KHz), Special sounds: rasp

Genus Nucifraga:
Spotted nutcracker / Tannenhäher (Nucifraga caryocatactes)
Also known as: Eurasian nutcracker
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Wikipedia Tannenhaeher Nucifraga caryocatactes. Von Jyrki Salmi from Finland - Nutcracker, CC BY-SA 2.0, Link Source: WIKIPEDIA
What a schnozzola. Spotted like thrush (on belly) or starling (on back), rough jay-like calling but somewhat softer than the Eurasian Jay
Vocalization: Fairly silent. [Link]
Song: Song a quiet improvisation of whistling and clappering sounds, interspersed with mimicry of other birds. [Link]
Calls: Warning call a characteristic dry and rasping "karrr karrr karr" in even pitch. [Link]
Physical details: length=32-33 cm, wingspan=52-58 cm, weight=140-190 g

Genus Pyrrhocorax:
Alpine chough / Alpendohle (Pyrrhocorax graculus)
Also known as: Yellow-billed chough
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Auf dem Dach unter Vrenelisgärtli 2021-01-01 09.43.48
Als schwarzer Vogel mit gelbem Schnabel in den Alpen leicht zu erkennen. Ich habe sie auch in Schwanden (Ortsteil Thon) gesehen, direkt unter Vrenelisgärtli. Es heisst, bei Schnee fliegen sie tagsüber ins Tal aber abends wieder hoch.
Alpendohlen gibt's von den Kanaren bis in den Himalayen. In der Schweiz. Man kennt sie in den Schweizer Bergen.
Vocalization: Diagnostic and very different from Red-billed Chough. A sharp, quite high-pitched, whistling trill "chreeeee". Usually alternated with pure-toned high-pitched whistles, falling abruptly in pitch with a "clipping" ending. [Link]
Physical details: length=38 cm, wingspan=75-85 cm, weight=188-252 g

Red-billed chough / Alpenkrähe (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax)
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Wikipedia: Red-billed chough
General: The red-billed chough, Cornish chough or simply chough (/ˈʌf/ CHUF; Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax), is a bird in the crow family, one of only two species in the genus Pyrrhocorax. Its eight subspecies breed on mountains and coastal cliffs from the western coasts of Ireland and Britain east through southern Europe and North Africa to Central Asia, India and China. [more]

Genus Oriolus:
Eurasian golden oriole / Pirol (Oriolus oriolus)
Alternate classification: Oriolus oriolus oriolus
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Wikimedia Eurasian golden oriole. Source: WIKIPEDIA
Pirol: auffälligen Sexualdimorphismus. Wo/Habitat: lichter Auenwälder, Bruchwälder und gewässernaher Gehölze. Ebenso zählen Laub-, Misch- und Nadelwälder sowie Parks, große Gärten, Friedhöfe, Streuobstwiesen, hohe Obstbäume, Windschutzgürtel und Alleen zu seinen Brutgebieten, wo er sich überwiegend im Kronendach höherer Bäume aufhält. Der Verbreitungsschwerpunkt liegt hier im kontinentaleren Osteuropa. knapp amselgross; Presence april 15 - September 15 https://www.vogelwarte.ch/de/voegel/voegel-der-schweiz/pirol
In Western Europe they prefer open broadleaf forests and plantations, copses, riverine forest, orchards, large gardens.They reside in Switzerland from mid-April to mid-September, breeding in mid-May to mid-July. They predominate near the German and French borders, from Lake Constance to Geneva. I want to try to see one at Neeracherried or Thurauen.
Geography: Wikipedia: only member of the oriole family of passerine birds breeding in Northern Hemisphere temperate regions. It is a summer migrant in Europe and western Asia and spends the winter season in central and southern Africa. [Link]
Song: Varied repertoire, but song and common contact call very distinct. Song a series of 1-2 seconds long phrases of 3-5 yodeling, clear, fluting notes, interspersed with 2-3 second pauses. Tone very full-bodied, melodic and pleasing. [Link]
Calls: Flötenrufen Oft wird der Gesang allerdings vom Star treffend ähnlich nachgeahmt. [Link]
Contact call surprisingly different: A forced, drawn "weeackt", slightly resembling Jay, but less harsh, and much more nasal. Other sounds include a Wryneck-like warning call. [Link]
Physical details: length=24 cm, wingspan=44-47 cm, weight=56-79 g

Song: A soft, lowish whistling. In my opinion, the golden oriole has a beautiful voice, but no imagination as to melody - it's always the same few notes.
Song attributes: Melody: stereotype melodic, slow, Frequency: 0-1 KHz Singing season: 04-22 - 09-21
Call: 3 somewhat harsh ascending notes, more melodic than a Eurasian jay call
Call attributes: Call melody: simple rhythmic, slow, Frequency: medium (1-5 KHz),
Presence: 04-15 - 09-15
Breeding: 03-15 - 07-15
Migration in: 04-15 - 06-10
Migration out: 07-10 - 09-15

Order Charadriiformes (Shorebirds and others / Regenpfeiferartige):

Family Laridae (Gulls / Reiher):

Subfamily Larinae (Möwen):
Genus Larus:
Yellow-legged gull / Mittelmeermöwe (Larus michahellis)
Alternate classification: Larus argentatus michahellis
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Mittelmeermoewe frisst Muschel. 2021-03-07 12.41.04
General: The yellow-legged gull is a large gull found in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa, which has only recently achieved wide recognition as a distinct species. It was formerly treated as a subspecies of either the Caspian gull L. cachinnans, or more broadly as a subspecies of the herring gull L. argentatus. The genus name is from Latin Larus which appears to have referred to a gull or other large seabird, and the species name honours the German zoologist Karl Michahelles.[2] [more]

Common gull / Sturmmöwe (Larus canus)
Also known as: Mew gull
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Near Badi Auslikon at the Pfäffikersee. I thought I had only seen black-headed gulls, but on reviewing my photos, I noticed the yellow bill. Other typical characteristics: it's bigger than the black-headed gull next to it, it doesn't have the Charlie Brown half-ring around the eye, it has less gray and only a few shorter black tail feathers. 2021-02-05 11.34.30 Pfäffikersee
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Not so common in Switzerland (most common would be the black-headed gull as far as I can see
Appearance and identification: Nabu: NABU ueber das Aussehen der Sturmmoewe: 'Sturmmöwen sind etwas größer als Lachmöwen, jedoch deutlich kleiner als Silbermöwen. Sie sind überwiegend weiß mit grauem Rücken und grauen Flügeln. Die Flügelenden sind schwarz mit weißer Spitze. Der Kopf ist rundlich, die dunklen Augen dünn rot umrandet. Der schlanke Schnabel und die Beine sind grünlichgelb, ein Schnabelfleck fehlt.' [Portraet]
Vocalization: Various mewing sounds. Similar in form to Herring Gull, but much higher pitched. [Link]
Physical details: length=40-42 cm, wingspan=100-115 cm, weight=300-480 g

Lesser black-backed gull / Heringsmöwe (Larus fuscus)
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Wikipedia: Lesser black-backed gull
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
General: The lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus) is a large gull that breeds on the Atlantic coasts of Europe. It is migratory, wintering from the British Isles south to West Africa. It is a regular winter visitor to the east coast of North America, probably from the breeding population in Iceland. [more]

Caspian gull / Steppenmöwe (Larus cachinnans)
Alternate classification: Larus argentatus cachinnans
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Wikipedia: Caspian gull
Deutschland: Brut-, Zugvogel, Wintergast RL R

European herring gull / Silbermöwe (Larus argentatus)
Also known as: Herring gull
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Wikipedia: European herring gull
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America.
Deutschland: Brut-, Jahres-, Zugvogel, Wintergast
Vocalization: Quite vocal. A long and strong "ay-kay-kay-kay-kay" with fading strength commonly heard. A deep "ga-ga-ga" heard from anxious birds. [Link]
Calls: All calls much deeper pitched than Common Gull. Difficult to distinguish from Lesser Black-backed Gull, but tone is less nasal. [Link]
Physical details: length=55-64 cm, wingspan=123-148 cm, weight=750-1440 g

Great black-backed gull / Mantelmöwe (Larus marinus)
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Wikipedia: Great black-backed gull
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
Deutschland: Brut-, Jahres-, Zugvogel, Wintergast RL R

Genus Chroicocephalus:
Black-headed gull / Lachmöwe (Chroicocephalus ridibundus)
Alternate classification: Larus ridibundus
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On a canal feeding into the Pfäffikersee Paradoxically, they don't have to have a black head. 2020-10-30 16.51.58 Pfäffikersee
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Common waterbird at Pfäffikersee, that doesn't necessarily have the eponymous black head.

Genus Rissa:
Black-legged kittiwake / Dreizehenmöwe (Rissa tridactyla)
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Wikipedia: Black-legged kittiwake
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
General: The black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) is a seabird species in the gull family Laridae. [more]
Vocalization: Highly vocal at breeding ground. A mewing "kitti-wake", with the pitch rising on the second drawn out syllable, and then falling. Generally silent elsewhere, except when squabbling over food. [Link]
Physical details: length=38-40 cm, wingspan=95-105 cm, weight=310-500 g

Genus Gelochelidon:
Gull-billed tern / Lachseeschwalbe (Gelochelidon nilotica)
Alternate classification: Sterna nilotica
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Wikipedia: Gull-billed tern
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
General: The gull-billed tern (Gelochelidon nilotica), formerly Sterna nilotica,[2] is a tern in the family Laridae. The genus name is from Ancient Greek gelao, "to laugh", and khelidon, "swallow". The specific niloticus is from Latin and means of the Nile.[3] The Australian gull-billed tern was previously considered a subspecies. [more]

Genus Chlidonias:
Whiskered tern / Weissbart-Seeschwalbe (Chlidonias hybrida)
Alternate classification: Chlidonias hybridus
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Wikipedia: Whiskered tern
The whiskered tern (Chlidonias hybrida) is a tern in the family Laridae. The genus name is from Ancient Greek khelidonios, "swallow-like", from khelidon, "swallow". The specific hybridus is Latin for hybrid; Pallas thought it might be a hybrid of white-winged black tern and common tern, writing "Sterna fissipes [Chlidonias leucopterus] et Hirundine [Sterna hirundo] natam”.[2] [more]
Calls: Contact call freely used and fairly distinct: An extremely hoarse, and rasping "krreek" in various moods. Timbre comparable to Corncrake. Sometimes uttered in stuttering series "kr-kr-kr-kr-kr". [Link]
Physical details: length=23-25 cm, wingspan=74-78 cm, weight=79-94 g

White-winged tern / Weissflügel-Seeschwalbe (Chlidonias leucopterus)
Alternate classification: Chliodonias leucopterus
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Wikipedia: White-winged tern
General: The white-winged tern, or white-winged black tern (Chlidonias leucopterus or Chlidonias leucoptera), is a species of tern in the family Laridae. It is a small species generally found in or near bodies of fresh water across much of the world, including Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia. The genus name is from Ancient Greek khelidonios, "swallow-like", from khelidon, "swallow". [more]

Black tern / Trauerseeschwalbe (Chlidonias niger)
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Wikipedia: Black tern
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
The black tern (Chlidonias niger) is a small tern generally found in or near inland water in Europe, Western Asia and North America. As its name suggests, it has predominantly dark plumage. In some lights it can appear blue in the breeding season, hence the old English name "blue darr".[2] The genus name is from Ancient Greek khelidonios, "swallow-like", from khelidon, "swallow": another old English name for the black tern is "carr (i.e. lake) swallow".[3] The species name is from Latin niger "shining black".[4] [more]
Vocalization: Moderately vocal. [Link]
Calls: Flight call a more or less clear "kleck, or a disyllabic "klee-ake" with accented first syllable. Sometimes slightly rolling "klirr-eke", but never as much as in White-winged Tern. Also a slightly harsher "kreek", but not as raspy as in Whiskered Tern. [Link]
Physical details: length=22-24 cm, wingspan=64-68 cm, weight=60-86 g

Genus Hydroprogne:
Caspian tern / Raubseeschwalbe (Hydroprogne caspia)
Alternate classification: Sterna caspia
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Wikipedia: Caspian tern
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
General: The Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia)[2] is a species of tern, with a subcosmopolitan but scattered distribution. Despite its extensive range, it is monotypic of its genus, and has no accepted subspecies.[3] The genus name is from Ancient Greek hudros, "water", and Latin progne, "swallow". The specific caspia is from Latin and, like the English name, refers to the Caspian Sea.[4] [more]
Calls: Easily recognized by its very harsh calls. Sometimes likened to the sound of a plate of steel being dragged across a concrete floor. Similar in harshness to Grey Heron, but more drawn, with an accented middle; "Kraaeeet", or with a double syllable start "ka-ha-kraaaeet". Immature birds begs with a penetrating, sharp whistle. [Link]
Physical details: length=47-54 cm, wingspan=130-145 cm, weight=500-750 g

Genus Sternula:
Little tern / Zwergseeschwalbe (Sternula albifrons)
Alternate classification: Sterna albifrons
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Little Tern, Reykjavik, Iceland. 2015-05-29 11.18.30 Iceland
General: The little tern (Sternula albifrons) is a seabird of the family Laridae. It was formerly placed into the genus Sterna, which now is restricted to the large white terns.[2] The genus name is a diminutive of Sterna, "tern". The specific albifrons is from Latin albus, "white", and "frons", forehead.[3] The former North American (S. a. antillarum) and Red Sea S. a. saundersi subspecies are now considered to be separate species, the least tern (Sternula antillarum) and Saunders's tern (Sternula saundersi). [more]
Vocalization: Fairly distinct voice. [Link]
Calls: Contact call a sharp "kitt", often combined to form undulating, rolling series. Not as sharp and penetrating as Common- and Arctic Tern. [Link]
Physical details: length=22-24 cm, wingspan=48-55 cm, weight=49-63 g

Genus Thalasseus:
Sandwich tern / Brandseeschwalbe (Thalasseus sandvicensis)
Alternate classification: Sterna sandvicensis
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La tarde 5 sandwich terns tenative ID by Merlin. 2018-03-11 06.35.12 Central America
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, South America, Africa.
General: The Sandwich tern (Thalasseus sandvicensis)[2] is a tern in the family Laridae. It is very closely related to the lesser crested tern (T. bengalensis), Chinese crested tern (T. bernsteini), Cabot's tern (T. acuflavidus), and elegant tern (T. elegans) and has been known to interbreed with the lesser crested. It breeds in the Palearctic from Europe to the Caspian Sea wintering to South Africa, India and Sri Lanka. [more]
Calls: Contact call a sharp and grating "keeree-eek". Often compared to the pressing of amalgam into a tooth. [Link]
Physical details: length=36-41 cm, wingspan=95-105 cm, weight=215-275 g

Genus Hydrocoloeus:
Little gull / Zwergmöwe (Hydrocoloeus minutus)
Alternate classification: Larus minutus
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Wikipedia: Little gull
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Deutschland: ausnahmsweise Brutvogel, Zugvogel RL R
Calls: Repertoire of short, tern-like, hard calls, uttered individually, or in series. E.g. "kep" or "krrk". Also a diagnostic, gull-like, sharp and bouncing "ka-tee,ka-tee,ka-tee", with second syllable rising in pitch. [Link]
Physical details: length=25-27 cm, wingspan=75-80 cm, weight=85-150 g

Genus Ichthyaetus:
Mediterranean gull / Schwarzkopfmöwe (Ichthyaetus melanocephalus)
Alternate classification: Larus melanocephalus
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Wikipedia: Mediterranean gull
Deutschland: Brut-, Zugvogel, seltener Wintergast RL R
Calls: Distinct calls which can be identified even in mixed flocks. Most common call a short, mewing "yeah". Pitch rises and fall rapidly, with a "surprised" intonation. Timbre is nasal but clear and pure. Alarm call a series of short "ke-ke-ke", with similar timbre. [Link]
Physical details: length=36-38 cm, wingspan=92-100 cm, weight=232-280 g

Family Charadriidae (Regenpfeifer):

Genus Vanellus:
Northern lapwing / Kiebitz (Vanellus vanellus)
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Kiebitz, Neeracher Ried. 2021-02-24 12.46.02 Neeracherried
Etymology: The name lapwing has been variously attributed to the "lapping" sound its wings make in flight, from the irregular progress in flight due to its large wings (the Oxford English Dictionary derives this from an Old English word meaning "to totter"),[4] or from its habit of drawing potential predators away from its nest by trailing a wing as if broken. [Link]
Vocalization: Quite vocal, especially in flight at breeding ground. [Link]
Calls: Territorial call: Dry, introductory phrases followed by drawn-out mewing sounds; "wyrrr-peeeoo-weeep". Alarm call "pee-wit". [Link]
Physical details: length=28-31 cm, wingspan=82-87 cm, weight=140-320 g

Genus Charadrius:
Little ringed plover / Flussregenpfeifer (Charadrius dubius)
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Wikipedia: Little ringed plover
General: The little ringed plover (Charadrius dubius) is a small plover. The genus name Charadrius is a Late Latin word for a yellowish bird mentioned in the fourth-century Vulgate. It derives from Ancient Greek kharadrios a bird found in river valleys (kharadra, "ravine"). The specific dubius is Latin for doubtful, since Sonnerat, writing in 1776, thought this bird might be just a variant of common ringed plover.[2] [more]
Vocalization: Quite different from Ringed Plover. Sharper sounding, lacking Ringed's soft tone. Often starts with a rolling "r". [Link]
Calls: Common calls are a two syllable "krrll-uuit" with a rising pitch or just a sharp, rolling "krrri-krrri". Also a longer rolling "krree-looo" with pitch rising in first syllable and falling in the second. [Link]
Physical details: length=14-15 cm, wingspan=42-48 cm, weight=32-48 g

Common ringed plover / Sandregenpfeifer (Charadrius hiaticula)
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Wikipedia: Common ringed plover
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
General: The common ringed plover or ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula) is a small plover that breeds in Arctic Eurasia. The genus name Charadrius is a Late Latin word for a yellowish bird mentioned in the fourth-century Vulgate. It derives from Ancient Greek kharadrios a bird found in ravines and river valleys (kharadra, "ravine"). The specific hiaticula is Latin and has a similar meaning to the Greek term, coming from hiatus, "cleft" and -cola, "dweller" (colere, "to dwell").[2] [more]
Vocalization: Usually heard before seen. [Link]
Song: Song a cyclic repetition of the contact call. Sometimes with a shortened phrases and a more creaking timbre. [Link]
Calls: Contact call a short, soft "koo-eep", with the emphasised second part higher and rising in pitch. [Link]
Physical details: length=18-20 cm, wingspan=48-57 cm, weight=55-73 g

Kentish plover / Seeregenpfeifer (Charadrius alexandrinus)
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Wikipedia: Kentish plover
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Deutschland: Brut-, Zugvogel RL 1
Song: Contact calls more frequently heard than song, with two distinct calls. A short and soft ascending whistle resembling chiff-chaff is often heard from the ground, and a hard and rolling "prrrrt" if flushed (or just a short "tip"). Song a hard and rolling sequence resembling Dunlin song, but less nasal and more pulsating. [Link]
Physical details: length=15-17 cm, wingspan=42-45 cm, weight=39-56 g

Eurasian dotterel / Mornellregenpfeifer (Charadrius morinellus)
Alternate classification: Eudromias morinellus
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Wikipedia: Eurasian dotterel
Deutschland: ausnahmsweise Brutvogel, Zugvogel RL 0
Calls: Calls soft and mellow, but far carrying "pit" or "pju". Also "krrrrritpitpit - pit - pit pit pit", starting as a trill and then ending in a long ritardando of "pit"'s. [Link]
Physical details: length=20-22 cm, wingspan=57-64 cm, weight=90-130 g

Genus Pluvialis:
Black-bellied plover / Kiebitzregenpfeifer (Pluvialis squatarola)
Also known as: Grey plover
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Black-bellied plover on its nest. 2016-09-25 16.50.10 Botswana
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
General: The grey plover or black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola) is a medium-sized plover breeding in Arctic regions. It is a long-distance migrant, with a nearly worldwide coastal distribution when not breeding.[2] The genus name is Latin and means relating to rain, from pluvia, "rain". It was believed that golden plovers flocked when rain was imminent. The species name squatarola is a Latinised version of Sgatarola, a Venetian name for some kind of plover.[3] [more]
Calls: Contact call diagnostic. A plaintive, drawn and trisyllabic (but continuous) "kleeooowee". Pitch falls on second syllable and rises on last. [Link]
Physical details: length=27-30 cm, wingspan=71-83 cm, weight=190-280 g

European golden-plover / Goldregenpfeifer (Pluvialis apricaria)
Also known as: European golden plover
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Wikipedia: European golden-plover
Deutschland: Brut-, Zugvogel RL 1
Song: In song flight also a trilling, warbling and cyclic "preecaria-preecaria-preecaria". [Link]
Calls: Most common call at breeding ground a disyllabic, melancholic and wailing whistle with the end falling in pitch. Contact call a straight, short "kluee". [Link]
Physical details: length=26-29 cm, wingspan=67-76 cm, weight=160-280 g

Family Scolopacidae (Shorebirds / Schnepfenvögel):

Genus Calidris:
Ruff / Kampfläufer (Calidris pugnax)
Alternate classification: Philomachus pugnax
Also known as: Ruff_(bird)
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Wikipedia: Ruff
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
Etymology: Nabu: Der Name leitet sich vom Balzverhalten der Männchen ab: In Balzarenen tragen sie „Turniere“ aus, um die Weibchen zu beeindrucken, dabei herrscht eine komplizierte Rollenverteilung. [Link]
Vocalization: Generally silent. Short, muted, nasal, mono or disyllabic grunts sometimes heard. [Link]
Physical details: length=26-30 cm, wingspan=54-58 cm, weight=75-230 g

Curlew sandpiper / Sichelstrandläufer (Calidris ferruginea)
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Wikipedia: Curlew sandpiper
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
General: The curlew sandpiper (Calidris ferruginea) is a small wader that breeds on the tundra of Arctic Siberia.[2] The genus name is from Ancient Greek kalidris or skalidris, a term used by Aristotle for some grey-coloured waterside birds. The specific ferruginea is from Latin ferrugo, ferruginis, "iron rust" referring to its colour in breeding plumage.[3] [more]
Calls: Flight call a soft, ringing and rolling "krrrrrt, with variations. Lacks the hoarse, nasal quality of similar call by Dunlin. [Link]
Physical details: length=18-19 cm, wingspan=42-46 cm, weight=50-65 g

Temminck's stint / Temminckstrandläufer (Calidris temminckii)
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Wikipedia: Temminck's stint
General: Temminck's stint (Calidris temminckii) is a small wader. This bird's common name and Latin binomial commemorate the Dutch naturalist Coenraad Jacob Temminck.[3] The genus name is from Ancient Greek kalidris or skalidris, a term used by Aristotle for some grey-coloured waterside birds.[4] [more]

Red knot / Knutt (Calidris canutus)
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Wikipedia: Red knot
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
The red knot (Calidris canutus) (just knot in English-speaking Europe) is a medium-sized shorebird which breeds in tundra and the Arctic Cordillera in the far north of Canada, Europe, and Russia. It is a large member of the Calidris sandpipers, second only to the great knot.[2] Six subspecies are recognised. [more]
Song: Song an undulating, nasal mewing "poooor-mee", or "po-hor-mee". [Link]
Calls: Most commonly heard migratory call, a short "kut" or "knot". Sometimes given in stuttering series. [Link]
Physical details: length=23-25 cm, wingspan=57-61 cm, weight=110-160 g

Sanderling / Sanderling (Calidris alba)
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Wikipedia: Sanderling
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
General: The sanderling (Calidris alba) is a small wading bird. The name derives from Old English sand-yrðling, "sand-ploughman".[2] The genus name is from Ancient Greek kalidris or skalidris, a term used by Aristotle for some grey-coloured waterside birds. The specific alba is Latin for "white".[3] [more]
Calls: Call not very diagnostic; a short and soft "pleet" or "keek". [Link]
Physical details: length=20-21 cm, wingspan=40-45 cm, weight=44-70 g

Dunlin / Alpenstrandläufer (Calidris alpina)
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Wikipedia: Dunlin
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
General: The dunlin (Calidris alpina) is a small wader, sometimes separated with the other "stints" in Erolia. The English name is a dialect form of "dunling", first recorded in 1531–2. It derives from dun, "dull brown", with the suffix -ling, meaning a person or thing with the given quality.[2] The genus name is from Ancient Greek kalidris or skalidris, a term used by Aristotle for some grey-coloured waterside birds. The specific alpina is from Latin and means "of high mountains", in this case referring to the Alps.[3] [more]
Song: Song: A drawn out, nasal "tweeet", and ringing variations on the contact call in decrescendo. Low chattering heard from feeding birds. [Link]
Calls: Contact call a diagnostic, very nasal "trrreeet" . Given throughout the year and in many situations, including when being flushed. [Link]
Physical details: length=16-20 cm, wingspan=38-43 cm, weight=35-60 g

Little stint / Zwergstrandläufer (Calidris minuta)
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Wikipedia: Little stint
General: The little stint (Calidris minuta) (or Erolia minuta), is a very small wader. It breeds in arctic Europe and Asia, and is a long-distance migrant, wintering south to Africa and south Asia. It occasionally is a vagrant to North America and to Australia. The genus name is from Ancient Greek kalidris or skalidris, a term used by Aristotle for some grey-coloured waterside birds. The specific minuta is Latin for "small.[2] [more]
Song: Song a cyclic series of thin "peee-peee-peee" rising and falling in pitch. [Link]
Calls: Contact call a quite soft, short, high pitched "pit". Sometimes uttered in series, or as soft chattering. [Link]
Physical details: length=12-14 cm, wingspan=34-37 cm, weight=18-30 g

Genus Numenius (Curlews):
Eurasian curlew / Grosser Brachvogel (Numenius arquata)
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Grosser Brachvogel. 2021-02-12 11.59.24
In Jona findet man viele auf der Wiese unter Obstbaeumen, anscheinend weil es dort viele Insekten und Schnecken gibt (siehe oben).
Geography: Die Brachvögel bruetet im Moment recht viel in Vergleich mit früher. [Link]
Diet: Nabu: Auf dem Speiseplan des Großen Brachvogels stehen vor allem Insekten und deren Larven und andere Kleintiere wie Schnecken und Regenwürmer, aber auch Krebstierchen. Ab und zu frisst er auch Amphibien, Reptilien oder Fische. [Link]
Song: Song starts similar to Whimbrel, with long wailing notes "kluuueee", but takes on a different ending as it accelerates to an ascending phrase repeated in rapid cycles . [Link]
Physical details: length=50-60 cm, wingspan=80-100 cm, weight=540-1300 g

Call: Das Männchen steigt mit einzelnen, klangvollen Rufen auf, die vor der Landung in einen weithin hörbaren Triller übergehen. [Link]

♫ Source: XENOCANTO (flight call)


Call attributes: flight call Call melody: simple rhythmic, slow, Frequency: low (1-3 KHz),

Whimbrel / Regenbrachvogel (Numenius phaeopus)
Also known as: Eurasian whimbrel
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This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
General: Der Regenbrachvogel (Numenius phaeopus) ist mit einer Spannweite um die 80 cm viel kleiner als der Große Brachvogel, auch der Schnabel ist kürzer und der Oberkopf ist hell und dunkel gestreift. Der Ruf dieser Vogelart ähnelt einem hellen Trillern. [more]
Song: Song starts similar to Curlew with long wailing notes "kluuueee", which then accelerates to a continuous, vibrating single note. Lacks the cyclic phrase ending of Curlew. [Link]
Physical details: length=40-42 cm, wingspan=76-89 cm, weight=300-660 g

Genus Arenaria (Turnstones):
Ruddy turnstone / Steinwälzer (Arenaria interpres)
Alternate classification: Tringa interpres
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Wikipedia: Ruddy turnstone
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
General: The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) is a small wading bird, one of two species of turnstone in the genus Arenaria. The scientific name is from Latin. The genus name arenaria derives from arenarius, "inhabiting sand, from arena, "sand". The specific interpres means "messenger"; when visiting Gotland in 1741, Linnaeus thought that the Swedish word Tolk "interpreter" applied to this species, but in the local dialect the word means "legs" and is used for the redshank.[2] [more]
Song: Alarm call/song more "wader-like", a staccato "kuvi-kuvi-vit-vit-vitua". [Link]
Calls: Characteristic call: An explosive, hard, resonant and short "koi" or "kott" with a peculiar timbre, usually given in rapid or accelerating series. [Link]
Physical details: length=22-24 cm, wingspan=50-57 cm, weight=85-150 g

Genus Scolopax:
Eurasian woodcock / Waldschnepfe (Scolopax rusticola)
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Wikipedia: Eurasian woodcock
Deutschland: Brut-, Jahres-, Zugvogel, Wintergast RL V
Vocalization: Sometimes give a snipe-like hoarse "raaat" when flushed. Male display flight at night distinctive. [Link]
Calls: Flies above treetops while calling with 3-5 deep croaking grunts, followed by an explosive high-pitched sneeze, "psst". [Link]
Physical details: length=33-35 cm, wingspan=56-60 cm, weight=131-420 g

Genus Gallinago:
Great snipe (Gallinago media)
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Wikipedia: Great snipe
General: The great snipe (Gallinago media) is a small stocky wader in the genus Gallinago. This bird's breeding habitat is marshes and wet meadows with short vegetation in north-eastern Europe, including north-western Russia. Great snipes are migratory, wintering in Africa. The European breeding population is in steep decline. [more]
Vocalization: Sometimes utters a faint grunt when flushed, but is generally silent when not lekking. [Link]
Calls: Display call unique: A bubbling, clappering and whistling sequence that accelerates into a crescendo followed by a decrescendo. [Link]
Physical details: length=27-29 cm, wingspan=47-50 cm, weight=150-225 g

Common snipe / Bekassine (Gallinago gallinago)
Alternate classification: Capella gallinago
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Wikipedia: Common snipe
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Deutschland: Brut-, Zugvogel, Wintergast RL 1
Vocalization: Quite vocal, especially at breeding ground. [Link]
Song: Song an unmistakable bleating, drumming sound produced by vibrating tail feathers in sky-dives. [Link]
Calls: Almost always give diagnostic hoarse and nasal "kaaat" call when flushed. Another territorial call is a rhythmic, mechanical and sharp "tika-tika-tka", or "ika-ka-ka". [Link]
Physical details: length=25-27 cm, wingspan=44-47 cm, weight=80-140 g

Genus Lymnocryptes:
Jack snipe / Zwergschnepfe (Lymnocryptes minimus)
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Wikipedia: Jack snipe
Deutschland: ehemaliger Brutvogel, Zugvogel, Wintergast
Vocalization: May occasionally give a harsh, nasal and rolling "reearrr" when flushed, but is usually silent. "Galloping" interspersed with cyclic, whistling, hissing sounds. Hard to locate when displaying. Seems both close and distant at the same time. [Link]
Calls: Display call a peculiar, cyclic and rhythmic sound performed in flight. Recalling a galloping horse in the distance. [Link]
Physical details: length=17-19 cm, wingspan=38-42 cm, weight=35-73 g

Genus Limosa:
Black-tailed godwit / Uferschnepfe (Limosa limosa)
Alternate classification: Scolopax limosa
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Wikipedia: Black-tailed godwit
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
General: The black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa) is a large, long-legged, long-billed shorebird first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. It is a member of the godwit genus, Limosa. There are three subspecies, all with orange head, neck and chest in breeding plumage and dull grey-brown winter coloration, and distinctive black and white wingbar at all times. [more]

Bar-tailed godwit / Pfuhlschnepfe (Limosa lapponica)
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Wikipedia: Bar-tailed godwit
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
The bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica) is a large wader in the family Scolopacidae, which feeds on bristle-worms and shellfish on coastal mudflats and estuaries. It has distinctive red breeding plumage, long legs, and a long upturned bill. Bar-tailed godwits breed on Arctic coasts and tundra from Scandinavia to Alaska, and overwinter on coasts in temperate and tropical regions of the Old World, Australia and New Zealand. The migration of the subspecies Limosa lapponica baueri across the Pacific Ocean from Alaska to New Zealand is the longest known non-stop flight of any bird, and also the longest journey without pausing to feed by any animal. The round-trip migration for this subspecies is over 29,000 km (18,020 mi).[2] [more]

Genus Tringa:
Common redshank / Rotschenkel (Tringa totanus)
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Wikipedia: Common redshank
The common redshank or simply redshank (Tringa totanus) is a Eurasian wader in the large family Scolopacidae. The genus name Tringa is the New Latin name given to the green sandpiper by Aldrovandus in 1599 based on Ancient Greek trungas, a thrush-sized, white-rumped, tail-bobbing wading bird mentioned by Aristotle. The specific totanus is from Tótano, the Italian name for this bird.[2] [more]
Vocalization: Generally a noisy and loud bird, especially at breeding ground. Most heard is a characteristic "tew-hoo", or "tew-hoo-hoo" with first syllable accentuated. No gap between the syllables like Greenshank, and usually with a marked falling pitch. [Link]
Song: Song similar to Wood Sandpiper, but with three accented notes in each cycle, not two. [Link]
Physical details: length=27-29 cm, wingspan=59-66 cm, weight=85-150 g

Wood sandpiper / Bruchwasserläufer (Tringa glareola)
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Wikipedia: Wood sandpiper
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
General: The wood sandpiper (Tringa glareola) is a small wader. This Eurasian species is the smallest of the shanks, which are mid-sized long-legged waders of the family Scolopacidae. The genus name Tringa is the New Latin name given to the green sandpiper by Aldrovandus in 1599 based on Ancient Greek trungas, a thrush-sized, white-rumped, tail-bobbing wading bird mentioned by Aristotle. The specific glareola is from Latin glarea, " gravel".[2] [more]
Vocalization: Totally different from Green Sandpiper. [Link]
Calls: Flight call a soft, but explosive "whiff whiff" , sometimes with only one syllable. Display call similar to redshank but with only two accented beats; a fast melodious "dee-loo", repeated in cycles. [Link]
Physical details: length=19-21 cm, wingspan=56-57 cm, weight=50-80 g

Spotted redshank / Dunkler Wasserläufer (Tringa erythropus)
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Wikipedia: Spotted redshank
General: The spotted redshank (Tringa erythropus) is a wader (shorebird) in the large bird family Scolopacidae. The genus name Tringa is the New Latin name given to the green sandpiper by Aldrovandus in 1599 based on Ancient Greek trungas, a thrush-sized, white-rumped, tail-bobbing wading bird mentioned by Aristotle. The specific erythropus is from Ancient Greek eruthros, "red", and pous, "foot".[2] [more]
Calls: Flight call loud and diagnostic, and is often the first sign of the species' presence; a sharp and short, disyllabic "koo-eett", with the first syllable falling in pitch and the second rising sharply. Display call a squeaky, but melodic "krroo-lee-ooo" repeated in cycles. Alarm call a falcon-like "ke-ke-ke-ke". [Link]
Physical details: length=29-31 cm, wingspan=61-67 cm, weight=125-210 g

Green sandpiper / Waldwasserläufer (Tringa ochropus)
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Wikipedia: Green sandpiper
General: The green sandpiper (Tringa ochropus) is a small wader (shorebird) of the Old World. The genus name Tringa is the New Latin name given to the green sandpiper by Aldrovandus in 1599 based on Ancient Greek trungas, a thrush-sized, white-rumped, tail-bobbing wading bird mentioned by Aristotle. The specific ochropus is from Ancient Greek okhros, "ochre", and pous, "foot".[2] [more]
Vocalization: Totally different from Wood Sandpiper. [Link]
Calls: Sharp, penetrating calls. Display call a high-pitched "kee-kleeoo-eet", continuously repeated with a wave-like motion in pitch. Other common calls have similar timbre and tone with different phrasing like; "klooeett -klee-klee-klee-klee-klee" and a rising pitch. [Link]
Physical details: length=21-24 cm, wingspan=57-61 cm, weight=60-90 g

Marsh sandpiper / Teichwasserläufer (Tringa stagnatilis)
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Wikipedia: Marsh sandpiper
General: The marsh sandpiper (Tringa stagnatilis) is a small wader. It is a rather small shank, and breeds in open grassy steppe and taiga wetlands from easternmost Europe to the Russian Far East. The genus name Tringa is the New Latin name given to the green sandpiper by Aldrovandus in 1599 based on Ancient Greek trungas, a thrush-sized, white-rumped, tail-bobbing wading bird mentioned by Aristotle. The specific stagnatilis is from Latin stagnum, "swamp".[2] [more]
Song: Song a slow, melancholic whistle "tu-lee-uu", with the middle part highest in pitch (and with falling glissando). Similar to Spotted Redshank in structure, but with a clear tone (little risk of confusion). [Link]
Calls: Flight call/contact call similar to singular instances of alarm call of Redshank, consisting of a single note rising abruptly in pitch in a split second and then falling; "kieew". Lingers a bit at the ending of the note, giving it a clearer glissando than in Redshank. [Link]
Physical details: length=22-24 cm, wingspan=55-59 cm, weight=50-85 g

Common greenshank / Grünschenkel (Tringa nebularia)
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Wikipedia: Common greenshank
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
General: The common greenshank (Tringa nebularia) is a wader in the large family Scolopacidae, the typical waders. The genus name Tringa is the New Latin name given to the green sandpiper by Aldrovandus in 1599 based on Ancient Greek trungas, a thrush-sized, white-rumped, tail-bobbing wading bird mentioned by Aristotle. The specific nebularia is from Latin nebula "mist". Like the Norwegian Skoddefoll, this refers to the greenshank's damp marshy habitat.[2] [more]
Vocalization: Most heard is a characteristic, trisyllabic "tew-tew-tew" (sometimes two or four syllables). Can resemble redshank, but pitch more stable, and not falling notably. Each syllable is clearly separated and equally emphasized. [Link]
Song: Song a clear disyllabic "cloo-eeee", repeated in cycles but each phrase clearly separated. At close range a short creaky sound is audible (between each phrase). Redshank may sing in a slightly similar way, but in continuous, linked phrases. [Link]
Physical details: length=30-33 cm, wingspan=68-70 cm, weight=130-270 g

Genus Actitis:
Common sandpiper / Flussuferläufer (Actitis hypoleucos)
Alternate classification: Tringa hypoleucos
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Wikipedia: Common sandpiper
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
General: The common sandpiper (Actitis hypoleucos) is a small Palearctic wader. This bird and its American sister species, the spotted sandpiper (A. macularia), make up the genus Actitis. They are parapatric and replace each other geographically; stray birds of either species may settle down with breeders of the other and hybridize. Hybridization has also been reported between the common sandpiper and the green sandpiper, a basal species of the closely related shank genus Tringa. [more]
Calls: Very vocal with characteristic repertoire of very high-pitched calls. Often heard is a disyllabic call, drawn out and slightly rising in pitch in the second part. This is often repeated in a series of rising tones in a cyclic manner, with approx 5 tones in each cycle. [Link]
Physical details: length=19-21 cm, wingspan=38-41 cm, weight=40-60 g

Genus Phalaropus:
Red phalarope / Thorshühnchen (Phalaropus fulicarius)
Alternate classification: Phalaropus fulicaria
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Wikipedia: Red phalarope
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
General: The red phalarope or grey phalarope (Phalaropus fulicarius) is a small wader. This phalarope breeds in the Arctic regions of North America and Eurasia. It is migratory, and, unusually for a wader, migrating mainly on oceanic routes and wintering at sea on tropical oceans. [more]
Calls: Flight-call a short and sharp, Coot-like "kit". Cleaner and higher pitched than Red-necked Phalarope. Display sound a rolling cooing, at stable pitch. Other calls: a hissing like the squeezing of a rubber duck, rising quickly in pitch and ending abruptly. [Link]
Physical details: length=20-22 cm, wingspan=40-44 cm, weight=40-75 g

Subfamily Sterninae (Terns / Möwenverwandte):

Genus Sterna:
Common tern / Flussseeschwalbe (Sterna hirundo)
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Common tern pfaeffikersee. 2020-05-20 09.31.28 Pfäffikersee
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
Seasonal Behavior: Die Flussseeschwalbe (Sterna hirundo) ist eine Vogelart aus der Familie der Seeschwalben (Sternidae). Sie ist in Mitteleuropa ein verbreiteter, aber nicht sehr häufiger Brut- und Sommervogel. Während der Zugzeiten können im mitteleuropäischen Raum außerdem viele Durchzügler beobachtet werden. [Link]
Vocalization: Similar to Arctic Tern but deeper. [Link]
Calls: Lacks latter's high pitched "tip-tip-tip" call, and the drawn out "kree-aaahh" call falls more distinctly in pitch. [Link]
Physical details: length=31-35 cm, wingspan=77-98 cm, weight=110-150 g

Arctic tern / Küstenseeschwalbe (Sterna paradisaea)
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Wikipedia: Arctic tern
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
General: The Arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea) is a tern in the family Laridae. This bird has a circumpolar breeding distribution covering the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions of Europe, Asia, and North America (as far south as Brittany and Massachusetts). The species is strongly migratory, seeing two summers each year as it migrates along a convoluted route from its northern breeding grounds to the Antarctic coast for the southern summer and back again about six months later. Recent studies have shown average annual roundtrip lengths of about 70,900 km (44,100 mi) for birds nesting in Iceland and Greenland[3] and about 90,000 km (56,000 mi) for birds nesting in the Netherlands.[4] These are by far the longest migrations known in the animal kingdom. The Arctic tern flies as well as glides through the air. It nests once every one to three years (depending on its mating cycle); once it has finished nesting it takes to the sky for another long southern migration. [more]
Vocalization: Similar to Common Tern but higher pitched. [Link]
Calls: Typical call a series of high pitched "tip-tip-tip", and longer, ringing, high-pitched "kriiiiii" calls. The drawn out "kree-aaahh" call falls less distinctly in pitch than Common Tern. [Link]
Physical details: length=33-35 cm, wingspan=75-85 cm, weight=95-120 g

Family Haematopodidae (Oystercatchers):

Genus Haematopus:
Eurasian oystercatcher / Austernfischer (Haematopus ostralegus)
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Eurasian oystercatcher, Iceland. 2015-06-09 14.04.38 Iceland
General: The Eurasian oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus) also known as the common pied oystercatcher, or palaearctic oystercatcher,[2] or (in Europe) just oystercatcher, is a wader in the oystercatcher bird family Haematopodidae. It is the most widespread of the oystercatchers, with three races breeding in western Europe, central Eurosiberia, Kamchatka, China, and the western coast of Korea. No other oystercatcher occurs within this area. The extinct Canary Islands oystercatcher (Haematopus meadewaldoi), formerly considered a distinct species, may have actually been an isolated subspecies or distinct population of the Eurasian oystercatcher.[3] [more]
Vocalization: Very vocal. [Link]
Calls: Sharp, loud and far carrying, disyllabic or monosyllabic calls "ku-eek" or "kleek". Often works itself up into a crescendos of fast, piping calls, and then mellows out. [Link]
Physical details: length=40-45 cm, wingspan=80-86 cm, weight=430-650 g

Family Stercorariidae:

Genus Stercorarius:
Pomarine jaeger / Spatelraubmöwe (Stercorarius pomarinus)
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Wikipedia: Pomarine jaeger
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
General: The pomarine jaeger (Stercorarius pomarinus), pomarine skua, or pomatorhine skua,[2] is a seabird in the skua family Stercorariidae. It is a migrant, wintering at sea in the tropical oceans. [more]
Calls: Short "kea" or "ke", and various mewing calls, usually deeper pitched than Arctic Skua. Also a characteristic, laughing and vibrating "kayayayayaya", heard mostly on breeding ground. [Link]
Physical details: length=46-51 cm, wingspan=125-138 cm, weight=600-900 g

Long-tailed jaeger / Falkenraubmöwe (Stercorarius longicaudus)
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Wikipedia: Long-tailed jaeger
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
General: The long-tailed skua or long-tailed jaeger (Stercorarius longicaudus) is a seabird in the skua family Stercorariidae. [more]

Parasitic jaeger / Schmarotzerraubmöwe (Stercorarius parasiticus)
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Wikipedia: Parasitic jaeger
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
The parasitic jaeger (Stercorarius parasiticus), also known as the Arctic skua, Arctic jaeger or parasitic skua, is a seabird in the skua family Stercorariidae. The word "jaeger" is derived from the German word Jäger, meaning "hunter".[2] The English "skua" comes from the Faroese name skúgvur [ˈskɪkvʊər] for the great skua, with the island of Skúvoy known for its colony of that bird. The general Faroese term for skuas is kjógvi [ˈtʃɛkvə].[3] The genus name Stercorarius is Latin and means "of dung"; the food disgorged by other birds when pursued by skuas was once thought to be excrement. The specific parasiticus is from Latin and means "parasitic".[4] [more]
Vocalization: Mostly heard at breeding ground. [Link]
Calls: Most characteristic call is a mewing, kittiwake-like "aeeeee-ah". First syllable drawn-out and rising in pitch, and followed by a deeper conclusive second syllable "ah". Lacks the introductory double accent of Kittiwakes ("kitti-wake"). [Link]
Physical details: length=41-46 cm, wingspan=110-125 cm, weight=330-570 g

Family Burhinidae (Triele, Haematopodidae – Austernfischer und Recurvirostridae – Säbelschnäblerverwandte):

Genus Burhinus:
Eurasian thick-knee / Triel (Art) (Burhinus oedicnemus)
Alternate classification: Charadrius oedicnemus
Also known as: Eurasian stone-curlew
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Wikipedia: Eurasian thick-knee
General: The Eurasian stone-curlew, Eurasian thick-knee, or simply stone-curlew (Burhinus oedicnemus) is a northern species of the Burhinidae (stone-curlew) bird family. [more]
Calls: Very vocal at twilight with various wailing, curlew-like calls, undulating in crescendoes, often in joined choruses. Most typical call a cyclic "turrru-leeek", with rolling "r" and second part higher pitched (at end of sound file). [Link]
Physical details: length=40-44 cm, wingspan=77-85 cm, weight=430-500 g

Family Recurvirostridae:

Genus Recurvirostra:
Pied avocet / Säbelschnäbler (Recurvirostra avosetta)
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Wikipedia: Pied avocet
General: The pied avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta) is a large black and white wader in the avocet and stilt family, Recurvirostridae. They breed in temperate Europe and across the Palearctic to Central Asia then on to the Russian Far East. It is a migratory species and most winter in Africa or southern Asia. Some remain to winter in the mildest parts of their range, for example in southern Spain and southern England. The pied avocet is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies. [more]
Vocalization: Not very vocal away from breeding ground. [Link]
Calls: Most common contact call a soft, short "kluitt" reminiscent of Ringed Plover, but harder and less varied. Also sometimes followed by repeated chattering: "kluitt-trt-trt-trt-trt-trt-trt". [Link]
Physical details: length=42-45 cm, wingspan=77-80 cm, weight=260-290 g

Genus Himantopus:
Black-winged stilt / Stelzenläufer (Himantopus himantopus)
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Wikipedia: Black-winged stilt
General: The black-winged stilt (Himantopus himantopus) is a widely distributed very long-legged wader in the avocet and stilt family (Recurvirostridae). The scientific name H. himantopus was formerly applied to a single, almost cosmopolitan species. It is now normally applied to the form that is widespread in Eurosiberia and Africa and which was formerly regarded as the nominate subspecies of Himantopus himantopus sensu lato. The scientific name Himantopus comes from the Greek meaning "strap foot" or "thong foot".[2] Most sources today accept 2–4 species.[3][4][5][6][7][8] It is sometimes called pied stilt, but that name is now reserved for the Australian species, Himantopus leucocephalus. [more]

Order Gruiformes (Terrestrial and marshbirds / Kranichvögel):

Family Rallidae (Rails / Rallen):

Genus Fulica (Coots):
Eurasian coot / Blässhuhn (Fulica atra)
Also known as: Blässhühner, Taucherli
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Baby coots near Fehraltorf 2020-04-14 18.00.54 Luppmen
The Eurasian coot (Fulica atra), also known as the common coot, or Australian coot, is a member of the rail and crake bird family, the Rallidae. It is found in Europe, Asia, Australia, New Zealand and parts of North Africa. It has a slaty-black body, a glossy black head and a white bill with a white frontal shield. The sexes are similar. [more]
Vocalization: Varied. Usually short, metallic and explosive. [Link]
Calls: Most diagnostic call a very short, sharp and explosive "tsk". Sometimes a longer, less sharp but nasal "caw", with varying harshness. [Link]
Physical details: length=36-38 cm, wingspan=70-80 cm, weight=600-1000 g

Genus Rallus:
Water rail / Wasserralle (Rallus aquaticus)
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Wasserralle im schilf am pfaeffikersee. 2021-02-15 08.33.30 Pfäffikersee
In reeds at a lake.
Appearance and identification: The upper parts from the forehead to tail are olive-brown with black streaks, especially on the shoulders. The sides of the head and the underparts down to the upper belly are dark slate-blue, except for a blackish area between bill and eye, and brownish sides to the upper breast. The flanks are barred black and white, and the undertail is white with some darker streaks. The long bill and the iris are red, and the legs are flesh-brown. [Link]
Vocalization: Varied but distinct. [Link]
Song: Most heard is the territorial song consisting of short, nasal, sharp grunts "tuck- tuck-tuck", ending with a drawn-out trill rising and falling in pitch "kiiiieeerrrr". [Link]
Calls: Another diagnostic call is heard from excited birds; a longer pig-like shrilling squeal, with waning repetitions. A bit like someone squeezing a rubber toy. Also short and sharp calls "kvii". [Link]
Physical details: length=23-28 cm, wingspan=38-45 cm, weight=80-180 g

Genus Gallinula:
Common moorhen / Teichhuhn (Gallinula chloropus)
Also known as: Eurasian moorhen, Teichralle
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Teichhuhn bei Rapperswil 2021-02-12 12.54.22 Rapperswil
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Seen at the Pfäffikersee walking across the path from one set of reeds to another. An apprentice at the nature center gave us the identification, presuming it was a juvenile because of the lack of color. I'd have said its legs were shorter, but the moorhen definitely has the main trait we saw, that it holds its short tail in the air.
Habitat: Common Moorhens prefer to nest in the thicket on the edge of ponds, lakes or rivers and mostly only give themselves away through their guttural calls. They are easier to observe in winter because then they leave their well-vegetated habitat and are seen in meadows, parks and on open waters. [Link]
Song: Most typical is the territorial call (song); a sharp, loud and resonant "krrrr-ook" or "krrrk". [Link]
Calls: Rich repertoire of loud calls and softer sounds. Other calls; a sharp, three or four-syllable "kekeke", and a soft "wep" sometimes drawn-out in a more mewing version. [Link]
Physical details: length=32-35 cm, wingspan=50-55 cm, weight=240-420 g

Genus Porzana:
Spotted crake / Tüpfelsumpfhuhn (Porzana porzana)
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Wikipedia: Spotted crake
General: The spotted crake (Porzana porzana) is a small waterbird of the family Rallidae. The scientific name is derived from Venetian terms for small rails.[2] [more]
Song: Loud and far reaching song uttered with relentless stamina for hours on end. A monosyllabic, resonant and drawn-out "huiiit". [Link]
Calls: The pith rises towards the emphasized end of the call, which is repeated about once a second. Often compared to the dripping of water. Mostly heard at night, and often i duet with mate. The female answers the male with a slightly deeper and softer call, giving the impression of one bird giving a disyllabic call. [Link]
Physical details: length=22-24 cm, wingspan=37-42 cm, weight=70-110 g

Genus Crex:
Corn crake / Wachtelkönig (Crex crex)
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Wikipedia: Corn crake
General: The corn crake, corncrake or landrail (Crex crex) is a bird in the rail family. It breeds in Europe and Asia as far east as western China, and migrates to Africa for the Northern Hemisphere's winter. It is a medium-sized crake with buff- or grey-streaked brownish-black upperparts, chestnut markings on the wings, and blue-grey underparts with rust-coloured and white bars on the flanks and undertail. The strong bill is flesh-toned, the iris is pale brown, and the legs and feet are pale grey. Juveniles are similar in plumage to adults, and downy chicks are black, as with all rails. There are no subspecies, although individuals from the east of the breeding range tend to be slightly paler than their western counterparts. The male's call is a loud krek krek, from which the scientific name is derived. The corn crake is larger than its closest relative, the African crake, which shares its wintering range; that species is also darker-plumaged, and has a plainer face. [more]
Song: Characteristic song can be heard at night. A rasping, hoarse "crex-crex" repeated about every second for long periods of time. [Link]
Physical details: length=27-30 cm, wingspan=46-53 cm, weight=120-200 g

Genus Zapornia:
Little crake / Kleines Sumpfhuhn (Zapornia parva)
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Wikipedia: Little crake
General: The little crake (Zapornia parva) is a very small waterbird of the family Rallidae. parva is Latin for "small".[2] [more]
Song: Male song diagnostic. A loud series of short, nasal ascending "quek" repeated every one and a half seconds or so, before accelerating and descending at the same time to a more guttural voice. Female song with similar short "quek" but with less pure tone and in shorter series (sometimes just one call), immediately followed by a rolling trill. [Link]
Calls: Rich repertoire of calls used freely in breeding season. [Link]
Physical details: length=18-20 cm, wingspan=34-39 cm, weight=40-60 g

Family Gruidae (Cranes):

Genus Grus:
Eurasian crane / Kranich (Grus grus)
Also known as: Common crane
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Wikipedia: Eurasian crane
Deutschland: Brut-, Zugvogel, seltener Wintergast
Vocalization: Powerful, resonant and bugling "kriiiiioooo" in various forms. Very far reaching. [Link]
Calls: Often heard in duet where the female immediately answers the male call at a slightly deeper pitch. Also very vocal when flocks meet. [Link]
Physical details: length=110-120 cm, wingspan=220-245 cm, weight=4500-7000 g

Class Accipitriformes (Hawks and eagles / Greifvögel):

Family Accipitridae (Habichtartige):

Subfamily Buteoninae (Bussardartige):
Genus Buteo (Hawks):
Common buzzard / Mäusebussard (Buteo buteo)
Alternate classification: Falco buteo
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Maeusebussard. 2020-04-17 08.14.46 Wald Fehraltorf
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
General: The common buzzard (Buteo buteo) is a medium-to-large bird of prey which has a large range. A member of the genus Buteo, it is a member of the family Accipitridae. The species lives in most of Europe and extends its breeding range across much of the Palearctic as far as the northwestern China (Tien Shan), far western Siberia and northwestern Mongolia.[1][2] Over much of its range, it is a year-round resident. However, buzzards from the colder parts of the Northern Hemisphere as well as those that breed in the eastern part of their range typically migrate south for the northern winter, many journeying as far as South Africa.[3] The common buzzard is an opportunistic predator that can take a wide variety of prey, but it feeds mostly on small mammals, especially rodents such as voles. It typically hunts from a perch.[4] Like most accipitrid birds of prey, it builds a nest, typically in trees in this species, and is a devoted parent to a relatively small brood of young.[2] The common buzzard appears to be the most common diurnal raptor in Europe, as estimates of its total global population run well into the millions.[2][5] [more]
Vocalization: Quite vocal. [Link]
Calls: Most typical call a wailing, mewing "peeoooo". Quite similar to Rough-legged Buzzard, but the pitch falls more rapidly and is then sustained for the last part of the call. [Link]
Physical details: length=51-57 cm, wingspan=113-128 cm, weight=550-1300 g

Subfamily Accipitrinae (True hawks / Bussardartige):
Genus Accipiter:
Northern goshawk / Habicht (Accipiter gentilis)
Alternate classification: Falco gentilis
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Young goshawk in Fehraltorf. A young hawk has these thrush-style streaks on its breast. When grown, these become bars. 2021-01-17 10.19.26 Luppmen
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
A young northern goshawk appeared in a tree on the Bahnhofstrasse in Fehraltorf one snowy January day in 2021.
Appearance and identification: A medium-large raptor in the family Accipitridae, which also includes other extant diurnal raptors, such as eagles, buzzards and harriers. As a species in the genus Accipiter, the goshawk is often considered a "true hawk".[3] The scientific name is Latin; Accipiter is "hawk", from accipere, "to grasp", and gentilis is "noble" or "gentle" because in the Middle Ages only the nobility were permitted to fly goshawks for falconry. [Link]
Vocalization: Series of short "ke-ke-ke-ke-ke". [Link]
Calls: More resonant, both sharper and deeper pitched than similar call of Sparrowhawk, and much slower. Also a wailing "peeeaaaaw". [Link]
Physical details: length=48-62 cm, wingspan=135-165 cm, weight=600-2000 g

Eurasian sparrowhawk / Sperber (Accipiter nisus)
Alternate classification: Falco nisus
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Sperber am Luppmen nicht weit vom Bahnhof 2021-02-06 10.49.12 Luppmen
General: The Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), also known as the northern sparrowhawk or simply the sparrowhawk, is a small bird of prey in the family Accipitridae. Adult male Eurasian sparrowhawks have bluish grey upperparts and orange-barred underparts; females and juveniles are brown above with brown barring below. The female is up to 25% larger than the male – one of the greatest size differences between the sexes in any bird species. Though it is a predator which specialises in catching woodland birds, the Eurasian sparrowhawk can be found in any habitat and often hunts garden birds in towns and cities. Males tend to take smaller birds, including tits, finches, and sparrows; females catch primarily thrushes and starlings, but are capable of killing birds weighing 500 g (18 oz) or more. [more]
AppearanceAndIdentification: The barred breast feather inspired the words Sperberung and gesperbert in German to describe that phenomenon. [Link]
Habitat: In winter, especially, it can be observed in towns and villages, where songbirds are an easy prey at bird [feeders]. [Link]
Diet: Though it is a predator which specialises in catching woodland birds, the Eurasian sparrowhawk can be found in any habitat and often hunts garden birds in towns and cities. Males tend to take smaller birds, including tits, finches, and sparrows; females catch primarily thrushes and starlings, but are capable of killing birds weighing 500 g (18 oz) or more. [Link]
Food: small songbirds, such as sparrows, finches, yellowhammers, thrushes, skylarks, starlings, tits. Females also hunt pigeons/doves. [Link]
Vocalization: Series of short "ke-ke-ke-ke-ke", with rising pitch. [Link]
Song: Meist in Horstnähe zu hören. Eine Reihe von kurzen Einzellauten, [Link]
Calls: wie „gigigi“. Ähnlichkeit mit Wendehals, aber klarer und schneller. Schneller auch als Grünspecht und tiefer als Turmfalke. [Link]
Less resonant and less full than similar call of Goshawk, and much faster. Also a short "peeaaaa", shorter and more squeaky than Buzzard. [Link]
Physical details: length=28-38 cm, wingspan=55-70 cm, weight=110-342 g

Genus Aquila:
Golden eagle / Steinadler (Aquila chrysaetos)
Alternate classification: Falco chrysaetos
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Wikipedia: Golden eagle
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Deutschland: Brut-, Jahresvogel RL 2
Vocalization: Not very vocal. A short, clear, yelping "kew". Sometimes in series in mellow tempo. [Link]
Calls: Also mewing, Buzzard-like calls. [Link]
Physical details: length=75-88 cm, wingspan=204-220 cm, weight=2840-6665 g

Genus Circus (Harriers):
Western marsh harrier / Rohrweihe (Circus aeruginosus)
Also known as: Western marsh-harrier, Eurasian marsh-harrier
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Wikipedia: Western marsh harrier
General: The western marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus) is a large harrier, a bird of prey from temperate and subtropical western Eurasia and adjacent Africa. It is also known as the Eurasian marsh harrier. The genus name Circus is derived from the Ancient Greek kirkos, referring to a bird of prey named for its circling flight (kirkos, "circle"), probably the hen harrier. The specific aeruginosus is Latin for "rusty".[3] [more]
Calls: Call: A sharp "kwii-uuu" of about a seconds length, rapidly ascending in pitch, and ending on a falling tone. [Link]
Physical details: length=48-56 cm, wingspan=115-130 cm, weight=405-800 g

Pallid harrier (Circus macrourus)
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Wikipedia: Pallid harrier
General: The pale or pallid harrier (Circus macrourus) is a migratory bird of prey of the harrier family. The scientific name is derived from the Ancient Greek. Circus is from kirkos, referring to a bird of prey named for its circling flight (kirkos, "circle"), probably the hen harrier and macrourus is "long-tailed", from makros, "long" and -ouros "-tailed".[2] [more]
Calls: Some calls similar to Montagu's and Hen Harrier, but display call quite diagnostic. A thin, vibrating trill "peerrrrrrrr". [Link]
Physical details: length=40-48 cm, wingspan=95-120 cm, weight=300-550 g

Montagu's harrier / Wiesenweihe (Circus pygargus)
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Wikipedia: Montagu's harrier
General: Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus) is a migratory bird of prey of the harrier family. Its common name commemorates the British naturalist George Montagu. [more]

Northern harrier / Kornweihe (Circus cyaneus)
Also known as: Hen harrier
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Wikipedia: Northern harrier
Deutschland: Brut-, Jahres-, Zugvogel, Wintergast RL 1
Vocalization: Mostly heard at breeding ground. [Link]
Calls: Calls with quite soft series of "ke-ke-ke-ke". Also a wailing, squealing whistle, with emphasized first syllable. [Link]
Physical details: length=44-52 cm, wingspan=100-120 cm, weight=300-600 g

Genus Gyps:
Eurasian griffon (Gyps fulvus)
Alternate classification: Vultur fulvus
Also known as: Griffon vulture
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Wikipedia: Eurasian griffon
General: The griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) is a large Old World vulture in the bird of prey family Accipitridae. It is also known as the Eurasian griffon. It is not to be confused with a different species, Rüppell's griffon vulture (Gyps rueppellii). It is closely related to the white-backed vulture (Gyps africanus). [more]
Vocalization: Quite vocal for a vulture, but generally silent in flight. Various shrieking high notes, hissing, and harsh cackling sounds. [Link]
Physical details: length=95-105 cm, wingspan=240-280 cm, weight=7500-11000 g

Genus Gypaetus:
Lammergeier (Gypaetus barbatus)
Also known as: Bearded vulture
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Wikipedia: Lammergeier
General: The bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), also known as the lammergeier and ossifrage, is a bird of prey and the only member of the genus Gypaetus. This bird is also identified as Huma bird or Homa bird in Iran and north west Asia. Traditionally considered an Old World vulture, it actually forms a minor lineage of Accipitridae together with the Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus), its closest living relative. It is not much more closely related to the Old World vultures proper than to, for example, hawks, and differs from the former by its feathered neck. Although dissimilar, the Egyptian and bearded vulture each have a lozenge-shaped tail—unusual among birds of prey. [more]
Calls: Display call a thin whistling with several register breaks, reminiscent of Honey Buzzard (Pernis apivorus). A passerine-like trill is also sometimes heard, but generally not a vocal bird. [Link]
Physical details: length=100-115 cm, wingspan=266-282 cm, weight=5000-7000 g

Genus Circaetus:
Short-toed snake-eagle / Schlangenadler (Circaetus gallicus)
Also known as: Short-toed snake eagle
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Wikipedia: Short-toed snake-eagle
General: The short-toed snake eagle (Circaetus gallicus), also known as the short-toed eagle, is a medium-sized bird of prey in the family Accipitridae, which also includes many other diurnal raptors such as kites, buzzards and harriers. The genus name Circaetus is from the Ancient Greek kirkos, a type of hawk, and aetos, "eagle". The specific gallicus means "of Gaul".[3] [more]

Genus Milvus:
Yellow-billed kite / Schwarzmilan (Milvus aegyptius)
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Wikipedia: Yellow-billed kite
The yellow-billed kite (Milvus aegyptius) is the Afrotropic counterpart of the black kite (Milvus migrans), of which it is most often considered a subspecies. However, recent DNA studies suggest that the yellow-billed kite differs significantly from black kites in the Eurasian clade, and should be considered as a separate, allopatric species.[2] [more]

Red kite / Rotmilan (Milvus milvus)
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Im Baum am Pfäffikersee 2020-05-20 08.58.48 Pfäffikersee
Geography: Very common here in the summer, I've seen up to 30 on a freshly plowed field, and you can seldom look up without seeing one. (You should look closely though, as they'll often circle in the air with buzzards.)They migrate to Spain in the winter, but increasing numbers stay here.Elsewhere in Europe they've been decreasing, while here they've become so successful that young birds have trouble finding a territory of their own. Wikipedia mentions them competing with the black kite, which I've never identified locally, so perhaps that's part of the key to their success. [Link]
Vocalization: Mainly heard in breeding season. A piercing long whistle, quickly ascending, then descending "piuuu". Often used in movies to give an eerie wildlife mood. [Link]
Calls: Differs from Black Kite in being a clear whistle all the way through the call, without "shivering". Higher pitched than Buzzard, and with less pause between calls. [Link]
Physical details: length=60-66 cm, wingspan=175-195 cm, weight=800-1300 g
Presence: 01-01 - 12-31
Breeding: 04-10 - 07-28
Migration in: 01-20 - 04-30
Migration out: 08-18 - 11-28

Black kite / Schwarzmilan (Milvus migrans)
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Black kite in the air and on the ground Source: WIKIPEDIA
This is on my list of birds to find, as it is supposed to be exist in this area,but I've never identified one. Their call (see Vogelwarte link) is a rapid sequence of whistles, and definitely distinct from that of the red kites. Visually they are harder to tell apart, but if you look closely, it should be clear: the black kite has less of a V in its tail and no big white patch at the wingtips. birdguides.com has a guide to distinguishing black and red kites, and says black are much rarer, but that is not true in Switzerland - Vogelwarte.ch says Switzerland has 2800–3500 red kites and 2000-3000 black kites.
Tenatively identified one flying high over Lake Lugano at San Salvatore in Ticino.
Look up
Vocalization: A piercing, first ascending then descending long "piuuu". Starting as a clear tone then gradually taking on a vibrating character that differs from Red Kite. Also a sharp "kieee -ki- ki-ki". More vocal than Red Kite. [Link]
Physical details: length=55-60 cm, wingspan=160-180 cm, weight=630-941 g

Genus Pernis:
European honey-buzzard / Wespenbussard (Pernis apivorus)
Also known as: European honey buzzard
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Wikipedia: European honey-buzzard
General: The European honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus), also known as the pern or common pern,[2] is a bird of prey in the family Accipitridae. [more]
Calls: Call an ascending, then descending; "pjuuuuu" much thinner than buzzards, and with a distinct register break when changing pitch. May be confused with newly fledged Buzzard chicks. [Link]
Physical details: length=52-60 cm, wingspan=135-150 cm, weight=360-1050 g

Genus Hieraaetus:
Booted eagle / Zwergadler (Hieraaetus pennatus)
Alternate classification: Aquila pennata
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Wikipedia: Booted eagle
General: The booted eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus, also classified as Aquila pennata) is a medium-sized mostly migratory bird of prey with a wide distribution in the Palearctic and southern Asia, wintering in the tropics of Africa and Asia, with a small, disjunct breeding population in south-western Africa. Like all eagles, it belongs to the family Accipitridae. [more]
Vocalization: Very vocal in breeding season. Most often heard is a quite soft, wader-like series of "kli-kli-kli-kli-kli-kli". [Link]
Physical details: length=45-53 cm, wingspan=100-121 cm, weight=510-1250 g

Family Pandionidae (Fischadler):

Genus Pandion:
Osprey / Fischadler (Pandion haliaetus)
Also known as: Western osprey
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Wikipedia: Osprey
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
General: Falco haliaetus Linnaeus, 1758 [more]
Calls: Calls with sequences of short, soft and clear whistling notes. Often in series with rising pitch, then ending with a few lower pitched notes. [Link]
Physical details: length=55-58 cm, wingspan=145-170 cm, weight=1120-2050 g

Infraclass Neognathae:

Order Ciconiiformes (Storks and others / Storchenvögel):

Family Ciconiidae (Storks):
Genus Ciconia:
White stork / Weissstorch (Ciconia ciconia)
Alternate classification: Ardea ciconia
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Stork in field towards Mesikon 2020-04-25 07.19.22 Luppmen
New as frequent visitor in Fehraltorf area in the 2010's. It actually died out in Switzerland in the 1950's, but has reestablished itself.
Either in the fields looking for food, or on a high output like a lamppost (the soccer field has especially high ones) or the chimneys at the RAV/Electrosuisse building or occasinally a rooftop.
Vocalization: Mostly silent. Loud, modulated bill-clattering from both sexes is heard during courtship/display. [Link]
Physical details: length=100-115 cm, wingspan=155-165 cm, weight=2275-4400 g

Song: The famous Klappern.
Song attributes: Melody: non-musical, slow, Frequency: low (1-3 KHz) Special sounds: rattle

Black stork / Schwarzstorch (Ciconia nigra)
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Wikipedia: Black stork
General: The black stork (Ciconia nigra) is a large bird in the stork family Ciconiidae. It was first described by Carl Linnaeus in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae. Measuring on average 95 to 100 cm (37 to 39 in) from beak tip to end of tail with a 145-to-155 cm (57-to-61 in) wingspan, the adult black stork has mainly black plumage, with white underparts, long red legs and a long pointed red beak. A widespread but uncommon species, it breeds in scattered locations across Europe (predominantly in Portugal and Spain, and central and eastern parts), and east across the Palearctic to the Pacific Ocean. It is a long-distance migrant, with European populations wintering in tropical Sub-Saharan Africa, and Asian populations in the Indian subcontinent. When migrating between Europe and Africa, it avoids crossing the Mediterranean Sea and detours via the Levant in the east or the Strait of Gibraltar in the west. An isolated, non-migratory, population occurs in Southern Africa. [more]
Vocalization: Thin, disyllabic "ahhh-li" heard at nest and when courting. One syllable sounds like gasping intake of air, the other is a thin, piping sound. A bit like a cheap, manual, air-mattress pump. Bill-clattering used by juveniles in alarm. [Link]
Physical details: length=95-100 cm, wingspan=145-155 cm, weight=3000 g

Order Columbiformes (Pigeons and others / Taubenvögel):

Family Columbidae (Pigeons):
Genus Columba:
Common wood pigeon / Ringeltaube (Columba palumbus)
Also known as: Common wood-pigeon
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Taube. 2020-04-11 08.25.00 Luppmen
Song: Gu-guh-guh-guh guh-gugugu –gu. „ Hansruedi wo geisch hi, ga Thun, was ga mache, ga Mähl hole, wiviel, es mutt“ [Link]
Song a 5 syllable cooing phrase, with emphasis on first syllable (1.st also higher pitched). Fift syllable functions as an introduction to next phrase. [Link]
Calls: Other: Usual call has 5 coos: 2+1+2, contrasted with the collared dove's 3 = 2+1 [Link]
Physical details: length=40-42 cm, wingspan=75-80 cm, weight=284-614 g

Stock dove / Hohltaube (Columba oenas)
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Hohltaube bei Maienfeld. 2021-05-29 11.42.52 Maienfeld
Deutschland: Brut-, Zugvogel
Song: Song a two-syllable, cooing. Much louder and more accentuated first syllable than in Feral Pigeon. First a short ascending "oooh", immediately followed by a short descending "oohh". Tone quite pure, mostly lacking the rolling quality of Feral Pigeon. [Link]
Physical details: length=32-34 cm, wingspan=63-69 cm, weight=250-350 g

Genus Streptopelia:
Eurasian collared dove / Türkentaube (Streptopelia decaocto)
Also known as: Eurasian collared-dove
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Didn't recognize this collared dove ...so I annotated it with the characteristics I should have recognized 2021-02-01 13.14.42 Luppmen
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America (introduced), Africa, Asia (introduced).
General: The Eurasian collared dove (Streptopelia decaocto) is a dove species native to Europe and Asia; it was introduced to Japan, North America and islands in the Caribbean. Because of its vast global range and increasing population trend, it has been listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List since 2014.[1] [more]
Song: Gu-guh-gu, klingt wie „ Gross-mue-ti“ Dazu auch „chräi“ oder „chwii“ [Link]
Song a characteristic, rhythmic cooing, consisting of three syllables with emphasis on the second. The third lower pitched than the rest. Can be rendered as "su-do-ku" (or "deca-oc-to", latin name derived from song). [Link]
Calls: Excitement-call a nasal "wrrraa". [Link]
Physical details: length=31-33 cm, wingspan=47-55 cm, weight=170-240 g

European turtle-dove / Turteltaube (Streptopelia turtur)
Also known as: European turtle dove
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Wikipedia: European turtle-dove
General: The European turtle dove (Streptopelia turtur) is a member of the bird family Columbidae, the doves and pigeons. It breeds over a wide area of the south western Palearctic including north Africa but migrates to northern sub-Saharan Africa to winter. [more]
Song: Song: a deep, rolling, and slightly ascending cooing; "trrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr trrr-trrrr" with variations in rhythm. Sometimes birds sticks to a phrase, but phrases varies between individuals. [Link]
Physical details: length=26-28 cm, wingspan=47-53 cm, weight=100-180 g

Order Coraciiformes (Kingfishers and others / Rackenvögel):

Family Alcedinidae (Kingfishers):
Genus Alcedo:
Common kingfisher / Eisvogel (Alcedo atthis)
Alternate classification: Gracula atthis
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Eisvogel beim Pfaeffikersee Ein paar sind im Herbst und Winter am Meteorwasserkanal nahe Schellenberger Textil zu sehen. 2020-11-17 10.57.56 Pfäffikersee
This is a favorite bird in Switzerland. On the one hand it's colorful and very active when seen in its hunting grounds at a waterway; on the other hand, it's seldom seen. Contrast the 400-500 breeding pairs with 400,000-550,000 of the everpresent great tits.
An apprentice for the nature center on Lake Pfaeffikon told us a bit about the kingfishers that hunt on a waterway that feeds into the lake. She said they spend the breeding season elsewhere in sandy areas and return to the lake in fall. I've read elsewhere that they watch for fish from convenient waterside branches. A classic motif for a picture is a branch sticking out of the water, and one photographer said he has actually placed a branch there, knowing the kingfisher would not be able to resist.
Etymology: Nabu: Ob der Name des Eisvogels (Alcedo atthis) tatsächlich mit Eis zu tun hat oder das eisblaue Rückengefieder Pate stand, ist strittig. Manche Deutungen leiten den Namen vom althochdeutschen „eisan“ für „schillern“ oder „glänzen“ ab. Der „Schillervogel“ wäre eine gute Beschreibung für das flirrende Farbenspiel, das der Eisvogel im Sitzen und erst recht im Flug bietet. Wieder andere Autoren interpretieren den „Eisvogel“ als „Eisenvogel“ und vermuten einen Bezug auf das stahlblaue Rücken- oder das rostfarbene Bauchgefieder des Eisvogels. [Link]
Seasonal Behavior: Status (in CH): regelmässiger, spärlicher Brutvogel, Durchzügler und Wintergast. [Link]
Calls: Wikipedia says 'The common kingfisher has no song. The flight call is a short, sharp whistle chee repeated two or three times. Anxious birds emit a harsh, shrit-it-it and nestlings call for food with a churring noise.' The NABU app only has calls, which seems to confirm this. Therefore I'm classifying all recordings as calls, even though some say Song at Xeno-Canto. [Link]
Most heard is the thin and penetrating contact call: A short "tzee", or disyllabic "tzee-tzu", with a ringing metallic quality. In excitement it is often alternated with ringing trills "tzeerrrrrrrrrr". [Link]
Physical details: length=16-17 cm, wingspan=24-26 cm, weight=34-46 g

Calls: 1: Common kingfisher call from Xeno-Canto, similar to one from NABU app. Fairly high pitched single chirps or occasional high-low pairs.
Call from Xeno-Canto

Call from Xeno-Canto Source: XENOCANTO (call)


2: BirdNet says kingfisher, but this was in the woods, which doesn't sound typical. Sounded very high to me, but was perhaps more just faint - only to 7Khz

♫ Source: BirdNet 2020-10-12 14.35.44 Fehraltorf (call)

3: (This was my song description:) High-pitched, quiet, single falling notes.

♫ Source: BirdNet 2020-10-08 15.58.38 Fehraltorf (call)

Call attributes: Call melody: one note, slow, Frequency: 5-7 KHz,

Family Coraciidae:
Genus Coracias:
European roller / Blauracke (Coracias garrulus)
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Wikipedia: European roller
General: The European roller (Coracias garrulus) is the only member of the roller family of birds to breed in Europe. Its overall range extends into the Middle East, Central Asia and Morocco. [more]
Vocalization: Various dry rasping, sometimes mewing, sounds and short clicks: "ahrahrahrahrahrahrahr" or pulse of clicks: "trrrtrrrrtrr". Also a clearer raptor- or jay-like descending "piiuu". [Link]
Physical details: length=30-32 cm, wingspan=66-73 cm, weight=120-160 g

Family Meropidae:
Genus Merops:
European bee-eater / Bienenfresser (Merops apiaster)
Also known as: Bee-eater
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Wikipedia: European bee-eater
Hoped to hear it and especially see it in Maienfeld (Kulturland-Exkursion) but didn't. It'll show up in Leuk in 2022!

Song: BirdID says multi-syllabic, rolling phrases, although it often seems to be one syllable as well. Hope to hear it and especially see it in Maienfeld.
Song attributes: Melody: simple rhythmic, slow, Frequency: medium (1-5 KHz)

Order Cuculiformes (Cuckoos and others / Kuckucke):

Family Cuculidae (Cuckoos):
Genus Cuculus:
Common cuckoo / Kuckuck (Cuculus canorus)
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Wikipedia Kuckuck, Cuculus canorus. Von Locaguapa - Eigenes Werk, CC BY-SA 3.0, Link Source: WIKIPEDIA
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Geography: A common migratory bird across most of Europe and Asia, it regularly strays to the western Alaskan islands in late spring and early summer. [Link]
Song: Männchen: Unverwechselbarer Ruf. Weibchen: im Frühling eine kichernde Rufreihe, [Link]
Song: the well known disyllabic "cuck-coo" with emphasis on first note, and the second note a third lower than the first one. Also a harsh "tchaa tchaa", and a bubbly trill, reminiscent of Little Grebe, uttered by the female. [Link]
Calls: wie „kwickkwickkwick“, 6-8 dicht gereihte, fast metallisch klingende Laute, von unten her angeschlagen. Jungkuckucke betteln durchdringend „ssrieb“ [Link]
Physical details: length=32-34 cm, wingspan=55-60 cm, weight=95-140 g

Order Falconiformes (Falcons and others / Falkenartige):

Family Falconidae:
Genus Falco (Falcons):
Common kestrel / Turmfalke (Falco tinnunculus)
Also known as: Eurasian kestrel
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Flying by Pfäffikon 2020-04-24 12.12.44 Luppmen
General: The common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) is a bird of prey species belonging to the kestrel group of the falcon family Falconidae. It is also known as the European kestrel, Eurasian kestrel, or Old World kestrel. In Britain, where no other kestrel species commonly occurs, it is generally just called "kestrel".[2] [more]
Oft seen in the fields around Fehraltorf, flapping away to stay in place.
Calls: Most common call a fast series of short, high-pitched "ke-ke-ke". Much less raucous than Merlin or Peregrine. [Link]
Physical details: length=32-35 cm, wingspan=71-80 cm, weight=156-252 g

Red-footed falcon / Rotfussfalke (Falco vespertinus)
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Wikipedia: Red-footed falcon
General: The red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus), formerly the western red-footed falcon, is a bird of prey. It belongs to the family Falconidae, the falcons. This bird is found in eastern Europe and Asia although its numbers are dwindling rapidly due to habitat loss and hunting. It is migratory, wintering in Africa. It is a regular wanderer to western Europe, and in August 2004 a red-footed falcon was found in North America for the first time on the island of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts.[2] [more]

Eurasian hobby / Baumfalke (Falco subbuteo)
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Wikipedia: Eurasian hobby
The Eurasian hobby (Falco subbuteo) or just simply hobby, is a small, slim falcon. It belongs to a rather close-knit group of similar falcons often considered a subgenus Hypotriorchis.[2][3][4] [more]
Vocalization: Varied, but not very vocal. [Link]
Calls: Calls when courting and at breeding ground. Most common sound a high-pitched "tew-tew-tew". Similar to Wryneck, but less pleading. Also a sneezing "ktcho". [Link]
Physical details: length=30-36 cm, wingspan=82-92 cm, weight=131-340 g

Peregrine falcon / Wanderfalke (Falco peregrinus)
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Wikipedia: Peregrine falcon
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
General: The peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), also known as the peregrine,[2] and historically as the duck hawk in North America,[3] is a widespread bird of prey (raptor) in the family Falconidae. A large, crow-sized falcon, it has a blue-grey back, barred white underparts, and a black head. The peregrine is renowned for its speed, reaching over 320 km/h (200 mph) during its characteristic hunting stoop (high-speed dive),[4] making it the fastest bird in the world, as well as the fastest member of the animal kingdom.[5][6][7] According to a National Geographic TV program, the highest measured speed of a peregrine falcon is 389 km/h (242 mph).[8][9] As is typical for bird-eating raptors, peregrine falcons are sexually dimorphic, with females being considerably larger than males.[10][11] [more]
Vocalization: A harsh, drawn out "kiaaaa" with emphasised endings repeated in series. Much slower than Merlin, but higher pitched than Gyrfalcon. [Link]
Calls: Also shorter, coarse warning-calls. [Link]
Physical details: length=36-48 cm, wingspan=95-110 cm, weight=582-1300 g

Merlin / Merlin (Falco columbarius)
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Night tour - sleeping trogon, tenative ID by Merlin collared trogon. 2018-02-14 18.46.34 Central America
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
Deutschland: Zugvogel, Wintergast
Vocalization: Series of harsh "kwik-wik wik". Coarseness similar to Peregrine, but pace much quicker. [Link]
Calls: Female call harsher than male. Lacking the clearer tones and attack of Kestrel. [Link]
Physical details: length=25-30 cm, wingspan=50-62 cm, weight=125-300 g

Order Piciformes (Woodpeckers and others / Spechtvögel):

Family Picidae (Woodpeckers):
Genus Picoides:
Eurasian three-toed woodpecker / Dreizehenspecht (Picoides tridactylus)
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Männchen mit gut erkennbarem gelben Oberkopf. Von Alberto Chiarle - https://www.flickr.com/photos/alberto_chiarle/5373229161/, CC BY-SA 3.0, Link Source: WIKIPEDIA
Behavior: Der Borkenkäferspezialist bevorzugt ungepflegte Fichtenwälder mit reichlich Totholz. [Portrait]
Behavior: Die Anwesenheit des heimlichen Dreizehenspechts wird oft übersehen. Er ist wenig scheu und fliegt kaum weg, wenn man sich ihm nähert. [Portrait]

Song: Fast drumming, constant volume, longer than great spotted woodpecker's.
Song attributes: Melody: simple rhythmic, fast, Frequency: low (1-3 KHz) Special sounds: drumming
Call: Behavior: Seine unauffälligen Rufe sind nicht laut und tönen ähnlich wie jene des Buntspechts. [Portrait]

♫ Source: XENOCANTO (call)


Call attributes: drumming Call melody: simple rhythmic, slow, Frequency: low (1-3 KHz),

Genus Dendrocopos:
Great spotted woodpecker / Buntspecht (Dendrocopos major)
Alternate classification: Picoides major
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Buntspecht hoch im Baum im Wald 'Im Brand' 2020-04-25 07.57.12 Luppmen
Most common woodpecker in Switzerland
Vocalization: It's frequent drumming is easily recognized by its short duration. [Link]
Calls: Typically it lasts 0.5 seconds, sometimes slightly longer. Contact call frequently hear throughout the year. A short hiccup "kek", sometimes in series. When excited this may escalate into a trill. [Link]
Physical details: length=22-23 cm, wingspan=34-39 cm, weight=70-100 g

Song: Call: Nabu: Das bekannteste Geräusch des schwarz-weißen Spechtes ist aber wohl sein kurzes, aber häufiges Trommeln. [Link]
In a sonogram I can see about 13 taps in just over half a second, but you can never distinguish so many. It's short but intense, and the second half trails off, especially contrasted with the constant drumming of the three-toed woodpecker. [[Listen here.]]
Song: Other: ‘Drumming’ is the sound that Great Spotted Woodpeckers make by hammering their bills against dead wood 10-20 times over 2-3 seconds. The sound resonates in the dead wood and can be heard over large distances. This drumming acts as an advert and is used by Great spotted Woodpeckers and other woodpecker species instead of a song. [From the GardenBird web site]
Song attributes: Melody: non-musical, fast, Frequency: low (1-3 KHz) Special sounds: drumming
Call: General: A chirping (that I couldn't associate in my mind with a woodpecker), repeated at somewhat irregular intervals of about a second
Call: Nabu: Der häufigste Ruf ist ein kurzes und spitzes „kix“. Ist ein Buntspecht aufgebracht, etwa durch einen Artgenossen, kann man ein schnelles Schnarren hören. [Link]
Great spotted woodpecker call

Great spotted woodpecker call Source: XENOCANTO (call)


Call attributes: Call melody: one note, slow, Frequency: 1-8 KHz,

Middle spotted woodpecker / Mittelspecht (Dendrocoptes medius)
Alternate classification: Dendrocopos medius, Dendrocoptes medius, Picoides medius, Leiopicus medius
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Vogelwarte Mittelspecht. Source: VOGELWARTE
Habitat: Der Mittelspecht ist ein Habitatspezialist, der bei uns hauptsächlich ehemalige Mittelwälder mit zahlreichen Alteichen besiedelt. Der Bestand ist gefährdet und langfristig wird er sich nur halten können, wenn grossflächige Wälder mit der Eiche als Hauptbaumart bestehen bleiben. [Link]
Song: Im Gegensatz zu anderen Spechten trommelt der Mittelspecht nur sehr selten. [Link]
Song is a series of short, mewing and nasal "peeaa peeaa peeaa ", where each syllable quickly rises in pitch, but the overall phrase is fairly constant. [Link]
Calls: Contact and alarm call consists of a series of short "kitt" sounds, where the first syllable is clearer and distinctly in a higher pitch than the rest of the phrase. Seldom drums. [Link]
Physical details: length=20-22 cm, wingspan=33-34 cm, weight=50-80 g

Call: Stattdessen ist in der Brutzeit das klagende Quäken zu hören, womit der Mittelspecht sein Revier markiert. [Link]

♫ Source: XENOCANTO (call)


Call attributes: Call melody: simple rhythmic, slow, Frequency: 0-4 KHz,

White-backed woodpecker / Weissrückenspecht (Dendrocopos leucotos)
Alternate classification: Picoides leucotos
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Vogelwarte Weissrueckenspecht. Source: VOGELWARTE
Da es selten zu sehen ist, habe ich wenig beschrieben.
Habitat: The White-backed Woodpecker is the largest and rarest of the black and white woodpeckers. Since a few years only, individual breeding pairs have been observed in the east of Switzerland. Because of its special habitat requirements – natural forests with a great number of dying and dead trees – the occurrence of the White-backed Woodpecker is limited to remote and inaccessible forests. It has secretive habits and is most likely observed during the courtship period. [Link]

Genus Dryocopus:
Black woodpecker / Schwarzspecht (Dryocopus martius)
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Black Woodpecker adult and young By Alastair Rae from London, United Kingdom - Black Woodpecker, CC BY-SA 2.0. Source: WIKIPEDIA
Bisher gehört aber nicht gesehen
Appearance and identification: The black woodpecker (Dryocopus martius) is a large woodpecker that lives in mature forests across the northern Palearctic. It is the sole representative of its genus in that region. Its range is expanding. It does not migrate. [Link]
Habitat: The black woodpecker is mainly found in forested regions, with a preference for extensive, mature woodland, including coniferous, tropical, subtropical and boreal forests. It is very widespread throughout mountainous and lowland forests. It is more likely to occur in marginal woods near human habitations during the non-breeding season. [Link]
Vocalization: Most sounds diagnostic and very far reaching. Drumming very powerful and long (1.8 - 3 sec.) with slightly falling intensity and accelerated ending. Each beat clearly distinguishable as in Tree-toed Woodpecker, but duration much longer. [Link]
Song: Beide Geschlechter ähnlich Grünspecht aber klangvoller. „klückklückklück“ 10-20 Laute. Die „klück“ werden etwas von unten heraufgeholt, vor allem gegen den Schluss zu. Häufiger hört man „kliüüh“ von am Stamme sitzenden Vogel. Bei Platzwechsel ruft er „krükrükrü“. [Link]
Song a quick series of "klee" calls resembling Green Woodpecker, but with a purer tone and upward infliction at end of each syllable. [Link]
Calls: Drumming:

Error loading Flash for sound!
See sound file


Flight call a characteristic resonant trill "krrreekrrreekrrreekrrree". A characteristic short, sharp and plaintive "keeaaa" with descending pitch often uttered when excited. A few slower drawn-out introductory calls before the phrase gets going is diagnostic.
[Link]
Physical details: length=45-57 cm, wingspan=64-68 cm, weight=290-370 g

Calls: 1: General: A loud unearthly call on a single unwavering note.
Great spotted woodpecker call

Great spotted woodpecker call Source: XENOCANTO (call)


2: Describe drumming here, cf to other peckers!
Call attributes: Call melody: one note, slow, Frequency: 1-8 KHz,

Genus Picus:
Grey-headed woodpecker / Grauspecht (Picus canus)
Also known as: Gray-headed woodpecker, Grey-faced woodpecker
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Vogelwarte Grauspecht. Note that it's quite green despite its name. Source: VOGELWARTE
Behavior: Der Grauspecht gehört mit dem Grünspecht zu den «Erdspechten», die ihre Nahrung vorwiegend auf dem Boden suchen. Obwohl er fast so gross ist wie der Grünspecht, ist der heimlicher lebende Grauspecht ungleich schwieriger zu lokalisieren. Am ehesten verrät er sich durch die fallende, etwas melancholisch wirkende Rufreihe. Über seine Lebensweise ist vergleichsweise wenig bekannt. [Link]
Song: Deutlich abfallende Tonreihe. 4-10 Töne. Absinken beginnt gewöhnlich erst mit dem dritten oder vierten Ton und wird etwas langsamer. Klingt etwas klagend (moll). Vor allem gegen den Schluss. Kann nachgepfiffen werden. (beim Grünspecht nicht ) [Link]

Song: Drumming in lieu of song. Fast, constant, somehow less harsh than great and middle spotted woodpeckers.
Song attributes: Melody: simple rhythmic, fast, Frequency: 0-4 KHz Special sounds: drumming
Call: In the FOK course, Christina said he sounds like he's running out of gas, which is a great description.

♫ Source: XENOCANTO (call)


Call attributes: Call melody: simple rhythmic, slow, Frequency: high (3-9 KHz),

Eurasian green woodpecker / Grünspecht (Picus viridis)
Also known as: European green woodpecker
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Green woodpecker, Ecoteaux. In Loic and Laure's garden 2021-05-17 17.13.28 Ecoteaux
In the FOK course, Tom mentioned that his nephew said it should be called the Buntspecht, since it has so many colors.
Da es v.a. Ameisen frisst, trommelt es nicht viel, so weit ich mich erinnere, daher ist es hier nicht beschrieben. Xenocanto hat auch nichts.
Appearance and identification: Der Grünspecht fällt neben dem laut lachenden Balzruf auch durch den wellenförmigen Flug auf, bei dem er die Flügel zwischen zwei Schlagphasen ganz an den Körper anlegt. Neben dem Wendehals ist er unter den Spechtarten Europas am stärksten auf Ameisen spezialisiert. Er besitzt eine mehr als 10 Zentimeter lange Zunge, die klebrig und an der Spitze mit Widerhaken versehen ist. [Link]
Song: Helles Lachen. Weiche, oft leicht abfallende Tonreihe. Variabel in Lautstärke und Silbenzahl. je nach Stimmung. Wenn abfallend dann vom Anfang der Rufreihe an. Auch dreisilbig „kiäckkiäckkiäck“. [Link]
Song similar to Grey-headed Woodpecker, but not as soft and fluty. Each phrase consist of a series of short "klee", with a laughing quality. Pitch drops slightly throughout the phrase, but not as markedly as in Grey-headed, and tempo is fairly constant (no ritardando). [Link]
Calls: Short "kek" calls when excited and in flight. Drumming of 1.5 seconds duration with decelerating tempo, but not often heard. Another call is similar to Black Woodpecker; a series of resonant "klit-klit-klit-klit-klit-klit", but is less clear, has a more determined start and has less obvious rising pitch at the end of each syllable. [Link]
Physical details: length=31-33 cm, wingspan=40-42 cm, weight=150-220 g

Call: Hysterical laughter. 7-8 loud urgent slightly falling notes, reminding me of George of the Jungle's dooky dooky bird for some reason.

♫ Source: XENOCANTO (call)


Call attributes: Call melody: simple rhythmic, slow, Frequency: high (3-9 KHz),

Genus Jynx:
Eurasian wryneck / Wendehals (Jynx torquilla)
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Deutschland: Brut-, Zugvogel RL 2
Vocalization: Normally silent when not breeding. Other sounds: a guttural "gru", and hissing sounds when threatened. [Link]
Song: Song (both sexes): an insisting, Merlin- or Lesser Spotted Woodpecker-like series of plaintive "kee kee kee kee kee ". First slightly ascending, then descending. [Link]
Physical details: length=16-17 cm, wingspan=25-27 cm, weight=30-45 g

Genus Dryobates:
Lesser spotted woodpecker / Kleinspecht (Dryobates minor)
Alternate classification: Dendrocopos minor, Picoides minor
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Kleinspecht am luppmen. Never saw one until after a heavy snowfall one checked out the trees along the Luppmen 2021-01-16 12.56.16 Luppmen
Bisher gesehen aber nicht gehört!
Appearance and identification: The smallest European woodpecker. ... From its small size and its habit of spending most of its time in the tops of tall trees in woods and parks, this little woodpecker is often overlooked, but if sighted on a trunk it may at once be identified by the broad barring on the wings and narrower bars across the lower back. [Link]
Der Kleinspecht ist der Zwerg unter den europäischen Spechten. Er macht sich im Frühjahr mit hohen Rufreihen und gleichmässigen Trommelwirbeln bemerkbar. [Link]
Habitat: As above: spend(s) most of its time in the tops of tall trees [Link]
Vocalization: Frequently drums in quite long series. Much longer than Great Spotted, and without ritardando. [Link]
Calls: Most common call a series of merlin-like "ke-ke-ke-ke-ke-ke" given at fairly stable pitch, and less hoarse than Merlin. Differs from Wryneck in lacking marked rise and fall in pitch, and being less plaintive. [Link]
Physical details: length=14-15 cm, wingspan=25-27 cm, weight=17-25 g

Song: Drumming in lieu of song. Fast, constant.
Song attributes: Melody: simple rhythmic, fast, Frequency: 0-4 KHz Special sounds: drumming
Call: Vogelwarte wie oben..hohe Rufreihen

♫ Source: XENOCANTO (call)


Call attributes: Call melody: simple rhythmic, fast, Frequency: high (3-9 KHz),

Order Gaviiformes (Loons / Seetaucher):

Family Gaviidae (Loons):
Genus Gavia:
Red-throated loon / Sterntaucher (Gavia stellata)
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Wikipedia: Red-throated loon
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
Deutschland: Zugvogel, Wintergast

Great northern loon / Eistaucher (Gavia immer)
Alternate classification: Urinator imber
Also known as: Common loon
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Wikipedia: Great northern loon
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
Deutschland: seltener Wintergast
Song: Song: Like a slow Black-throated Diver. Pitch slowly rising with a register break, progressing into a cyclic, two to four syllable, motif. [Link]
Calls: Also various vibrating eerie descending calls. Often used as sound effect in horror movies. [Link]
Physical details: length=69-91 cm, wingspan=69-91 cm, weight=3600-4480 g

Black-throated loon / Prachttaucher (Gavia arctica)
Also known as: Arctic loon
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Wikipedia: Black-throated loon
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
Deutschland: Zugvogel, Wintergast

Order Podicipediformes (Grebes / Lappentaucher):

Family Podicipedidae (Grebes):
Genus Podiceps:
Great crested grebe / Haubentaucher (Podiceps cristatus)
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Exotic looking waterbird common at Pfäffikersee
Vocalization: Laughing sequences with nasal grunts, a rolling nasal "treaa" and bill-clattering. [Link]
Physical details: length=46-51 cm, wingspan=85-90 cm, weight=568-813 g

Black-necked grebe / Schwarzhalstaucher (Podiceps nigricollis)
Also known as: Eared grebe
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Evtl Schwarzhalstaucher. 2021-03-07 11.13.08
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
General: The black-necked grebe or eared grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) is a member of the grebe family of water birds. It was described in 1831 by Christian Ludwig Brehm. There are currently three accepted subspecies, including the nominate subspecies. Its breeding plumage features a distinctive ochre-coloured plumage which extends behind its eye and over its ear coverts. The rest of the upper parts, including the head, neck, and breast, are coloured black to blackish brown. The flanks are tawny rufous to maroon-chestnut, and the abdomen is white. When in its non-breeding plumage, this bird has greyish-black upper parts, including the top of the head and a vertical stripe on the back of the neck. The flanks are also greyish-black. The rest of the body is a white or whitish colour. The juvenile has more brown in its darker areas. The subspecies californicus can be distinguished from the nominate by the former's usually longer bill. The other subspecies, P. n. gurneyi, can be differentiated by its greyer head and upper parts and by its smaller size. P. n. gurneyi can also be told apart by its lack of a non-breeding plumage. This species is present in parts of Africa, Eurasia, and the Americas. [more]

Horned grebe / Ohrentaucher (Podiceps auritus)
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Horned grebe, Myvatn, Iceland. 2015-06-05 11.22.28 Iceland
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
Deutschland: Brut-, Zugvogel, Wintergast RL 1
Vocalization: Varied. Vibrating, wailing, dry and cackling sequences. A mewing, falling and far-reaching "kiaa" and various rattling sounds. [Link]
Physical details: length=31-38 cm, wingspan=46-55 cm, weight=364-449 g

Red-necked grebe / Rothalstaucher (Podiceps grisegena)
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Wikipedia: Red-necked grebe
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
Deutschland: Brut-, Zugvogel

Genus Tachybaptus:
Little grebe / Zwergtaucher (Tachybaptus ruficollis)
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Zwergtaucher. 2021-08-19 12.16.02 Kaltbrunner-Riet
General: The little grebe (Tachybaptus ruficollis), also known as dabchick, is a member of the grebe family of water birds. The genus name is from Ancient Greek takhus "fast" and bapto "to sink under". The specific ruficollis is from Latin rufus "red" and Modern Latin -collis, "-necked", itself derived from Latin collum "neck".[2] [more]
Vocalization: Relatively vocal compared to many other grebes. [Link]
Calls: Call; sometimes a single quite clear high pitched "dydlylyyt". More often combined into longer phrases with harsher quality, oscillating like laughter and travelling up and down in pitch in agitated motion. Reminiscent of female Cuckoo. [Link]
Physical details: length=25-29 cm, wingspan=40-45 cm, weight=140-193 g

Order Strigiformes (Owls / Eulen):

Family Strigidae:
Genus Bubo (Eagle owls):
Eurasian eagle-owl / Uhu (Bubo bubo)
Alternate classification: Strix bubo
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Wikipedia: Eurasian eagle-owl
Deutschland: Brut-, Jahresvogel
Song: Song a very deep "ooho". Continuous, but disyllabic. First syllable emphasized and second syllable rapidly falling in pitch. Quite similar to Long-eared Owl, but deeper and with more pronounced pitch change at end ("release"). [Link]
Calls: Frequency of calls also diagnostic: Typically 8-10 seconds between each "ooho" (2-3 seconds in Long-eared Owl ). Audible at 1 - 4 km distance. Both sexes sing. Has a rich repertoire of contact/alarm calls like a hoarse, heron-like "kreaaak", and an excited, bubbling "hohohohoh". [Link]
Physical details: length=60-75 cm, wingspan=160-188 cm, weight=1800-4200 g

Genus Strix:
Tawny owl / Waldkauz (Strix aluco)
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Wikipedia: Tawny owl
Zuerst gehört in Carona südlich von Lugano
Vocalization: Other often heard sounds; a sharp, short, disyllabic "kiu-wik". First syllable ascending then descending, and last ascending in pitch. [Link]
Song: Song a resonant descending "hoooooo". After 2-3 sec. [Link]
Calls: typically followed by a slightly ascending, vibrating "hohohohohoho" and quickly another descending "hooooooo". Complete phrase: "hoooooo, hohohohohoho-hoooooo". May omit parts. [Link]
Physical details: length=37-39 cm, wingspan=94-104 cm, weight=340-620 g

Genus Aegolius (Saw-whet owls):
Boreal owl / Raufusskauz (Aegolius funereus)
Alternate classification: Strix funerea
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Wikipedia: Boreal owl
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
Deutschland: Brut-, Jahresvogel

Genus Asio:
Short-eared owl / Sumpfohreule (Asio flammeus)
Alternate classification: Strix flammea
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Wikipedia: Short-eared owl
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
Deutschland: Brut-, Zugvogel, Wintergast RL 1

Long-eared owl / Waldohreule (Asio otus)
Alternate classification: Strix otus
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Wikipedia: Long-eared owl
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Deutschland: Brut-, Jahres-, Zugvogel, Wintergast

Genus Otus:
Eurasian scops-owl (Otus scops)
Also known as: Eurasian scops owl
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Wikipedia: Eurasian scops-owl
General: The Eurasian scops owl (Otus scops), also known as the European scops owl or just scops owl, is a small owl. This species is a part of the larger grouping of owls known as typical owls, Strigidae, which contains most species of owl. The other grouping is the barn owls, Tytonidae. The scientific name is from the Latin otus for an eared owl and Ancient Greek skopos, "watcher".[3] [more]
Song: Song: a slightly descending, short "klooit". The tone is resonant, clear and pure, unlike Little Owl. [Link]
Calls: Calls uttered endlessly in a frequency of about 20 a minute. Resembles Midwife Toad (Alytes), but is clearly modulated in pitch, as opposed to the toads straight tone. [Link]
Physical details: length=19-20 cm, wingspan=53-63 cm, weight=60-120 g

Genus Glaucidium:
Eurasian pygmy-owl / Sperlingskauz (Glaucidium passerinum)
Also known as: Eurasian pygmy owl
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Wikipedia: Eurasian pygmy-owl
Deutschland: Brut-, Jahresvogel
Calls: Calls in a clear voice, like a straight note blown on a recorder. Each note often followed by a rhythmic, trisyllabic accent a whole tone deeper than the first note. [Link]
Physical details: length=16-17 cm, wingspan=34-36 cm, weight=47-80 g

Genus Athene:
Little owl / Steinkauz (Athene noctua)
Alternate classification: Strix noctua
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Wikipedia: Little owl
Deutschland: Brut-, Jahresvogel RL 2
Vocalization: Rich repertoire of social sounds: E.g. a clear "klewew", and sharp short "kek kek kek". [Link]
Song: Song a clear drawn "klooit" resembling Scops Owl, but with different intonation and longer single notes. [Link]
Calls: Tone rises slowly in pitch throughout the call and ends with marked raised pitch, often with a change in timbre to a coarse shriek. [Link]
Physical details: length=21-23 cm, wingspan=54-58 cm, weight=140-220 g

Family Tytonidae (Barn owls):
Genus Tyto:
Barn owl / Schleiereule (Tyto alba)
Alternate classification: Strix alba
Also known as: Western barn owl
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Wikipedia: Barn owl
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
General: The barn owl (Tyto alba) is the most widely distributed species of owl in the world and one of the most widespread of all species of birds, being found almost everywhere in the world except for the polar and desert regions, Asia north of the Himalayas, most of Indonesia, and some Pacific Islands. It is also known as the common barn owl, to distinguish it from the other species in its family, Tytonidae, which forms one of the two main lineages of living owls, the other being the typical owls (Strigidae). [more]
Vocalization: Large repertoire of mainly hissing and screeching sounds. [Link]
Song: Song consists of a single, drawn screech, lasting about a second and is often performed in flight. Starting in a very hoarse tone, then progressing with a rising pitch into a more burbling sound, before suddenly ending. [Link]
Physical details: length=33-35 cm, wingspan=80-95 cm, weight=240-350 g

Order Upupiformes (Hoopoes and others / Hopf- und Hornvögel):

Family Upupidae:
Genus Upupa:
Eurasian hoopoe / Wiedehopf (Upupa epops)
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Wikipedia: Eurasian hoopoe
General: The Eurasian hoopoe (Upupa epops) is the most widespread species of the genus Upupa, native to Europe, Asia and the northern half of Africa. Some taxonomists still consider all three species conspecific. Some authorities also keep the African and Eurasian hoopoe together, but split the Madagascar hoopoe. [more]
Song: Song a characteristic, hollow, far-reaching and trisyllabic "hoop-hoop-hoop". Dove-like timbre and slightly ascending in pitch. Sometimes two or four syllables, depending on virility of male. [Link]
Calls: Other calls include a dry, hoarse and rasping "ehrrrrrr". [Link]
Physical details: length=26-28 cm, wingspan=42-46 cm, weight=55-87 g

Superorder Galloanserae:

Order Galliformes (Landfowls / Hühnervögel):
Family Phasianidae (Turkeys):
Subfamily Perdicinae:
Genus Perdix:
Grey partridge / Rebhuhn (Perdix perdix)
Also known as: Gray partridge
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Wikipedia: Grey partridge
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
Deutschland: Brut-, Jahresvogel RL 2
Vocalization: Also various clucking sounds. [Link]
Song: Song a sharp, very raspy sound, e.g. "krii-uuu-ii", with middle part lowered in pitch. Often compared to the sound of a rusty gate. [Link]
Physical details: length=29-31 cm, wingspan=45-48 cm, weight=340-450 g

Genus Alectoris:
Rock partridge / Steinhuhn (Alectoris graeca)
Alternate classification: Perdix graeca
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Wikipedia: Rock partridge
General: The rock partridge (Alectoris graeca) is a gamebird in the pheasant family, Phasianidae, of the order Galliformes (gallinaceous birds). It is native to southern Europe, and is closely related and very similar to its eastern equivalent, the chukar partridge, A. chukar. [more]

Genus Coturnix:
Common quail / Wachtel (Coturnix coturnix)
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Wikipedia: Common quail
The common quail (Coturnix coturnix), or European quail, is a small ground-nesting game bird in the pheasant family Phasianidae. It is mainly migratory, breeding in the western Palearctic and wintering in Africa and southern India. [more]
Vocalization: Other sounds: A nasal disyllabic mewing "mau-au", and a wader-like rolling "wreee". [Link]
Song: Song a very characteristic, short, tri-syllabic whistling, with each syllable ending with a sharp rise in pitch "weet weet-weet". The two last syllable linked together. [Link]
Physical details: length=16-18 cm, wingspan=32-35 cm, weight=75-135 g

Subfamily Tetraoninae (Grouses):
Genus Lagopus:
Rock ptarmigan / Alpenschneehuhn (Lagopus muta)
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Wikipedia: Rock ptarmigan
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
Deutschland: Brut-, Jahresvogel RL R
Vocalization: Female has similar sounds, but is higher pitched and not so coarse as male. [Link]
Calls: Call of male a very distinct "rrrrrrr", being a rattling rapid pulse of clicks, like running a stick along a picket fence. [Link]
Physical details: length=34-36 cm, wingspan=54-60 cm, weight=350-600 g

Genus Tetrao:
Western capercaillie / Auerhuhn (Tetrao urogallus)
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Wikipedia: Western capercaillie
Deutschland: Brut-, Jahresvogel RL 1
Vocalization: Display-sounds from male unmistakable. Then closing with grinding and hissing sounds. [Link]
Song: Four phased song: First a slow introductory, double-tapping phase which suddenly bursts into an accelerating crescendo followed by a distinct pop. [Link]
Calls: Female calls with a deep nasal "kok kok". [Link]
Physical details: length=60-87 cm, wingspan=87-125 cm, weight=1500-5000 g

Genus Tetrastes:
Hazel grouse / Haselhuhn (Tetrastes bonasia)
Alternate classification: Tetrao bonasia
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Wikipedia: Hazel grouse
Deutschland: Brut-, Jahresvogel RL 2
Song: Song an extremely high pitched whistle; "piuuuuuuuiiii pju pju pju". [Link]
Calls: Start-note typically sustained, first descending then ascending and descending again. Often followed by three short conclusive "pju, pju pju". Warning call of female a bubbling thrill. [Link]
Physical details: length=35-37 cm, wingspan=48-54 cm, weight=310-490 g

Genus Lyrurus:
Black grouse / Birkhuhn (Lyrurus tetrix)
Alternate classification: Tetrao tetrix
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Wikipedia: Black grouse
Deutschland: Brut-, Jahresvogel RL 2

Order Apodiformes (Swifts and hummingbirds / Segler):

Family Apodidae (Swifts):
Subfamily Apodinae:
Genus Apus:
Common swift / Mauersegler (Apus apus)
Alternate classification: Hirundo apus
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Mauersegler, Sils-Maria. 2020-06-10 12.30.10 Sils
Vielleicht haben wir bald Mauersegler Brutkaesten am Haus!
Vocalization: A shrilling trill "zreeeee" of about 1 -2 seconds length, gradually rising in pitch with accentuated firs half, then falling from the middle of phrase. [Link]
Calls: Often continued with a dry lower pitched "trrrrrr" before calling again. Very vocal at breeding area, and often a flock will call together. Despite being quite similar to Pallid Swift, the call is probably the best field character to separate the two. Pallid puts the stress on the ending of the call, followed by a quick fall in pitch (dynamics like moaning with a quick release). Plain Swift calls similar to Common Swift, but differs in slightly fluctuating pitch during the call, and a loss of resonance towards the ending (thinner sounding). [Link]
Physical details: length=16-17 cm, wingspan=42-48 cm, weight=31-56 g

Pallid swift (Apus pallidus)
Alternate classification: Cypselus pallidus
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Wikipedia: Pallid swift
General: The pallid swift (Apus pallidus) is a small bird, superficially similar to a barn swallow or house martin. It is, however, completely unrelated to those passerine species, since the swifts are in the order Apodiformes. The resemblances between the groups are due to convergent evolution reflecting similar life styles. [more]
Vocalization: Similar to Common Swift, but usually very helpful for ID. Almost di-syllabic, with marked accent on second syllable which rapidly drops in pitch, "srrrree-aah". [Link]
Calls: Common swift has a more even call, with accents on first part, without the sudden pitch-drop. [Link]
Physical details: length=16-17 cm, wingspan=42-46 cm, weight=41 g

Genus Tachymarptis:
Alpine swift / Alpensegler (Tachymarptis melba)
Alternate classification: Apus melba
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Wikipedia: Alpine swift
General: The Alpine swift (Tachymarptis melba) formerly Apus melba, is a species of swift. The genus name is from the Ancient Greek takhus, "fast", and marptis, "seizer". The specific name melba comes from ‘melano-alba’ or ‘mel-alba’; Eigenhuis & Swaab (1992) posited that ‘melba’ might be a short form for ‘melano-alba’ or ‘mel-alba’ (Gr. melas, melanos = black; L. albus = white). Linnaeus certainly referred to these two colors in his diagnosis.[2] [more]

Order Caprimulgiformes (Nightjars and others / Schwalmvögel):

Family Caprimulgidae:
Subfamily Caprimulginae:
Genus Caprimulgus:
Eurasian nightjar / Ziegenmelker (Caprimulgus europaeus)
Alternate classification: nightjar
Also known as: European nightjar
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Wikipedia: Eurasian nightjar
The European nightjar (Caprimulgus europaeus), common goatsucker, Eurasian nightjar or just nightjar, is a crepuscular and nocturnal bird in the nightjar family that breeds across most of Europe and the Palearctic to Mongolia and Northwestern China. The Latin generic name refers to the old myth that the nocturnal nightjar suckled goats, causing them to cease to give milk. The six subspecies differ clinally, the birds becoming smaller and paler towards the east of the range. All populations are migratory, wintering in sub-Saharan Africa. Their densely patterned grey and brown plumage makes individuals difficult to see in the daytime when they rest on the ground or perch motionless along a branch, although the male shows white patches in the wings and tail as he flies at night. [more]
Song: Song unique among birds, but quite similar to Mole cricket. A mechanical, continuous slur, like the sound of a distant motorbike. As opposed to the Mole Cricket, it often "shifts gear" by changing pitch to a note approximately a fourth below the drone. [Link]
Calls: Flight call a peculiar "kew-eek", with a nasal and frog-like timbre. [Link]
Physical details: length=26-28 cm, wingspan=57-64 cm, weight=65-100 g

Classification errors:

Northern shoveler / Löffelente (Spatula clypeata)

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Wikipedia: Northern shoveler
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
General: The northern shoveler (/ˈʃʌvələr/; Spatula clypeata), known simply in Britain as the shoveller, is a common and widespread duck. It breeds in northern areas of Europe and across the Palearctic and across most of North America,[2] wintering in southern Europe, Africa, the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, Central, the Caribbean, and northern South America. It is a rare vagrant to Australia. In North America, it breeds along the southern edge of Hudson Bay and west of this body of water, and as far south as the Great Lakes west to Colorado, Nevada, and Oregon.[3][4] [more]
Vocalization: Male is characteristic and most often heard: A hoarse nasal knocking sound "took took", often staccato or disyllabic. Female similar to Mallard but flatter and more creaking. [Link]
Physical details: length=44-52 cm, wingspan=70-84 cm, weight=470-800 g