Birds of United States of America in taxonomic hierarchy

Birds as they appear in the taxonomic classification. A total of 834 species is included.

Class aves (Birds / Vögel):

Order Anseriformes (Ducks, geese and swans / Vögel):

Family anatidae (Anatidae / Entenvögel):

Subfamily Anatinae (Dabbling ducks plus extinct):
Tribe Mergini (Seaducks / Meerenten und Säger):
Genus Bucephala:
Common goldeneye / Schellente (Bucephala clangula)
Alternate classification: Anas clangula
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Schellente am Südende des Pfäffikersee Ich hätte gern ein besseres Foto aber die Schellenten waren nur etwa 100 Meter vom Weg entfernt und dazu hinter Schilf. Auch mein 600mm Objektiv hat nicht gereicht, aber zugegeben, ein Stativ hätte geholfen. 2021-01-26 15.36.26 Pfäffikersee
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
Wintergast am Pfäffikersee.
Etymology: Nabu: Schellenten verdanken ihren Namen dem pfeifenden und wie ein Klingeln («Schellen») tönenden Fluggeräusch. [Vogelwarte.ch erklärt: ]
Vocalization: Male display sound a dry nasal disyllabic "Ka-weerr". First note introductory and second longer and descending. Usually accompanied by back-throwing head motion. Female: dry harsh "aahrrrr aahrrrr aahrrrr ". Wings make a characteristic whistling sound. [Link]
Physical details: length=42-50 cm, wingspan=65-80 cm, weight=650-1200 g

Barrow's goldeneye / Spatelente (Bucephala islandica)
Alternate classification: Anas islandica
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Wikipedia: Barrow's goldeneye
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
General: Barrow's goldeneye (Bucephala islandica) is a medium-sized sea duck of the genus Bucephala, the goldeneyes. This bird was named after Sir John Barrow. The genus name is derived from Ancient Greek boukephalos, "bullheaded", from bous, "bull " and kephale, "head", a reference to the bulbous head shape of the bufflehead. The species name islandica means Iceland.[2] [more]

Bufflehead / Büffelkopfente (Bucephala albeola)
Alternate classification: Anas albeola
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Wikipedia: Bufflehead
The bufflehead (Bucephala albeola) is a small sea duck of the genus Bucephala, the goldeneyes. This species was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his landmark 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae as Anas albeola.[2] [more]

Genus Mergus:
Red-breasted merganser / Mittelsäger (Mergus serrator)
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Mittelsaeger auf Lago Maggiore in Locarno. 2021-04-06 12.12.52 Northern Lago Maggiore
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
Zuerst gesehen in Lago Maggiore in Locarno

Goosander / Gänsesäger (Mergus merganser)
Also known as: Common merganser
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Gänsesäger am Nordende des Pfäffikersee 2021-01-26 17.02.58 Pfäffikersee
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
Zuerst gesehen am Pfäffikersee.
Vocalization: Male: Mostly heard when courting. A twanging, disyllabic "whip-ooooo", first syllable ascending and second whistle-like and rapidly falling. Female: A coarse "ahrrr ahrrrr", or a raspy drawn "ah-ahrrrrrr ah-ahrrrrr", slightly rising, then falling in pitch. Also various cackling sounds. [Link]
Physical details: length=58-66 cm, wingspan=82-97 cm, weight=900-2100 g

Genus Somateria:
Common eider / Eiderente (Somateria mollissima)
Alternate classification: Somateria mollisima
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Eiderente, vom Steg aus gesehen in Rapperswil. 2021-02-12 13.42.20 Rapperswil
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
Etymology: Nabu: Auch heute noch erinnert ihr wissenschaftlicher Name an die Bedeutung ihrer isolierenden Daunen für die Menschen. Übersetzt bedeutet ihr Name nämlich „die Allerweichste mit dem schwarzen Körper“. [Link]
Geography: Die im Norden Europas häufige und wegen ihren Daunenfedern bekannte Eiderente war in der Schweiz früher ein seltener Gast. Doch in der zweiten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts erfolgten mehrere grosse Einflüge. Dank der Wandermuschelvermehrung war das Nahrungsangebot ausreichend und die Vögel verbrachten zunehmend den Sommer bei uns. Mittlerweile gehört die Eiderente sogar zu den Brutvögeln, was für einen ans Meer angepassten Vogel bemerkenswert ist. [Link]
Calls: Males call a typical, pleasant, clear, 2-3 second long "aaaooooooh". Starting on a low note, slowly ascending and ending on a descending note. Usually accompanied by the female "ga ga ga ga". [Link]
Physical details: length=50-71 cm, wingspan=80-108 cm, weight=1500-2800 g

King eider (Somateria spectabilis)
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Wikipedia: King eider
General: The king eider (pronounced /ˈ.dər/) (Somateria spectabilis) is a large sea duck that breeds along Northern Hemisphere Arctic coasts of northeast Europe, North America and Asia. The birds spend most of the year in coastal marine ecosystems at high latitudes, and migrate to Arctic tundra to breed in June and July. They lay four to seven eggs in a scrape on the ground lined with grass and down. [more]
Calls: Male: Calls similar to Eider but easily distinguished by the vibrating quality. A "aaaooooooh" (shorter in duration than Eider) Starting on a low note, slowly ascending and ending on a descending note with a distinct vibrato/pulse. Often in the form of three calls: "oohh, a-ohhh hahahaoohohohoh". Usually accompanied by the female "ga ga ga ga". [Link]
Physical details: length=47-63 cm, wingspan=86-102 cm, weight=1500-2000 g

Tribe Anatini (Dabbling ducks / Schwimmenten):
Genus Anas (Ducks):
Mallard / Stockente (Anas platyrhynchos)
Alternate classification: Anas platyrhynchos f. domestica
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Mother and 4 of 9 babies on the Pfäffikersee 2020-05-20 09.12.44 Pfäffikersee
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
Common waterbird at Pfäffikersee
Etymology: Der heutige Name kann als Hinweis auf ihre Brutplätze verstanden werden, zu denen auf Stock gesetzte Weiden, Weidengebüsch oder auch Reisighaufen gehören. ['Stock' wird weiter erklärt: Als Stockausschlag bezeichnet man bei Bäumen und Sträuchern Triebe, die nach dem Verlust der primären Sprossachse neu aus dem Stumpf oder Stubben (der dann „Stock“ genannt wird) austreiben.] [Link]
The name 'was derived from the Old French malart or mallart for "wild drake"' [Link]
Vocalization: Female: A distinct coarse, laughing quacking; "haaa ha ha ha ha ha", with first note accented and then descending in pitch. Male: a more silent, very nasal "rriib". [Link]
Calls: Display call a high-pitched short whistle. [Link]
Physical details: length=50-65 cm, wingspan=81-98 cm, weight=750-1450 g

Eurasian teal / Krickente (Anas crecca)
Alternate classification: Nettion crecca
Also known as: Green-winged teal
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Krickente am Aa-Bach beim Südende des Pfäffikersee 2021-01-26 15.41.54 Pfäffikersee
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
Wintergast am Teich am Aa-Bach beim Südende des Pfäffikersee
Etymology: Die hellen «krrik»-Rufe der stimmfreudigen Erpel verhalfen dieser Art zu ihrem deutschen Namen. [Link]
Vocalization: Male: characteristic, short, highly resonant and metallic "plytt". A bit similar to Pintail, but higher pitched and lacking accompanying whistling sound. Female: various quacking sounds generally quicker paced, more nasal and noticeably higher pitched than Mallard. [Link]
Physical details: length=34-38 cm, wingspan=58-64 cm, weight=200-450 g

Call: Blup blup, fast wie vom Computer generiert, fur mich nohe Noten (obwohl Sonogram nur 2.5 KHz zeigt)
Krickente Ruf von XenoCanto

Krickente Ruf von XenoCanto Source: XENOCANTO (call)


Call attributes: Call melody: simple rhythmic, slow, Frequency: low (1-3 KHz),

Northern pintail / Spiessente (Anas acuta)
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Wikipedia: Northern pintail
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
General: The pintail or northern pintail (Anas acuta) is a duck with wide geographic distribution that breeds in the northern areas of Europe and across the Palearctic and North America. It is migratory and winters south of its breeding range to the equator. Unusually for a bird with such a large range, it has no geographical subspecies if the possibly conspecific duck Eaton's pintail is considered to be a separate species. [more]
Vocalization: Female: similar to Mallards coarse laughing sound, but with a more emphasized first "haaa", and a more silent accelerating subsequent "laugh". Male: Pleasant, resonant "plop" similar to Teal, but lower pitched, richer, mellower and not so metallic. Accompanied by a higher pitched, slightly raspy whistling "aiiooo" rising and falling in pitch. [Link]
Physical details: length=51-66 cm, wingspan=51-66 cm, weight=500-1100 g

American black duck (Anas rubripes)
Alternate classification: Anas platyrhynchos rubripes
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Wikipedia: American black duck
General: The American black duck (Anas rubripes) is a large dabbling duck in the family Anatidae. It was described by William Brewster in 1902. It is the heaviest species in the genus Anas, weighing 720–1,640 g (1.59–3.62 lb) on average and measuring 54–59 cm (21–23 in) in length with a 88–95 cm (35–37 in) wingspan. It somewhat resembles the female mallard in coloration, but has a darker plumage. The male and female are generally similar in appearance, but the male's bill is yellow while the female's is dull green with dark marks on the upper mandible. It is native to eastern North America. During the breeding season, it is usually found in coastal and freshwater wetlands from Saskatchewan to the Atlantic in Canada and the Great Lakes and the Adirondacks in the United States. It is a partially migratory species, mostly wintering in the east-central United States, especially in coastal areas. [more]

Mexican duck / Mexikoente (Anas diazi)
Alternate classification: Aythya platyrhynchos diazi
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Wikipedia: Mexican duck
The Mexican duck (Anas diazi,[1] and see below) is a species of dabbling duck that breeds in Mexico and the southwestern United States. Most of the population is resident, but some northern birds migrate south to Mexico in winter. The species also occurs widely, but in limited numbers, in Colorado in all seasons and there are photographs of birds referable to this taxon from Utah, Wyoming, Nebraska, and Montana.[2] [more]

Blue-winged teal (Spatula discors)
Alternate classification: Anas discors
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Wikipedia: Blue-winged teal
The blue-winged teal (Spatula discors) is a species of bird in the duck, goose, and swan family Anatidae. One of the smaller members of the dabbling duck group, it occurs in North America, where it breeds from southern Alaska to Nova Scotia, and south to northern Texas. It winters along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts and south into the Caribbean islands and Central America. [more]

Pacific black duck / Augenbrauenente (Anas superciliosa)
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Wikipedia: Pacific black duck
The Pacific black duck (Anas superciliosa), commonly known as the PBD, is a dabbling duck found in much of Indonesia, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and many islands in the southwestern Pacific, reaching to the Caroline Islands in the north and French Polynesia in the east. It is usually called the grey duck in New Zealand, where it is also known by its Maori name, pārera. [more]

Mottled duck / Floridaente (Anas fulvigula)
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Wikipedia: Mottled duck
The mottled duck (Anas fulvigula)[note 1] or mottled mallard is a medium-sized dabbling duck. It is intermediate in appearance between the female mallard and the American black duck. It is closely related to those species, and is sometimes considered a subspecies of the former, but this is inappropriate (see Systematics below). [more]

Genus Mareca:
Eurasian wigeon / Pfeifente (Mareca penelope)
Alternate classification: Anas penelope
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Pfeifente Erpel , Neeracher Ried. Die zehnte Entenart, die ich gefunden habe. 2021-02-24 14.05.08 Neeracherried
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Etymology: Es ist der Ruf des Männchens, der zu dem deutschen Namen der Art geführt hat. Das Männchen leitet seine kurzen, scharfen, zwei- bis dreisilbigen pfeifenden wiu-Rufe häufig mit einem krr krkrkrr ein. [Link]
Vocalization: Male: a pleasant high pitched whistle "piiiiuuu", rapidly rising in pitch and then falling. Quite vocal. Female: a harsh "kraaa kraaa kraa" more like female diving-ducks than other dabbling-ducks. [Link]
Physical details: length=45-51 cm, wingspan=75-86 cm, weight=500-1000 g

Call: Pfeifen, fast wie ein Rotmilan oder Maeusebussard. Ton steigt und faellt!
Pfeifente von XenoCanto

Pfeifente von XenoCanto Source: XENOCANTO (call)


Call attributes: Call melody: simple rhythmic, slow, Frequency: low (1-3 KHz),

Gadwall / Schnatterente (Mareca strepera)
Alternate classification: Anas strepera, Chaulelasmus streperus
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Schnatterente am Greifensee bei Silberweide Es gab dutzende davon, dazwischen eine Krickente. 2021-02-08 15.45.18
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
In my mind this is the chocolate duck.
Etymology: The etymology of the word gadwall is not known, but the name has been in use since 1666.[9] [Link]
Nabu: Die Schnatterente fällt aber – wie ihr Name schon vermuten lässt – durch ihre Art der Nahrungssuche auf. Sie durchschnattert das Wasser mit ihrem Schnabel. [Link]
Appearance and identification: Nabu: Die Schnatterente ähnelt auf den ersten Blick so sehr der weiblichen Stockente, dass man diese schnell verwechseln kann. [Link]
Wintergast am Greifensee.
Calls: Males display-call a short dry rattling or croaking sound and some high whistling notes. Female quacking similar to Mallard, but drier and shriller. [Link]
Physical details: length=46-56 cm, wingspan=84-95 cm, weight=550-1000 g

American wigeon / Nordamerikanische Pfeifente (Mareca americana)
Alternate classification: Anas americana
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Wikipedia: American wigeon
General: The American wigeon (Mareca americana), also known as the baldpate, is a species of dabbling duck found in North America. Formerly assigned to Anas, this species is classified with the other wigeons in the dabbling duck genus Mareca. It is the New World counterpart of the Eurasian wigeon. Mareca is from the Brazilian-Portuguese word Marréco for a small duck and americana refers to America.[2][3] [more]

Tribe Aythyini (Diving ducks / Tauchenten):
Genus Aythya:
Common pochard / Tafelente (Aythya ferina)
Alternate classification: Anas ferina
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Tafelente in Rapperswil. 2021-02-12 13.34.38 Rapperswil
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Wintergast am Greifensee.
Etymology: Die in der deutschen Sprache übliche Bezeichnung Tafelente ist ein Hinweis auf das als schmackhaft angesehene Fleisch dieses Entenvogels. [Link]
Vocalization: Female: a coarse "ahrrrrrrr-ahrrrrr-ahrrrr" with a vibrating quality. [Link]
Calls: Male courting call a pleasant, drawn out, nasal whistle "tweeeeep", rising in pitch, often followed by a falling "puuuh" (e.g a long disyllabic tweeepuuuuuuh). Also a sharper "ki-ki-ki" or "ki-ki-kiko". [Link]
Physical details: length=42-49 cm, wingspan=72-82 cm, weight=650-1200 g

Greater scaup / Bergente (Aythya marila)
Alternate classification: Anas marila
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Wikipedia: Greater scaup
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
Deutschland: Zugvogel, Wintergast RL R
Calls: Male call carries only a few meters: a whistling "po-ho" last syllable slowly descending. Female calls with harsh "harr-harrr-harrr". [Link]
Physical details: length=42-51 cm, wingspan=72-84 cm, weight=700-1300 g

Ring-necked duck / Ringschnabelente (Aythya collaris)
Alternate classification: Anas collaris
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Wikipedia: Ring-necked duck
General: The ring-necked duck (Aythya collaris) is a diving duck from North America commonly found in freshwater ponds and lakes.[2] The scientific name is derived from Greek aithuia, an unidentified seabird mentioned by authors including Hesychius and Aristotle, and Latin collaris, "of the neck" from collum, "neck".[3] [more]

Redhead / Rotkopfente (Aythya americana)
Alternate classification: Nyroca americana
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Wikipedia: Redhead
Die Rotkopfente (Aythya americana) ist eine Tauchente aus der Familie der Entenvögel. Sie ist ein nordamerikanischer Brutvogel. In ihrem Federkleid ähnelt sie der ebenfalls in Nordamerika brütenden Riesentafelente und der in Europa beheimateten Tafelente. Die drei Arten können jedoch anhand ihrer Schnabelfärbung unterschieden werden. Die Riesentafelente hat einen durchgängig dunkelgrauen Schnabel. Die Stirn fällt außerdem flach ab, wodurch ihr Profil keilförmig wie bei der Eiderente wirkt. Die Tafelente hat eine schwarze Schnabelbasis, so dass der Schnabel in der Mitte ein hellgraues Band aufweist. Bei der Rotkopfente dagegen ist nur die Schnabelspitze dunkelgrau bis schwarz. [more]

Lesser scaup (Aythya affinis)
Alternate classification: Fuligula affinis
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Wikipedia: Lesser scaup
The lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) is a small North American diving duck that migrates south as far as Central America in winter. It is colloquially known as the little bluebill or broadbill because of its distinctive blue bill. The origin of the name scaup may stem from the bird's preference for feeding on scalp—the Scottish word for clams, oysters, and mussels; however, some credit it to the female's discordant scaup call as the name's source.[2] It is apparently a very close relative of the Holarctic greater scaup or "bluebill" (A. marila), with which it forms a superspecies.[3][4] The scientific name is derived from Ancient Greek aithuia an unidentified seabird mentioned by authors including Hesychius and Aristotle, and Latin, affinis "related to", from its resemblance to the greater scaup.[5] [more]

Canvasback / Riesentafelente (Aythya valisineria)
Alternate classification: Anas valisineria
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Wikipedia: Canvasback
The canvasback (Aythya valisineria) is a species of diving duck, the largest found in North America. [more]

Subfamily Tadorninae (Halbgänse):
Tribe Tadornini (Eigentliche Halbgänse):
Genus Alopochen:
Egyptian goose / Nilgans (Alopochen aegyptiaca)
Alternate classification: Anas aegyptiaca
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Nilgans am Südende des Greifensee 2021-02-08 15.21.56
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Wintergast am Greifensee. Invasiv. Nach Vogelwarte.ch: 'als Ziervogel im 18. Jahrhundert in Europa eingeführt... Ausgehend von einer in den 1970er Jahren in den Niederlanden und Belgien gebildeten Population breitete sich die Nilgans rasant dem Rhein und seinen Nebenflüssen entlang aus und hat inzwischen auch die Schweiz erreicht.
Vocalization: Quite vocal when interacting. [Link]
Calls: Female calls may resemble RS, but are coarser, harder and trills are more rolling. Single calls are longer, and falls markedly in pitch. Male calls quite different, with husky, wheezing or hissing "kaahhh", or with the same timbre in series lika a steam engine. [Link]
Physical details: length=63-73 cm, wingspan=134-154 cm, weight=1500-2250 g

Genus Aix:
Wood duck / Brautente (Aix sponsa)
Alternate classification: Anas sponsa
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Wikipedia: Wood duck
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
General: The wood duck or Carolina duck (Aix sponsa) is a species of perching duck found in North America. It is one of the most colorful North American waterfowl.[2][3] [more]

Genus Cairina:
Muscovy duck / Moschusente (Cairina moschata)
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Wikipedia: Muscovy duck
The Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) is a large duck native to Mexico and Central and South America. Small wild and feral breeding populations have established themselves in the United States, particularly in Florida, Louisiana, Massachusetts, and the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas, the Big Island of Hawaii, as well as in many other parts of North America, including southern Canada. Feral Muscovy ducks are found in New Zealand, Australia, and in parts of Europe. [more]

Genus Oxyura:
Ruddy duck / Schwarzkopf-Ruderente (Oxyura jamaicensis)
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Wikipedia: Ruddy duck
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America.
Deutschland: eingebürgertes Neozoon, ausnahmsweise Brutvogel

Genus Histrionicus:
Harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus)
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Wikipedia: Harlequin duck
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
General: The harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus) is a small sea duck. It takes its name from Harlequin (French Arlequin, Italian Arlecchino), a colourfully dressed character in Commedia dell'arte. The species name comes from the Latin word "histrio", meaning "actor".[2] In North America it is also known as lords and ladies. Other names include painted duck, totem pole duck, rock duck, glacier duck, mountain duck, white-eyed diver, squeaker and blue streak. [more]

Genus Nomonyx:
Masked duck (Nomonyx dominicus)
Alternate classification: Oxyura dominica
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Wikipedia: Masked duck
The masked duck (Nomonyx dominicus) is a tiny stiff-tailed duck ranging through the tropical Americas. They are found from Mexico to South America and also in the Caribbean. Primarily not migratory, masked ducks are reported as very uncommon vagrants in the southernmost United States, along the Mexican border and in Florida. As of 2000, the conservation status for masked ducks in Texas is 3,800 birds.[2] On April 1, 1962, it was recorded from Lowndes County, Georgia, where it was photographed by Alexander Wetmore.[3] [more]

Genus Clangula:
Long-tailed duck / Eisente (Clangula hyemalis)
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Wikipedia: Long-tailed duck
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
Deutschland: Zugvogel, Wintergast

Genus Melanitta:
Velvet scoter / Samtente (Melanitta fusca)
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Wikipedia: Velvet scoter
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
Deutschland: Zugvogel, Wintergast
Vocalization: Seldom heard. [Link]
Calls: Calls: Short accented "tup tup tup" and a shivering "gahhahahaha". [Link]
Physical details: length=51-58 cm, wingspan=90-99 cm, weight=1100-2000 g

White-winged scoter / Höckersamtente (Melanitta deglandi)
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Wikipedia: White-winged scoter
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
General: Melanitta fusca deglandi [more]

Surf scoter / Brillenente (Melanitta perspicillata)
Alternate classification: Oidemia perspicillata
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Wikipedia: Surf scoter
The surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) is a large sea duck native to North America.[2] Adult males are almost entirely black with characteristic white patches on the forehead and the nape and adult females are slightly smaller and browner.[3] Surf scoters breed in Northern Canada and Alaska and winter along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of North America.[2] Those diving ducks mainly feed on benthic invertebrates, mussels representing an important part of their diet.[3] [more]

Genus Lophodytes:
Hooded merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus)
Alternate classification: Mergus cucullatus
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Wikipedia: Hooded merganser
The hooded merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus) is a species of merganser. It is the only extant species in the genus Lophodytes. The genus name derives from the Greek language: lophos meaning 'crest', and dutes meaning 'diver'.[2] The bird is striking in appearance; both sexes have crests that they can raise or lower, and the breeding plumage of the male is handsomely patterned and coloured. The hooded merganser has a sawbill but is not classified as a typical merganser. [more]

Subfamily Anserinae (Gänse):
Tribe Anserini (Echten Gänse):
Genus Anser (Geese / Feldgänse):
Taiga bean goose / Saatgans (Anser fabalis)
Alternate classification: Anser albifrons fabalis
Also known as: Bean goose
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Wikipedia: Taiga bean goose
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Deutschland: Zugvogel, Wintergast Bruten gehen auf entflogene Tiere zurück
Calls: Do not call as much as other grey geese. Sounds similar to the lower sounds of Pink-footed goose, with various reedy calls, but harder, less nasal and more of a "sore throat". [Link]
Physical details: length=66-84 cm, wingspan=142-175 cm, weight=2220-4060 g

White-fronted goose / Blässgans (Anser albifrons)
Alternate classification: Branta albifrons
Also known as: Greater white-fronted goose
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Wikipedia: White-fronted goose
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Deutschland: Zugvogel, Wintergast Bruten gehen auf entflogene Tiere zurück

Snow goose / Schneegans (Anser caerulescens)
Alternate classification: Chen caerulescens
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Wikipedia: Snow goose
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
General: The snow goose (Anser caerulescens) is a species of goose native to North America. Both white and dark morphs exist, the latter often known as blue goose. Its name derives from the typically white plumage. The species was previously placed in the genus Chen, but is now typically included in the "gray goose" genus Anser.[2][3] [more]

Tundra bean goose (Anser serrirostris)
Alternate classification: Anser segetum serrirostris
Also known as: Tundra bean-goose
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Wikipedia: Tundra bean goose
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
The tundra bean goose (Anser serrirostris) is a goose that breeds in northern Siberia. This and the taiga bean goose are recognised as separate species by the American Ornithological Society and International Ornithologists' Union, but are considered a single species by other authorities (collectively called bean goose). It is migratory and winters further south in Asia. The taiga and tundra bean goose diverged about 2.5 million years ago and established secondary contact ca. 60,000 years ago, resulting in extensive gene flow.[1] [more]

Emperor goose (Anser canagica)
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Wikipedia: Emperor goose
The emperor goose (Anser canagicus), also known as the beach goose[5] or the painted goose,[6] is a waterfowl species in the family Anatidae, which contains the ducks, geese, and swans. It is blue-gray in color as an adult and grows to 66–71 centimetres (26–28 in) in length. Adults have a black chin and throat, a pink bill, yellow-orange legs, and a white head, which often turns reddish-brown in summer. In the winter, the emperor goose lives in mudflats and coasts in Alaska and occasionally Canada and the contiguous United States. In the summer, it migrates northerly several hundred miles to arctic and sub-arctic climates, where older individuals breed monogamously. Nests are constructed in holes and built up with vegetation and feathers. Eggs hatch in late June and early July, and goslings leave the nest the day they hatch. The species is an omnivore, and makes vocalizations that are more nasal than those of other geese. Listed as near threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, the species' population is declining due to threats such as pollution, hunting, and climate change. [more]

Tribe Cygnini (Swans / Schwäne):
Genus Cygnus (Swans):
Mute swan / Höckerschwan (Cygnus olor)
Also known as: Höckerschwäne
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On the frozen Pfäffikersee with coots After a week of freezing temperatures, the lake developed a thin layer of ice. 2021-02-15 08.28.58
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Common waterbird at Pfäffikersee, very common on Lake Zurich.
Vocalization: Silent compared to other swans. A repertoire of snorting, grunting and hissing sound when interacting. No far carrying sounds. [Link]
Calls: Wings produce prominent singing sound which may function as a flight contact-call. [Link]
Physical details: length=145-160 cm, wingspan=208-238 cm, weight=7000-14000 g

Common whooper / Singschwan (Cygnus cygnus)
Also known as: Whooper swan
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Whooper swans, Iceland. 2015-06-03 16.01.12 Iceland
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
Deutschland: Zugvogel, Wintergast RL R
Vocalization: Quite vocal. Trumpet-like clear honks of half a second length most frequent in flight and take-off/landing. Often voiced with a register break. [Link]
Physical details: length=145-160 cm, wingspan=218-243 cm, weight=8500-10000 g

Tundra swan / Pfeifschwan (Cygnus columbianus)
Alternate classification: Olor columbianus
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Wikipedia: Tundra swan
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
General: The tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus) is a small Holarctic swan. The two taxa within it are usually regarded as conspecific, but are also sometimes[2][3] split into two species: Bewick's swan (Cygnus bewickii) of the Palaearctic and the whistling swan (C. columbianus) proper of the Nearctic. Birds from eastern Russia (roughly east of the Taimyr Peninsula) are sometimes separated as the subspecies C. c. jankowskii, but this is not widely accepted as distinct, with most authors including them in C. c. bewickii. Tundra swans are sometimes separated in the subgenus Olor together with the other Arctic swan species. [more]
Vocalization: More vocal than other swans. Both higher pitched and deeper sounds. Birds on the water often gives crooning, crane-like notes with less defined pitch. [Link]
Calls: Tone is less full-bodied in these calls. Flight call a deep, yelping, soft barking sound. Each call short, with a "helpless" quality. [Link]
Physical details: length=115-127 cm, wingspan=180-211 cm, weight=3400-7800 g

Genus Branta:
Brant goose / Ringelgans (Branta bernicla)
Alternate classification: Anas bernicla
Also known as: Brant
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Wikipedia: Brant goose
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
Deutschland: Zugvogel, Wintergast
Vocalization: A bubbling, trembling, ascending, three syllable "ahrahrrhit", quite different from other geese. [Link]
Physical details: length=56-61 cm, wingspan=110-120 cm, weight=1300-1600 g

Canada goose / Kanadagans (Branta canadensis)
Alternate classification: Anser canadensis
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Wikipedia: Canada goose
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
Deutschland: etabliertes Neozoon, Brut-, Jahresvogel, Wintergast
Vocalization: Trumpet like, resonant, honking sounds. Closer to Whooper Swans than many of the other geese. [Link]
Physical details: length=80-105 cm, wingspan=160-175 cm, weight=3670-5410 g

Cackling goose / Zwergkanadagans (Branta hutchinsii)
Alternate classification: Branta hutchinsi
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Wikipedia: Cackling goose
General: The cackling goose (Branta hutchinsii) is a North American bird of the genus Branta of black geese, which contains species with largely black plumage, distinguishing them from the grey Anser species. [more]

Family Anatidae (Waterfowl):

Subfamily Dendrocygninae:
Genus Dendrocygna:
Black-billed whistling duck / Kubapfeifgans (Dendrocygna arborea)
Also known as: West indian whistling-duck
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Black billed whistling duck. 2020-02-19 07.35.22 Central America
We saw this on the Pipeline Road near Gamboa, Panama - see tiger heron for more on that.
General: Anas arborea Linnaeus, 1758 [more]

Fulvous whistling-duck / Gelbe Pfeifgans (Dendrocygna bicolor)
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Wikipedia: Fulvous whistling-duck
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: North America, South America, Africa.
The fulvous whistling duck or fulvous tree duck (Dendrocygna bicolor) is a species of whistling duck that breeds across the world's tropical regions in much of Mexico and South America, the West Indies, the southern United States, sub-Saharan Africa and the Indian subcontinent. It has plumage that is mainly reddish brown, long legs and a long grey bill, and shows a distinctive white band across its black tail in flight. Like other members of its ancient lineage, it has a whistling call which is given in flight or on the ground. Its preferred habitat consists of wetlands with plentiful vegetation, including shallow lakes and paddy fields. The nest, built from plant material and unlined, is placed among dense vegetation or in a tree hole. The typical clutch is around ten whitish eggs. The breeding adults, which pair for life, take turns to incubate, and the eggs hatch in 24–29 days. The downy grey ducklings leave the nest within a day or so of hatching, but the parents continue to protect them until they fledge around nine weeks later. [more]

Black-bellied whistling-duck / Herbstpfeifgans (Dendrocygna autumnalis)
Alternate classification: Anas autumnalis
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Wikipedia: Black-bellied whistling-duck
The black-bellied whistling duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis), formerly called the black-bellied tree duck, is a whistling duck that breeds from the southernmost United States, Mexico, and tropical Central to south-central South America. In the US, it can be found year-round in peninsular Florida, parts of southeast Texas, coastal Alabama and seasonally in southeast Arizona, and Louisiana's Gulf Coast. It is a rare breeder in such disparate locations as Arkansas, Georgia, Tennessee, and South Carolina, though it is now a common breeder in parts of central Florida. There is a large population of several hundred that winter each year in Audubon Park in uptown New Orleans, Louisiana. Since it is one of only two whistling duck species native to North America, it is occasionally just known as the "whistling duck" or "Mexican squealer" in the southern USA. [more]

Order Suliformes:

Family Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants and shags / Kormorane):

Genus Phalacrocorax:
Great cormorant / Kormorane (Phalacrocorax carbo)
Also known as: Kormoran
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Cormorant Cormorants' feathers lack the waterproofing that ducks have, so you often see them drying their wings on a convenient perch. 2021-01-26 15.56.30 Pfäffikersee
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Seasonal Behavior: Lokaler Brutvogel, regelmässiger, häufiger Durchzügler und Wintergast.[Brutpaare am Zuerichsee und Greifensee bei Moenchaltorf] [Link]
Vocalization: Mostly heard at breeding ground. Also deep, rattling and creaking sounds. [Link]
Calls: Coarse, vibrating calls "hahahahaharo". [Link]
Physical details: length=80-100 cm, wingspan=130-160 cm, weight=1700-3000 g

Double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus)
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Wikipedia: Double-crested cormorant
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
General: The double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) is a member of the cormorant family of water birds. Its habitat is near rivers and lakes as well as in coastal areas, and is widely distributed across North America, from the Aleutian Islands in Alaska down to Florida and Mexico. Measuring 70–90 cm (28–35 in) in length, it is an all-black bird which gains a small double crest of black and white feathers in breeding season. It has a bare patch of orange-yellow facial skin. Five subspecies are recognized. It mainly eats fish and hunts by swimming and diving. Its feathers, like those of all cormorants, are not waterproof and it must spend time drying them out after spending time in the water. Once threatened by the use of DDT, the numbers of this bird have increased markedly in recent years. [more]

Pelagic cormorant (Phalacrocorax pelagicus)
Alternate classification: Urile pelagicus
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Wikipedia: Pelagic cormorant
The pelagic cormorant (Phalacrocorax pelagicus), also known as Baird's cormorant, is a small member of the cormorant family Phalacrocoracidae. Analogous to other smallish cormorants, it is also called the pelagic shag occasionally. This seabird lives along the coasts of the northern Pacific; during winter it can also be found in the open ocean.[2] Pelagic cormorants have relatively short wings due to their need for economical movement underwater, and consequently have the highest flight costs of any bird.[3] [more]

Red-faced cormorant (Phalacrocorax urile)
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Wikipedia: Red-faced cormorant
The red-faced cormorant (Phalacrocorax urile), red-faced shag or violet shag, is a bird species of the family Phalacrocoracidae. [more]

Brandt's cormorant / Pinselscharbe (Phalacrocorax penicillatus)
Alternate classification: Compsohaelius penicillatus
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Wikipedia: Brandt's cormorant
Brandt's cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus) is a strictly marine bird of the cormorant family of seabirds that inhabits the Pacific coast of North America. It ranges, in the summer, from Alaska to the Gulf of California, but the population north of Vancouver Island migrates south during the winter. Its specific name, penicillatus is Latin for a painter's brush (pencil of hairs), in reference to white plumes on its neck and back during the early breeding season. The common name honors the German naturalist Johann Friedrich von Brandt of the Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburg, who described the species from specimens collected on expeditions to the Pacific during the early 19th century. The average size of a Brandt's cormorant is 4.6 pounds. They have a length of about 34 inches and their wingspan is 4 feet.[2] [more]

Neotropic cormorant / Olivenscharbe (Phalacrocorax brasilianus)
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Wikipedia: Neotropic cormorant
The neotropic cormorant or olivaceous cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) is a medium-sized cormorant found throughout the American tropics and subtropics, from the middle Rio Grande and the Gulf and Californian coasts of the United States south through Mexico and Central America to southern South America, where it is called by the Indian name of biguá. It also breeds on the Bahamas, Cuba and Trinidad. It can be found both at coasts (including some mangrove areas) and on inland waters. There are at least two subspecies: P. b. mexicanus from Nicaragua northwards and P. b. brasilianus further south. In Peru the neotropic cormorant is used by the Uru people for fishing. [more]

Order Pelecaniformes (Ibis, herons and pelicans):

Family Ardeidae (Herons / Reiher):

Genus Ardea (Great herons):
Great egret / Silberreiher (Ardea alba)
Alternate classification: Egretta albus
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Silberreiher in Deutschland, von WikiCommons Von Andreas Eichler, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=59954907
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
Auf dem Heimweg von Schwanden haben wir bei Benken ganz weisse Reiher gesehen. Laut ornitho.ch waren sie Silberreiher.
Bei den meisten Quellen heisst es, sie sind in der Schweiz nur Durchzüger oder Wintergäste. Aber laut Balzari und Gygax, brüten auch einige Voegel am Lac Neuchatel seit 2013.
Vocalization: Silent outside breeding ground. [Link]
Calls: In colonies various harsh calls like a dry, and mechanical "kerrrrrrr", and a very nasal "geet" or "ga-geet ga-geet" are heard. [Link]
Physical details: length=85-102 cm, wingspan=140-170 cm, weight=960-1030 g

Great blue heron / Kanadareiher (Ardea herodias)
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Great blue heron, apparently known as a predator of small birds and chased away, above Cherrywood Court. 2021-06-17 05.48.04 Maryland
General: The great blue heron (Ardea herodias) is a large wading bird in the heron family Ardeidae, common near the shores of open water and in wetlands over most of North America and Central America, as well as the Caribbean and the Galápagos Islands. It is a rare vagrant to coastal Spain, the Azores, and areas of far southern Europe. An all-white population found in south Florida and the Florida Keys is known as the great white heron. Debate exists about whether this represents a white color morph of the great blue heron, a subspecies of it, or an entirely separate species.[2][3] The status of white individuals known to occur elsewhere in the Caribbean, and very rarely elsewhere in eastern North America, is unclear.[3] [more]

Genus Nycticorax (Night herons):
Black-crowned night-heron / Nachtreiher (Nycticorax nycticorax)
Also known as: Black-crowned night heron
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Wikipedia: Black-crowned night-heron
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
The black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax), or black-capped night heron, commonly shortened to just night heron in Eurasia, is a medium-sized heron found throughout a large part of the world, except in the coldest regions and Australasia (where it is replaced by the closely related nankeen night heron, with which it has hybridized in the area of contact). [more]
Calls: Most commonly hear call is a nasal, soft croaking "roack", like cross between Raven and frog. [Link]
Physical details: length=58-65 cm, wingspan=105-112 cm, weight=500-800 g

Genus Egretta (Plumed egrets):
Snowy egret (Egretta thula)
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Wikipedia: Snowy egret
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: North America, South America, Africa.
General: The snowy egret (Egretta thula) is a small white heron. The genus name comes from Provençal French for the little egret, aigrette, which is a diminutive of aigron, 'heron'. The species name thula is the Araucano term for the black-necked swan, applied to this species in error by Chilean naturalist Juan Ignacio Molina in 1782.[3] [more]

Little blue heron / Blaureiher (Egretta caerulea)
Alternate classification: Florida caerulea
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Wikipedia: Little blue heron
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: North America, South America, Africa.
The little blue heron (Egretta caerulea) is a small heron belonging to the family Ardeidae. [more]

Reddish egret / Rötelreiher (Egretta rufescens)
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Wikipedia: Reddish egret
The reddish egret (Egretta rufescens) is a medium-sized heron. It is a resident breeder in Central America, The Bahamas, the Caribbean, the Gulf Coast of the United States, and Mexico.[2] There is post-breeding dispersal to well north of the nesting range. In the past, this bird was a victim of the plume trade. [more]

Tricolored heron / Dreifarbenreiher (Egretta tricolor)
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Wikipedia: Tricolored heron
The tricolored heron (Egretta tricolor), formerly known as the Louisiana heron, is a small species of heron native to coastal parts of the Americas; in the Atlantic region, it ranges from the northeastern United States, south along the coast, through the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean, to northern South America as far south as Brazil. In the Pacific region, it ranges from Peru to California, but it is only a nonbreeding visitor to the far north. [more]

Pacific reef-egret / Riffreiher (Egretta sacra)
Also known as: Pacific reef-heron
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Wikipedia: Pacific reef-egret
The Pacific reef heron (Egretta sacra), also known as the eastern reef heron or eastern reef egret, is a species of heron found throughout southern Asia and Oceania.[2] [more]

Genus Nyctanassa:
Yellow-crowned night heron / Krabbenreiher (Nyctanassa violacea)
Also known as: Yellow-crowned night-heron
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Juvenile Yellow-crowned night heron in Manzanillo, Costa Rica. 2020-03-13 08.59.00 Central America
The yellow-crowned night heron (Nyctanassa violacea), is one of two species of night herons found in the Americas, the other one being the black-crowned night heron. It is known as the "bihoreau violacé" in French and the "pedrete corona clara" in Spanish. [more]

Genus Botaurus (Brown bitterns):
American bittern / Nordamerikanische Rohrdommel (Botaurus lentiginosus)
Alternate classification: Ardea lentiginosa
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Wikipedia: American bittern
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: North America, South America, Africa.
The American bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus) is a species of wading bird in the heron family. It has a Nearctic distribution, breeding in Canada and the northern and central parts of the United States, and wintering in the U.S. Gulf Coast states, all of Florida into the Everglades, the Caribbean islands and parts of Central America. [more]

Genus Bubulcus (Cattle egrets):
Cattle egret / Kuhreiher (Bubulcus ibis)
Alternate classification: Egretta ibis
Also known as: Western cattle egret
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Arenal cattle w cattle egrets. 2018-02-27 16.42.14 Central America
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
The cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) is a cosmopolitan species of heron (family Ardeidae) found in the tropics, subtropics, and warm-temperate zones. It is the only member of the monotypic genus Bubulcus, although some authorities regard two of its subspecies as full species, the western cattle egret and the eastern cattle egret. Despite the similarities in plumage to the egrets of the genus Egretta, it is more closely related to the herons of Ardea. Originally native to parts of Asia, Africa, and Europe, it has undergone a rapid expansion in its distribution and successfully colonised much of the rest of the world in the last century. [more]
Vocalization: Usually silent away from breeding ground. In the colonies a chorus of various coarse sounds can be heard. Most distinct is a disyllabic "rick-rack". Other sounds includes short, guttural utterings, or drawn, harsh shrieks. [Link]
Physical details: length=48-53 cm, wingspan=90-96 cm, weight=300-400 g

Genus Butorides (Green-backed herons):
Green heron / Grünreiher (Butorides virescens)
Alternate classification: Ardea virescens
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Wikipedia: Green heron
General: The green heron (Butorides virescens) is a small heron of North and Central America. Butorides is from Middle English butor "bittern" and Ancient Greek -oides, "resembling", and virescens is Latin for "greenish".[2] [more]

Genus Ixobrychus (Least bitterns):
Least bittern / Amerikanische Zwergdommel (Ixobrychus exilis)
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Wikipedia: Least bittern
The least bittern (Ixobrychus exilis) is a small heron, the smallest member of the family Ardeidae found in the Americas. [more]

Family Fregatidae (Frigatebirds):

Genus Fregata:
Great frigatebird / Bindenfregattvogel (Fregata minor)
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Wikipedia: Great frigatebird
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: North America, South America, Africa.
The great frigatebird (Fregata minor) is a large seabird in the frigatebird family. There are major nesting populations in the tropical Pacific (including the Galapagos Islands) and Indian Oceans, as well as a tiny population in the South Atlantic. [more]

Magnificent frigatebird / Prachtfregattvogel (Fregata magnificens)
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Wikipedia: Magnificent frigatebird
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: North America, South America, Africa.
The magnificent frigatebird (Fregata magnificens) or man o' war is a seabird of the frigatebird family Fregatidae. With a length of 89–114 centimetres (35–45 in) and wingspan of 2.17–2.44 m (7.1–8.0 ft) it is the largest species of frigatebird. It occurs over tropical and subtropical waters off America, between northern Mexico and Perú on the Pacific coast and between Florida and southern Brazil along the Atlantic coast.[1] There are also populations on the Galápagos Islands in the Pacific and the Cape Verde islands in the Atlantic. [more]

Family Pelecanidae (Pelicans):

Genus Pelecanus:
American white pelican / Nashornpelikan (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos)
Alternate classification: Pelecanus erythrorynchos
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Wikipedia: American white pelican
The American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) is a large aquatic soaring bird from the order Pelecaniformes. It breeds in interior North America, moving south and to the coasts, as far as Central America and South America, in winter.[2] [more]

Brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis)
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Brown pelican tentative ID. 2020-03-08 13.27.20 Central America
The brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) is a bird of the pelican family, Pelecanidae, one of three species found in the Americas and one of two that feed by diving into water. It is found on the Atlantic Coast from New Jersey to the mouth of the Amazon River, and along the Pacific Coast from British Columbia to northern Chile, including the Galapagos Islands. The nominate subspecies in its breeding plumage has a white head with a yellowish wash on the crown. The nape and neck are dark maroon–brown. The upper sides of the neck have white lines along the base of the gular pouch, and the lower fore neck has a pale yellowish patch. The male and female are similar, but the female is slightly smaller. The nonbreeding adult has a white head and neck. The pink skin around the eyes becomes dull and gray in the nonbreeding season. It lacks any red hue, and the pouch is strongly olivaceous ochre-tinged and the legs are olivaceous gray to blackish-gray. [more]

Family Phaethontidae (Tropicbirds):

Genus Phaethon:
Red-tailed tropicbird / Rotschwanz-Tropikvogel (Phaethon rubricauda)
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Wikipedia: Red-tailed tropicbird
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: North America, Africa.
The red-tailed tropicbird (Phaethon rubricauda) is a seabird native to tropical parts of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. One of three closely related species of tropicbird (Phaethontidae), it was described by Pieter Boddaert in 1783. Superficially resembling a tern in appearance, it has almost all-white plumage with a black mask and a red bill. The sexes have similar plumage. As referenced in the common name, adults have red tail streamers that are about twice their body length. Four subspecies are recognised, but there is evidence of clinal variation in body size—with smaller birds in the north and larger in the south—and hence no grounds for subspecies. [more]

Red-billed tropicbird / Rotschnabel-Tropikvogel (Phaethon aethereus)
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Wikipedia: Red-billed tropicbird
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: North America, South America, Africa.
The red-billed tropicbird (Phaethon aethereus) is a tropicbird, one of three closely related species of seabird of tropical oceans. Superficially resembling a tern in appearance, it has mostly white plumage with some black markings on the wings and back, a black mask and, as its common name suggests, a red bill. Most adults have tail streamers that are about two times their body length, with those in males being generally longer than those in females. The red-billed tropicbird itself has three subspecies recognized, including the nominate. The subspecies mesonauta is distinguished from the nominate by the rosy tinge of its fresh plumage, and the subspecies indicus can be differentiated by its smaller size, more restricted mask, and more orange bill. This species ranges across the tropical Atlantic, eastern Pacific, and Indian Oceans. The nominate is found in the southern Atlantic Ocean, the subspecies indicus in the waters off of the Middle East and in the Indian Ocean, and the subspecies mesonauta in the eastern portions of both the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans and in the Caribbean. It was one of the many species described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae. [more]

White-tailed tropicbird / Weißschwanz-Tropikvogel (Phaethon lepturus)
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Wikipedia: White-tailed tropicbird
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: North America, Africa.
The white-tailed tropicbird (Phaethon lepturus) is a species of tropicbird. It is the smallest of three closely related seabirds of the tropical oceans and smallest member of the order Phaethontiformes. It is found in the tropical Atlantic, western Pacific and Indian Oceans. It also breeds on some Caribbean islands, and a few pairs have started nesting recently on Little Tobago, joining the red-billed tropicbird colony. In addition to the tropical Atlantic, it nests as far north as Bermuda, where it is locally called a "longtail".[2] [more]

Family Sulidae (Gannets and boobies / Tölpel):

Genus Sula:
Brown booby / Weißbauchtölpel (Sula leucogaster)
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Wikipedia: Brown booby
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: North America, South America, Africa.
The brown booby (Sula leucogaster) is a large seabird of the booby family, Sulidae, of which it is perhaps the most common and widespread species.[3] It has a pantropical range, which overlaps with that of other booby species. The gregarious brown booby commutes and forages at low height over inshore waters. Flocks plunge-dive to take small fish, especially when these are driven near the surface by their predators. They only nest on the ground, and roost on solid objects rather than the water surface.[3] [more]

Red-footed booby / Rotfußtölpel (Sula sula)
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Wikipedia: Red-footed booby
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: North America, South America, Africa.
The red-footed booby (Sula sula) is a large seabird of the booby family, Sulidae. Adults always have red feet, but the colour of the plumage varies. They are powerful and agile fliers, but they are clumsy in takeoffs and landings. They are found widely in the tropics, and breed colonially in coastal regions, especially islands. The species faces few natural or man-made threats, although its population is declining; it is considered to be a least-concern species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). [more]

Masked booby (Sula dactylatra)
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Wikipedia: Masked booby
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: North America, South America, Africa.
The masked booby (Sula dactylatra), also called the masked gannet or the blue-faced booby, is a large seabird of the booby and gannet family, Sulidae. First described by the French naturalist René-Primevère Lesson in 1831, the masked booby is one of six species of booby in the genus Sula. It has a typical sulid body shape, with a long pointed yellowish bill, long neck, aerodynamic body, long slender wings and pointed tail. The adult is bright white with black wings, a black tail and a dark face mask; at 75–85 cm (30–33 in) long, it is the largest species of booby. The sexes have similar plumage. This species ranges across tropical oceans, except in the eastern Atlantic and eastern Pacific. In the latter, it is replaced by the Nazca booby (Sula granti), which was formerly regarded as a subspecies of masked booby. [more]

Genus Morus:
Northern gannet / Basstölpel (Morus bassanus)
Alternate classification: Sula bassana
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Wikipedia: Northern gannet
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Deutschland: Brut-, Jahres-, Zugvogel, Wintergast RL R
Vocalization: Heard mostly at breeding ground. Even, rhythmical series of harsh "harrr, harrr, harrr,". [Link]
Physical details: length=87-100 cm, wingspan=165-180 cm, weight=2400-3600 g

Family Threskiornithidae:

Genus Plegadis:
Glossy ibis (Plegadis falcinellus)
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Wikipedia: Glossy ibis
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
General: The glossy ibis (Plegadis falcinellus) is a water bird in the order Pelecaniformes and the ibis and spoonbill family Threskiornithidae. The scientific name derives from Ancient Greek plegados and Latin, falcis, both meaning "sickle" and referring to the distinctive shape of the bill.[2] [more]
Vocalization: Generally silent away from breeding ground. Dry, crow-like "garr garr", may be heard occasionally in flight. At breeding ground various guttural grunts, and piping, hissing sounds. [Link]
Physical details: length=55-65 cm, wingspan=80-95 cm, weight=530-768 g

White-faced ibis / Brillensichler (Plegadis chihi)
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Wikipedia: White-faced ibis
General: The white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi) is a wading bird in the ibis family, Threskiornithidae. [more]

Genus Platalea:
Roseate spoonbill / Rosalöffler (Platalea ajaja)
Alternate classification: Ajaia ajaja
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Wikipedia: Roseate spoonbill
The roseate spoonbill (Platalea ajaja) is a gregarious wading bird of the ibis and spoonbill family, Threskiornithidae. It is a resident breeder in South America mostly east of the Andes, and in coastal regions of the Caribbean, Central America, Mexico, the Gulf Coast of the United States,[2][3] and from central Florida's Atlantic coast[4] at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, adjoined with NASA Kennedy Space Center at least as far north as South Carolina's Myrtle Beach.[5] [more]

Order Passeriformes (Passerine / Singvögel):

Suborder Passeri (Sperlingsvögel):

Superfamily Sylvioidea:
Family Aegithalidae (Long-tailed tits / Schwanzmeisen):
Genus Psaltriparus:
Bushtit (Psaltriparus minimus)
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Wikipedia: Bushtit
The bushtits or long-tailed tits, Aegithalidae, are a family of small, drab passerine birds with moderately long tails. The family contains 13 species in four genera, all but one of which are found in Eurasia. Bushtits are active birds, moving almost constantly while they forage for insects in shrubs and trees. During non-breeding season, birds live in flocks of up to 50 individuals.[1] Several bushtit species display cooperative breeding behavior, also called helpers at the nest.[1][2][3] [more]

Family Sylviidae (Old world warblers / Grasmücken):
Subfamily Acrocephalinae:
Genus Acrocephalus:
Saipan reed warbler / Marianenrohrsänger (Acrocephalus hiwae)
Alternate classification: Acrocephalus luscinius hiwae
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Wikipedia: Saipan reed warbler
The Saipan reed warbler (Acrocephalus hiwae) is a critically endangered songbird of the Northern Mariana Islands. It is considered a subspecies of the nightingale reed warbler by some taxonomists. It occurs on two islands : Saipan and Alamagan. An estimated population of 2700 specimen was reported in 2009 on Saipan, and on Alamagan 950 specimen were reported in 2010.[1] [more]

Genus Regulus:
Ruby-crowned kinglet (Regulus calendula)
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Wikipedia: Ruby-crowned kinglet
The ruby-crowned kinglet (Regulus calendula) is a very small passerine bird found throughout North America. It is a member of the kinglet family. The bird has olive-green plumage with two white wing bars and a white eye-ring. Males have a red crown patch, which is usually concealed. The sexes are identical (apart from the crown), and juveniles are similar in plumage to adults. It is one of the smallest songbirds in North America. The ruby-crowned kinglet is not closely related to other kinglets, and is put in its own subgenus, Corthylio. Three subspecies are currently recognized. [more]

Golden-crowned kinglet (Regulus satrapa)
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Wikipedia: Golden-crowned kinglet
The golden-crowned kinglet (Regulus satrapa) is a very small songbird in the family Regulidae that lives throughout much of North America. [more]

Genus Chamaea:
Wrentit (Chamaea fasciata)
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Wikipedia: Wrentit
The wrentit (Chamaea fasciata) is a small bird that lives in chaparral, oak woodlands, and bushland on the western coast of North America. It is the only species in the genus Chamaea. [more]

Family Pycnonotidae (Bulbuls):
Genus Pycnonotus:
Red-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer)
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Wikipedia: Red-vented bulbul
The red-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) is a member of the bulbul family of passerines. It is a resident breeder across the Indian subcontinent, including Sri Lanka extending east to Burma and parts of Tibet. It has been introduced in many other parts of the world and has established itself in the wild on several Pacific islands including Fiji, Samoa, Tonga and Hawaii. It has also established itself in parts of the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, the United States and Argentina.[2] It is included in the list of the world's 100 worst invasive alien species.[3] [more]

Family Zosteropidae (White-eyes):
Genus Zosterops:
Japanese white-eye / Japanbrillenvogel (Zosterops japonicus)
Alternate classification: Zosterops japonica
Also known as: Warbling white-eye
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Wikipedia: Japanese white-eye
The warbling white-eye (Zosterops japonicus), also known as the Japanese white-eye and mountain white-eye, is a small passerine bird in the white-eye family. The specific epithet is occasionally written japonica, but this is incorrect due to the gender of the genus. Its native range includes much of East Asia, including the Russian Far East, Japan, Indonesia, Korea, and the Philippines. It has been intentionally introduced to other parts of the world as a pet and as pest control, with mixed results. As one of the native species of the Japanese islands, it has been depicted in Japanese art on numerous occasions, and historically was kept as a cage bird. [more]

Bridled white-eye (Zosterops conspicullatus)
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Wikipedia: Bridled white-eye
The bridled white-eye (Zosterops conspicillatus) (Chamorro name: nosa') is a species of bird in the family Zosteropidae. It is endemic to the Northern Mariana Islands, where the one remaining subspecies is currently abundant on the islands of Tinian, Saipan and Aguijan. The bridled white-eye natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, plantations, and rural gardens. [more]

Genus Cleptornis:
Golden white-eye / Goldbrillenvogel (Cleptornis marchei)
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Wikipedia: Golden white-eye
The golden white-eye (Cleptornis marchei) is a species of bird in the white-eye family, Zosteropidae. It is the only species within the genus Cleptornis. The golden white-eye was once considered to be a honeyeater in the family Meliphagidae and although it is now known to be a white-eye, its position within that family is still uncertain. The species is restricted to the islands of Saipan and Aguijan in the Northern Mariana Islands, where it is sympatric (shares its range) and competes with the related bridled white-eye. The golden white-eye has golden plumage and a pale eye-ring. It feeds on insects, fruit, and nectar and forages in pairs or small family groups. The bird is monogamous and lays two eggs in a small cup nest. [more]

Family Hirundinidae (Swallows / Schwalben):
Genus Hirundo:
Barn swallow / Rauchschwalbe (Hirundo rustica)
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Rauchschwalben schenkel farm, farbe betont für ID. 2020-04-16 10.09.16 Luppmen
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
Seen every evening from spring to fall, need good picture.
Etymology: In früheren Jahrhunderten flogen sie vielfach durch die Öffnungen im Giebel ein und aus, durch die auch der Rauch des Herdfeuers abzog. So erhielten sie den Namen Rauchschwalben. [Link]
Song: Characteristic calls and song. Song a sparkling, squeaky energetic improvisation with interspersed contact calls, often with diagnostic ending; an electric and drawn-out "su-eerrrrrrrrrrrrrrr". [Link]
Calls: Contact call a short and sharp "weet" or "kee-weet". [Link]
Physical details: length=17-19 cm, wingspan=32-34 cm, weight=16-22 g

Genus Tachycineta:
Tree swallow / Sumpfschwalbe (Tachycineta bicolor)
Alternate classification: Hirundo bicolor
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Tree swallow, Cromwell Valley Park, Maryland. 2021-06-14 15.15.38 Maryland
General: The tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) is a migratory bird of the family Hirundinidae. Found in the Americas, the tree swallow was first described in 1807 by French ornithologist Louis Vieillot as Hirundo bicolor. It has since been moved to its current genus, Tachycineta, within which its phylogenetic placement is debated. The tree swallow has glossy blue-green upperparts, with the exception of the blackish wings and tail, and white underparts. The bill is black, the eyes dark brown, and the legs and feet pale brown. The female is generally duller than the male, and the first-year female has mostly brown upperparts, with some blue feathers. Juveniles have brown upperparts, and a grey-brown-washed breast. The tree swallow breeds in the US and Canada. It winters along southern US coasts south, along the Gulf Coast, to Panama and the northwestern coast of South America, and in the West Indies. [more]

Violet-green swallow (Tachycineta thalassina)
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Wikipedia: Violet-green swallow
The violet-green swallow (Tachycineta thalassina) is a small North American passerine bird in the swallow family. These aerial insectivores are distributed along the west coast from Alaska to Mexico, extending as far east as Montana and Texas. With an appearance very similar to the tree swallow, these individuals can be identified by the white rump side-patches that appear to separate their green back and purple tail. Violet-green swallows are secondary cavity nesters, found in a number of habitats including deciduous and coniferous forest. In addition to nesting in tree holes within these habitats, they are also widely observed nesting in the cracks of large cliffs.[2] [more]

Genus Progne:
Purple martin / Purpurschwalbe (Progne subis)
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Wikipedia: Purple martin
The purple martin (Progne subis) is the largest swallow in North America. Despite their name, purple martins are not truly purple. Their dark blackish-blue feathers have an iridescent sheen caused by the refraction of incident light[2] giving them a bright blue to navy blue or deep purple appearance. In some light they may even appear green in color. [more]

Caribbean martin (Progne dominicensis)
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Wikipedia: Caribbean martin
The Caribbean martin or white-bellied martin (Progne dominicensis) is a large swallow. [more]

Genus Stelgidopteryx:
Northern rough-winged swallow (Stelgidopteryx serripennis)
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Wikipedia: Northern rough-winged swallow
The northern rough-winged swallow (Stelgidopteryx serripennis) is a small, migratory swallow. It is very similar to the southern rough-winged swallow, Stelgidopteryx ruficollis. [more]

Genus Riparia:
Bank swallow / Uferschwalbe (Riparia riparia)
Also known as: Sand martin
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Wikipedia: Bank swallow
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
The sand martin (Riparia riparia) or European sand martin, bank swallow, and collared sand martin in India, is a migratory passerine bird in the swallow family. It has a wide range in summer, embracing practically the whole of Europe and the Mediterranean countries and across the Palearctic to the Pacific Ocean. It is a Holarctic species also found in North America. It winters in eastern and southern Africa, South America, and the Indian Subcontinent. [more]
Song: Song a primitive improvisation on the contact call. [Link]
Calls: Contact call a mono- or disyllabic "trrrrt". Similar to House Martin but more raucous and less crisp, with less rolling r's, and with stable pitch throughout. Alarm call similar to House Martin; a sharp plaintive "tseep", but somewhat purer and more drawn. [Link]
Physical details: length=12 cm, wingspan=26-29 cm, weight=11-16 g

Genus Petrochelidon:
Cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota)
Alternate classification: Hirundo pyrrhonota
Also known as: American cliff swallow
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Wikipedia: Cliff swallow
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America.
General: The cliff swallow or American cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) is a member of the passerine bird family Hirundinidae, the swallows and martins.[2] The scientific name is derived from Ancient Greek; Petrochelidon originates from the petros meaning "rock" and khelidon "swallow", pyrrhonota comes from purrhos meaning "flame-coloured" and -notos "-backed".[3] [more]

Cave swallow (Petrochelidon fulva)
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Wikipedia: Cave swallow
The cave swallow (Petrochelidon fulva) is a medium-sized, squarish tailed swallow belonging to the same genus as the more familiar and widespread cliff swallow of North America. The cave swallow, also native to the Americas, nests and roosts primarily in caves and sinkholes. [more]

Family Alaudidae (Larks / Lerchen):
Genus Alauda:
Eurasian skylark / Feldlerche (Alauda arvensis)
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Wikipedia Eurasian Skylark (Alauda arvensis). Source: WIKIPEDIA
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America (introduced), Africa.
Geography: Introduced population in North America is gradually declining. [Link]
Stark gefährdet durch Verlust von geeignetem Lebensraum. Eine Massnahme ist die Erstellung von Lerchenfenstern auf den Feldern - eine kleine Fläche mitten im Feld, die nicht bepflanzt oder gemäht wird. So was sieht man bei uns, z.B. zwischen Freudwil und Gutenswil, wobei ich nicht genau weiss, ob Feldlerchen das Ziel davon sind. Die Infos habe ich vom FOK Kurs 2021-2022 von Christina Ebneter.
Song: Song a pleasing energetic stream of chirping, merry trills, interspersed with mimicry. Trills quite resonant with fairly full tone. Song usually given in flight high in the air. Less characteristic, shorter, weaker and more varied song when given from ground. [Link]
Calls: Most typical flight call a short trilling "chirrup", with the end note noticeably lower pitched than the start. Also several other more cryptic calls. [Link]
Physical details: length=18-19 cm, wingspan=30-36 cm, weight=26-50 g

Genus Eremophila:
Horned lark / Ohrenlerche (Eremophila alpestris)
Alternate classification: Chionophila alpestris
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Wikipedia: Horned lark
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Deutschland: Wintergast
Song: Song a stream of thin and tinkling, squeaking notes with a recurring, drawn, ringing and slightly ascending chirp. Timbre resemblant to Lapland Bunting. Often given from high in the air, being difficult to locate. More hesitantly when given from the ground with a stumbling introduction. [Link]
Calls: Flight call quite similar to Meadow Pipit's "tseep" call, but less anxious. [Link]
Physical details: length=14-17 cm, wingspan=30-35 cm, weight=26-46 g

Family Phylloscopidae (Laubsänger):
Genus Phylloscopus:
Arctic warbler / Wanderlaubsänger (Phylloscopus borealis)
Alternate classification: Seicercus borealis
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Wikipedia: Arctic warbler
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
General: The Arctic warbler (Phylloscopus borealis) is a widespread leaf warbler in birch or mixed birch forest near water throughout its breeding range in Fennoscandia and the northern Palearctic. It has established a foothold in North America, breeding in Alaska. This warbler is strongly migratory; the entire population winters in southeast Asia. It therefore has one of the longest migrations of any Old World insectivorous bird. [more]
Song: Call and song diagnostic. Song a rattling series of 20-30 single syllables. Repeated as a monotonous phrase in stable pitch, lasting 2-4 seconds. Starts more softly with volume rising throughout each phrase. Often given as introductory part of song. [Link]
Calls: Contact call equally unique. A hard and short "tsrrt", recalling contact call of Dipper. [Link]
Physical details: length=10-11 cm, wingspan=16-22 cm, weight=8-12 g

Family Leiothrichidae:
Genus Leiothrix:
Red-billed leiothrix / Sonnenvogel (Leiothrix lutea)
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Wikipedia: Red-billed leiothrix
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
General: The red-billed leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea) is a member of the family Leiothrichidae, native to southern China and the Himalayas. Adults have bright red bills and a dull yellow ring around their eyes. Their backs are dull olive green, and they have a bright yellow-orange throat with a yellow chin; females are somewhat duller than males, and juveniles have black bills. It has also been introduced in various parts of the world, with small populations of escapees having existed in Japan since the 1980s. It has become a common cagebird and amongst aviculturists it goes by various names: Pekin robin, Pekin nightingale, Japanese nightingale, and Japanese (hill) robin, the last two being misnomers as it is not native to Japan (although it has been introduced and naturalised there).[2] [more]

Genus Garrulax:
Chinese hwamei (Garrulax canorus)
Alternate classification: Leucodioptron canorum
Also known as: Hwamei
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Wikipedia: Chinese hwamei
The Chinese hwamei or melodious laughingthrush (Garrulax canorus) is a passerine bird of eastern Asia in the family Leiothrichidae. The name "hwamei" comes from the Chinese 画眉 (huà-méi) means "painted eyebrow"[2] referring to the distinctive marking around the bird's eyes. The species is a popular cagebird because of its attractive song. [more]

Greater necklaced laughingthrush (Garrulax pectoralis)
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Wikipedia: Greater necklaced laughingthrush
The greater necklaced laughingthrush (Pterorhinus pectoralis) is a species of passerine bird in the family Leiothrichidae. It is found in Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand and Vietnam. It is introduced to the United States. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest and subtropical or tropical moist montane forest. [more]

Family Scotocercidae:
Genus Horornis:
Japanese bush warbler (Horornis diphone)
Alternate classification: Cettia diphone
Also known as: Japanese bush-warbler
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Wikipedia: Japanese bush warbler
The Japanese bush warbler (Horornis diphone), known in Japanese as uguisu (鶯), is an Asian passerine bird more often heard than seen. Its distinctive breeding song can be heard throughout much of Japan from the start of spring. [more]

Superfamily Passeroidea:
Family Passeridae (Sparrows / Sperlinge):
Genus Passer:
House sparrow / Haussperling (Passer domesticus)
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Pair of house sparrows in a tree near Zürichstrasse, Fehraltorf 2020-04-11 07.54.30 Luppmen
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America (introduced), South America, Africa.
One of the most common birds anywhere in Europe and North America. In Fehraltorf there are 5 house sparrows for every one tree sparrow. Eugene Schieffelin brought house sparrows and starlings to North Ameria. As a Shakespeare fan, it is often claimed that he wanted to introduce all species to North America that are mentioned in Shakespeare, but apparently this is not supported by any records
Found practically everywhere. Often on the ground or on your table in a cafe (they're very bold) or in groups in bushes and hedges
Song: Song a primitive, monosyllabic, or slightly disyllabic "chilp", hard to distinguish from Tree Sparrow. [Link]
Calls: Most calls very similar to Tree Sparrow, but lacks said species' distinct high pitched call (chew-itt), and alarm call is less dry and raucous. [Link]
Physical details: length=14-15 cm, wingspan=21-25 cm, weight=24-38 g

Song: An monotone chirping. Mainly 2-5 KHz with higher overtones.
Song attributes: Melody: simple rhythmic, slow, Frequency: 2-5 KHz Singing season: 01-01 - 08-31 Dawn chorus start, 30 minutes before dawn.

Eurasian tree sparrow / Feldsperling (Passer montanus)
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In tree by First, ZH. 2020-05-04 17.33.32 Luppmen
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America (introduced), Africa.
Similar to the house sparrow, but with the black cheek patch seen here. in Fehraltorf there are 5 times as many house sparrows as tree sparrows.
Geography: Brought from Germany, about 20 of these birds were released in St. Louis in 1870. The population took hold there, and they might have spread except that the House Sparrow, seemingly more aggressive and adaptable, reached the St. Louis area at about the same time. Eurasian Tree Sparrows are still found in parts of Missouri and Illinois, and have reached southeastern Iowa, but they are fairly local in farmland and suburbs. The tougher House Sparrow may keep them out of other areas. [Link]
Vocalization: Most other sounds similar to House Sparrow, and may be difficult to identify. [Link]
Song: Chattering sounds are generally harder, and song slightly higher pitched than House Sparrow. [Link]
Calls: Distinct, high-pitched and explosive contact-call; "che-witt" typically given in flight. Second syllable rising rapidly in pitch. [Link]
Physical details: length=14 cm, wingspan=20-22 cm, weight=18-29 g

Song: Monotone chirping, rougher than that of the house sparrow. Most 2-7 KHz mit many overtones, i.e. somewhat higher than the house sparrow.
Song attributes: Melody: simple rhythmic, slow, Frequency: 2-7 KHz

Family Fringillidae (Finken):
Subfamily Fringillinae:
Genus Fringilla:
Brambling / Bergfink (Fringilla montifringilla)
Also known as: Mountain finch
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Wikipedia Bergfink. Foto: Source: WIKIPEDIA
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Geography: the Brambling appears regularly in small numbers in Alaska during migration, straying the short distance across the Bering Sea. Some of those that stray across in autumn apparently then continue south on the American side, and there have been winter records for numerous states and provinces east to the Atlantic Coast and south to Colorado. Many of these vagrant Bramblings have been found visiting bird feeders. [Link]
Vocalization: Large repertoire of mostly characteristic sounds. [
Link]
Song: Song very distinct; a soft, wheezing, drawn-out single note. Repeated at the same pitch in a monotonous manner. [Link]
Calls: Contact calls include a short, nasal, ascending "keeaa", a short high-pitched, piercing "tzeet" and a linnet-like "chepp". May be mistaken for Greenfinch, but note softer timbre and stable pitch throughout the call. [Link]
Physical details: length=14 cm, wingspan=25-26 cm, weight=17-30 g
Habitats: forest

Song: General: Bergfink - call cheep plus two ascending Grünfink squawks. Song? Grünfink squawk but not descending, every 3-4 seconds.
Song: Song very distinct; a soft, wheezing, drawn-out single note. Repeated at the same pitch in a monotonous manner. [Link]
Song attributes: Melody: simple rhythmic, slow, Frequency: medium (1-5 KHz) Special sounds: rasp Singing season: 04-14 - 09-15

Subfamily Carduelinae:
Genus Acanthis (Redpolls):
Common redpoll (Acanthis flammea)
Alternate classification: Fringilla flammea
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Wikipedia: Common redpoll
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
General: The common redpoll or mealy redpoll (Acanthis flammea) is a species of bird in the finch family. It breeds somewhat further south than the Arctic redpoll, also in habitats with thickets or shrubs. [more]
Song: Song an improvised chattering on various contact calls with no apparent phrasing. [Link]
Calls: Contact call diagnostic. A chattering "Chutt-utt-utt", with a more metallic and nasal timbre than Linnet and Twite. Other sound includes plaintive call mostly given when perched. Uttered as a continuous sound, but with a disyllabic feel. First part ascending slowly, then faster before it is cut off "tsooeet". [Link]
Physical details: length=11-14 cm, wingspan=20-25 cm, weight=9-16 g

Arctic redpoll (Acanthis hornemanni)
Alternate classification: Linota hornemanni
Also known as: Hoary redpoll
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Wikipedia: Arctic redpoll
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
General: The Arctic redpoll or hoary redpoll (Acanthis hornemanni) is a bird species in the finch family Fringillidae. It breeds in tundra birch forest. It has two subspecies, A. h. hornemanni (Greenland or Hornemann's Arctic redpoll) of Greenland and neighbouring parts of Canada, and A. h. exilipes (Coues' Arctic redpoll), which breeds in the tundra of northern North America and the Palearctic. Many birds remain in the far north; some birds migrate short distances south in winter, sometimes travelling with common redpolls. [more]
Vocalization: Very similar to Common Redpoll, but possibly with a softer tone and slightly longer pauses between each syllable. See Common Redpoll. [Link]
Physical details: length=13-15 cm, wingspan=21-27 cm, weight=10-16 g

Genus Loxia:
Red crossbill / Fichtenkreuzschnabel (Loxia curvirostra)
Alternate classification: Loxia curvirostris
Also known as: Common crossbill
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Wikimedia Red Crossbills (Male). Source: WIKIPEDIA
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Forests with conifers. Some spend the winter in Switzerland, others are here year-round.
Appearance and identification: Nabu.de: das Männchen schon von weitem durch seine ziegelrote Farbe auf. Das Weibchen dagegen ist unscheinbar graugrün gefärbt.Größe: 15 bis 17 Zentimeter Zugtyp: Teilzieher Beobachtungszeitraum: Oktober bis April, im Mittelgebirge und Alpenraum ganzjährig. [Link]
New research suggests that there may be as many as eight different full species of Red Crossbills on [North America]. [Link]
Behavior: Wikipedia: a small passerine bird in the finch family Fringillidae, also known as the Common Crossbill in Eurasia. Crossbills have distinctive mandibles, crossed at the tips, which enable them to extract seeds from conifer cones and other fruits. [Link]
Song: The song consist of improvised, resonant twittering, and series of contact calls with no apparent phrases. It is generally faster, with less marked pauses than in Parrot Crossbill, and the phrasing seems more random. [Link]
Calls: Contact call similar to Parroy Crossbill's "tupp", but is on average higher and less powerful, with a "cut-off" ending. In sum: Parrot Crossbill; hard attack, soft ending, Crossbill: softer attack, cut-off ending. Beware regional variations and overlap in pitch of calls with Parrot. [Link]
Physical details: length=16 cm, wingspan=27-30 cm, weight=35-50 g

Song: Repeated hi-low pattern...well, doesn't always sound like that. The very short beginning of my Stazersee recording before the static sets in does, as well as a song found online. One recording reminds me of cicada sounds.
Song attributes: Melody: stereotype melodic, slow, Frequency: 2-10 KHz

Two-barred crossbill / Bindenkreuzschnabel (Loxia leucoptera)
Also known as: White-winged crossbill
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Wikipedia: Two-barred crossbill
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
General: The two-barred crossbill or white-winged crossbill (Loxia leucoptera) is a small passerine bird in the finch family Fringillidae. [more]

Cassia crossbill (Loxia sinesciuris)
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Wikipedia: Cassia crossbill
The Cassia crossbill (Loxia sinesciuris) is a passerine bird in the family Fringillidae. It is endemic to the South Hills and Albion Mountains in southern Idaho.[1] Cassia crossbill rarely interbreeds with other call types that move into the South Hills of Idaho yearly, and can be considered to represent a distinct species via ecological speciation.[1] The Cassia crossbill have specialized beaks to access the seeds of the lodgepole pine cones in this region, but are poorly adapted to other pine cones in surrounding regions.[2] [more]

Genus Pinicola:
Pine grosbeak (Pinicola enucleator)
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Wikipedia: Pine grosbeak
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
The pine grosbeak (Pinicola enucleator) (this scientific name roughly translates to "the bird that lives in the pines and shells the seeds") is a large member of the true finch family, Fringillidae. It is the only species in the genus Pinicola. It is found in coniferous woods across Alaska, the western mountains of the United States, Canada, and in subarctic Fennoscandia and across the Palearctic to Siberia. The species is a frugivore, especially in winter, favoring small fruits, such as rowans (mountain-ashes in the New World). With fruit-crop abundance varying from year to year, pine grosbeak is one of many subarctic-resident bird species that exhibit irruptive behavior. In irruption years, individuals can move long distances in search of suitable food supplies, bringing them farther south and/or downslope than is typical of years with large fruit crops. [more]
Song: Song a soft, flowing, melodic yodeling in clear, flute-like tones. [Link]
Calls: Contact call a melodic, plaintive "cliu-wee", with both syllables falling in pitch. Analogoues to Siskin, but much more full-bodied and lower pitched (like a mix of Siskin and Bullfinch). [Link]
Physical details: length=18 cm, wingspan=30-35 cm, weight=47-64 g

Genus Leucosticte:
Grey-crowned rosy-finch (Leucosticte tephrocotis)
Also known as: Gray-crowned rosy finch
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Wikipedia: Grey-crowned rosy-finch
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
General: The gray-crowned rosy finch, or gray-crowned rosy-finch, (Leucosticte tephrocotis) is a species of passerine bird in the family Fringillidae native to Alaska, western Canada, and the north-western United States. Due to its remote and rocky alpine habitat it is rarely seen. There are currently six recognized subspecies. It is one of four species of rosy finches. [more]

Black rosy-finch (Leucosticte atrata)
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Wikipedia: Black rosy-finch
The black rosy finch, or black rosy-finch, (Leucosticte atrata) is a species of passerine bird in the family Fringillidae native to alpine areas above treeline, of the western United States. It is the most range-restricted member of its genus, and a popular photography subject for birdwatchers. [more]

Brown-capped rosy-finch (Leucosticte australis)
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Wikipedia: Brown-capped rosy-finch
The brown-capped rosy finch (Leucosticte australis) is a medium-sized finch endemic to North America. [more]

Genus Hesperiphona:
Evening grosbeak (Hesperiphona vespertina)
Alternate classification: Coccothraustes vespertinus
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Wikipedia: Evening grosbeak
The evening grosbeak (Hesperiphona vespertina) is a passerine bird in the finch family Fringillidae found in North America. [more]

Genus Haemorhous:
Cassin's finch / Cassingimpel (Haemorhous cassinii)
Alternate classification: Carpodacus cassini
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Wikipedia: Cassin's finch
Cassin's finch (Haemorhous cassinii) is a bird in the finch family, Fringillidae. This species and the other "American rosefinches" are placed in the genus Haemorhous. [more]

House finch / Hausgimpel (Haemorhous mexicanus)
Alternate classification: Fringilla mexicana
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At the end of a walk, I was sure these were sp-rrows, but had a look, and they were house finches on the asphalt of Cherrywood Court. 2021-06-17 05.47.36 Maryland
The house finch (Haemorhous mexicanus) is a bird in the finch family Fringillidae. It is native to western North America and has been introduced to the eastern half of the continent and Hawaii. This species and the other "American rosefinches" are placed in the genus Haemorhous. [more]

Purple finch / Purpurgimpel (Haemorhous purpureus)
Alternate classification: Carpodacus purpureus
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Wikipedia: Purple finch
The purple finch (Haemorhous purpureus) is a bird in the finch family, Fringillidae. [more]

Genus Spinus (Siskins):
Red siskin (Spinus cucullata)
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Wikipedia: Red siskin
The red siskin (Spinus cucullatus) is a small endangered finch native to tropical South America - in northern Colombia, northern Venezuela (where it is called the "cardenalito") and Guyana.[2] It was common in the early 20th century, occurring throughout the foothills of northern Venezuela, but has now become extremely rare in a fragmented range. The population on Trinidad is believed to be extirpated, with no sightings since 1960.[citation needed] [more]

Lesser goldfinch / Mexikozeisig (Spinus psaltria)
Alternate classification: Carduelis psaltria
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Wikipedia: Lesser goldfinch
The lesser goldfinch (Spinus psaltria) is a very small songbird of the Americas. Together with its relatives the American goldfinch and Lawrence's goldfinch, it forms the American goldfinches clade in the genus Spinus sensu stricto. [more]

Pine siskin / Fichtenzeisig (Spinus pinus)
Alternate classification: Fringilla pinus
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Wikipedia: Pine siskin
The pine siskin (Spinus pinus) is a North American bird in the finch family. It is a migratory bird with an extremely sporadic winter range. [more]

American goldfinch / Goldzeisig (Spinus tristis)
Alternate classification: Carduelis tristis
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I observed something new practically every day at Cherrywood Court, hear an American goldfinch. 2021-06-17 05.49.04 Maryland
The American goldfinch (Spinus tristis) is a small North American bird in the finch family. It is migratory, ranging from mid-Alberta to North Carolina during the breeding season, and from just south of the Canada–United States border to Mexico during the winter. [more]

Lawrence's goldfinch / Maskenzeisig (Spinus lawrencei)
Alternate classification: Carduelis lawrence
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Wikipedia: Lawrence's goldfinch
Lawrence's goldfinch (Spinus lawrencei) is a small songbird of erratic distribution that breeds in California and Baja California and winters in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. [more]

Subfamily Emberizinae:
Tribe Cardinalini:
Genus Cardinalis:
Pyrrhuloxia / Schmalschnabelkardinal (Cardinalis sinuatus)
Alternate classification: Pyrrhuloxia sinuata
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Wikipedia: Pyrrhuloxia
The pyrrhuloxia /ˌpɪrəˈlɒksiə/[2] or desert cardinal (Cardinalis sinuatus) is a medium-sized North American song bird found in the American southwest and northern Mexico. This distinctive species with a short, stout bill and red crest and wings, and closely resembles the Northern cardinal and the Vermilion cardinal which are in the same genus. [more]

Northern cardinal / Rotkardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis)
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Northern cardinal by trail, Hunt Valley, Maryland. 2021-06-12 17.07.40 Maryland
The northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) is a bird in the genus Cardinalis; it is also known colloquially as the redbird, common cardinal, red cardinal, or just cardinal (which was its name prior to 1985). It can be found in southeastern Canada, through the eastern United States from Maine to Minnesota to Texas, and south through Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala. It is also an introduced species in a few locations such as Bermuda and Hawaii. Its habitat includes woodlands, gardens, shrublands, and wetlands. [more]

Genus Passerina:
Painted bunting (Passerina ciris)
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Wikipedia: Painted bunting
The painted bunting (Passerina ciris) is a species of bird in the cardinal family, Cardinalidae, that is native to North America. The bright plumage of the male only comes in the second year of life; in the first year they can only be distinguished from the female by close inspection. [more]

Varied bunting (Passerina versicolor)
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Wikipedia: Varied bunting
The varied bunting (Passerina versicolor) is a species of songbird in the cardinal family, Cardinalidae. [more]

Blue grosbeak (Passerina caerulea)
Alternate classification: Guiraca caerulea
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Wikipedia: Blue grosbeak
The blue grosbeak (Passerina caerulea), is a medium-sized North American passerine bird in the cardinal family Cardinalidae. It is mainly migratory, wintering in Central America and breeding in northern Mexico and the southern United States. The male is blue with two brown wing bars. The female is mainly brown with scattered blue feathers on the upperparts and two brown wing bars. [more]

Lazuli bunting / Lazulifink (Passerina amoena)
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Wikipedia: Lazuli bunting
The lazuli bunting (Passerina amoena) is a North American songbird named for the gemstone lapis lazuli. [more]

Indigo bunting / Indigofink (Passerina cyanea)
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Wikipedia: Indigo bunting
The indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea) is a small seed-eating bird in the cardinal family, Cardinalidae. It is migratory, ranging from southern Canada to northern Florida during the breeding season, and from southern Florida to northern South America during the winter.[2] It often migrates by night, using the stars to navigate.[3] Its habitat is farmland, brush areas, and open woodland.[4] The indigo bunting is closely related to the lazuli bunting and interbreeds with the species where their ranges overlap. [more]

Genus Spiza:
Dickcissel / Dickzissel (Spiza americana)
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Wikipedia: Dickcissel
Emberiza townsendi
Emberiza townsendii (lapsus)
Spiza townsendi
Spiza townsendii (lapsus)
(see text)
[more]

Genus Pheucticus:
Rose-breasted grosbeak / Rosenbrust-Kernknacker (Pheucticus ludovicianus)
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Wikipedia: Rose-breasted grosbeak
The rose-breasted grosbeak (Pheucticus ludovicianus) is a large, seed-eating grosbeak in the cardinal family (Cardinalidae). It is primarily a foliage gleaner.[2] Males have black heads, wings, backs, and tails, and a bright rose colored patch on their white breast. Males and females exhibit marked sexual dimorphism. [more]

Black-headed grosbeak (Pheucticus melanocephalus)
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Wikipedia: Black-headed grosbeak
The black-headed grosbeak (Pheucticus melanocephalus) is a medium-sized, seed-eating bird in the same family as the northern cardinal, the Cardinalidae. It is sometimes considered conspecific with the rose-breasted grosbeak (P. ludovicianus) with which it hybridizes on the American Great Plains. [more]

Tribe Emberizini:
Genus Calcarius:
Lapland longspur / Spornammer (Calcarius lapponicus)
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Wikipedia: Lapland longspur
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
Deutschland: Zugvogel, Wintergast
Song: Song: a short, creaky, brittle phrase, rich in harmonics; "kril-trrlrtt-ti-trlllkrlltrrt". Somewhat reminiscent of Horned Lark, but without its hesitating intro. In form a bit like Snow Bunting, but much less clear tones. [Link]
Calls: Call: A Snow Bunting-like "prrrrit", but tone harder. Also a Snow Bunting-like "pjuu". Other sounds: soft, whistling calls reminiscent of Bullfinch, but with richer harmonics. [Link]
Physical details: length=15-16 cm, wingspan=25-28 cm, weight=20-28 g

Chestnut-collared longspur (Calcarius ornatus)
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Wikipedia: Chestnut-collared longspur
General: The chestnut-collared longspur (Calcarius ornatus) is a species of bird in the family Calcariidae. Like the other longspurs, it is a small ground-feeding bird that primarily eats seeds. It breeds in prairie habitats in Canada and the northern United States and winters to the south in the United States and Mexico. [more]

Smith's longspur (Calcarius pictus)
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Wikipedia: Smith's longspur
Smith's longspur (Calcarius pictus) is a bird from the family Calcariidae, which also contains the other species of longspurs. A bird of open habitats, it breeds in northern Canada and Alaska, and winters in the southern United States. Primarily a ground-feeding seed-eater, it supplements its diet with insects in the summer. [more]

Genus Plectrophenax:
Snow bunting / Schneeammer (Plectrophenax nivalis)
Alternate classification: Calcarius nivalis
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Wikipedia: Snow bunting
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
Deutschland: Wintergast
Song: Song simple and melodic. 2-5 syllable motifs with fairly wide tonal range. Can be confused with Lapland Bunting, but is much purer in tone with a less jingling timbre. Local dialects. [Link]
Calls: Contact call a short, melodic and rapidly descending "peeuu". Often alternating with a rattling "trrreet". "Peeuu"-call quite similar to Lapland Bunting, but harder, purer in tone and less nasal. [Link]
Physical details: length=16-17 cm, wingspan=32-38 cm, weight=28-50 g

McKay's bunting (Plectrophenax hyperboreus)
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Wikipedia: McKay's bunting
General: McKay's bunting (Plectrophenax hyperboreus) is a passerine bird in the longspur family Calcariidae. It is most closely related to the snow bunting (P. nivalis). Hybrids between the two species have been observed, leading some authorities to treat McKay's as a subspecies of snow bunting. As the Plectrophenax buntings are nested within the Calcarius clade, their closest relatives are the longspurs. McKay's bunting breeds on two islands in the Bering Sea, St. Matthew and Hall islands, and winters on the western coast of the U.S. state of Alaska. [more]

Genus Peucaea:
Bachman's sparrow (Peucaea aestivalis)
Alternate classification: Aimophila aestivalis
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Wikipedia: Bachman's sparrow
Bachman's sparrow (Peucaea aestivalis) (also known as the "Pinewoods Sparrow" or "Oakwoods Sparrow") is a small American sparrow that is endemic to the southeastern United States. This species was named in honor of Reverend John Bachman.[3] [more]

Cassin's sparrow (Peucaea cassinii)
Alternate classification: Aimophila cassini
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Wikipedia: Cassin's sparrow
Cassin's sparrow (Peucaea cassinii) is a medium-sized sparrow. [more]

Botteri's sparrow (Peucaea botterii)
Alternate classification: Aimophila botteri
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Wikipedia: Botteri's sparrow
Botteri's sparrow (Peucaea botterii) is a medium-sized sparrow. [more]

Rufous-winged sparrow (Peucaea carpalis)
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Wikipedia: Rufous-winged sparrow
The rufous-winged sparrow (Peucaea carpalis) is a medium-small, long-tailed New World sparrow with a gray face and rusty crown and supercilium; the rufous lesser coverts of the wing for which it is named are often concealed. [more]

Genus Euphonia:
Antillean euphonia (Euphonia musica)
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Wikipedia: Antillean euphonia
The Antillean euphonia (Euphonia musica) is a bird species in the finch family, Fringillidae (formerly in Thraupidae). It is found in all the main islands of the Lesser Antilles, as well as Hispaniola (Dominican Republic and Haiti) and Puerto Rico.[2] Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forest, subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest, and heavily degraded former forest. [more]

Subfamily Peucedraminae:
Genus Peucedramus:
Olive warbler (Peucedramus taeniatus)
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Wikipedia: Olive warbler
The olive warbler (Peucedramus taeniatus) is a small passerine bird. It is the only member of the genus Peucedramus and the family Peucedramidae. [more]

Genus Crithagra:
Yellow-fronted canary / Mosambikgirlitz (Crithagra mozambica)
Alternate classification: Serinus mozambicus
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Wikipedia: Yellow-fronted canary
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: North America, Africa.
The yellow-fronted canary (Crithagra mozambica), also called the yellow-eyed canary, is a small passerine bird in the finch family. It is known elsewhere and in aviculture as the green singing finch. [more]

Family Motacillidae (Stelzenverwandte):
Genus Anthus:
Red-throated pipit / Rotkehlpieper (Anthus cervinus)
Alternate classification: Motacilla cervina
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Wikipedia: Red-throated pipit
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
The red-throated pipit (Anthus cervinus) is a small passerine bird which breeds in the far north of Europe and the Palearctic, with a foothold in northern Alaska. It is a long-distance migrant moving in winter to Africa, south and east Asia and west coast United States. It is a vagrant to western Europe. [more]

American pipit / Pazifischer Wasserpieper (Anthus rubescens)
Alternate classification: Pipastes rubescens
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Wikipedia: American pipit
The buff-bellied pipit or American pipit (Anthus rubescens) is a small songbird found on both sides of the northern Pacific. It was first described by Marmaduke Tunstall in his 1771 Ornithologia Britannica.[2] It was formerly classified as a form of the water pipit. It is known as "American pipit" in North America and "buff-bellied pipit" in Eurasia. [more]

Sprague's pipit (Anthus spragueii)
Alternate classification: Alauda spragueii
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Wikipedia: Sprague's pipit
Sprague's pipit (Anthus spragueii) is a small songbird (passerine) in the family Motacillidae that breeds in the short- and mixed-grass prairies of North America. Migratory, it spends the winters in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Sprague's pipits are unusual among songbirds in that they sing high in the sky, somewhat like a goldfinch or skylark. It is more often identified by its distinctive descending song heard from above than by being seen on the ground. Males and females are cryptically coloured and similar in appearance; they are a buffy brown with darker streaking, slender bills and pinkish to yellow legs. Sprague's pipit summer habitat is primarily native grasslands in the north central prairies of the United States and Canada (distinguishing them from the American subspecies of the buff-bellied pipit, which breed in the northern Rocky Mountains and the Arctic). The species was named after the botanical illustrator Isaac Sprague. [more]

Genus Motacilla:
White wagtail / Bachstelze (Motacilla alba)
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White wagtail at edge of field near Mesikon 2020-04-25 07.21.02 Luppmen
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
The white wagtail (Motacilla alba) is a small passerine bird in the family Motacillidae, which also includes pipits and longclaws. The species breeds in much of Europe and the Asian Palearctic and parts of North Africa. It has a toehold in Alaska as a scarce breeder. It is resident in the mildest parts of its range, but otherwise migrates to Africa. In Ireland and Great Britain, the darker subspecies, the pied wagtail or water wagtail[2] (M. a. yarrellii) predominates. In total, there are between 9 and 11 subspecies. [more]
Song: Song either slow and primitive, consisting of sharp falling notes given by perched birds, or longer fast and energic bursts in excited song-flight. [Link]
Calls: Contact calls short and sharp. Usually with disyllabic, "bouncing" quality, and with each syllable only accented, not clearly separated from the other (see Grey Wagtail). [Link]
Physical details: length=18 cm, wingspan=25-30 cm, weight=17-25 g
Presence: 03-01 - 10-28

Eastern yellow wagtail (Motacilla tschutschensis)
Alternate classification: Motacilla flava tschutschensis
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Wikipedia: Eastern yellow wagtail
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
General: The eastern yellow wagtail (Motacilla tschutschensis) is a small passerine in the wagtail family Motacillidae, which also includes the pipits and longclaws. It was often classified as a subspecies of the Western yellow wagtail. [more]

Family Estrildidae:
Subfamily Viduinae:
Genus Vidua:
Pin-tailed whydah / Dominikanerwitwe (Vidua macroura)
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Wikipedia: Pin-tailed whydah
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: North America, Africa.
The pin-tailed whydah (Vidua macroura) is a small songbird with a conspicuous pennant-like tail in breeding males. It is a resident breeding bird in most of Africa south of the Sahara Desert. [more]

Subfamily Estrildinae:
Genus Lonchura (Mannikins):
African silverbill / Afrikanischer Silberschnabel (Euodice cantans)
Alternate classification: Lonchura cantans
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Wikipedia: African silverbill
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: North America, Africa.
The African silverbill (Euodice cantans) is a small passerine bird formerly considered conspecific with the Asian species Indian silverbill, (Euodice malabarica). This estrildid finch is a common resident breeding bird in dry savanna habitat, south of the Sahara Desert. This species has also been introduced to other countries such as Portugal, Qatar and United States. [more]

Java sparrow (Lonchura oryzivora)
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Wikipedia: Java sparrow
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: North America, Africa.
The Java sparrow (Padda oryzivora), also known as Java finch, Java rice sparrow or Java rice bird, is a small passerine bird.[2] This estrildid finch is a resident breeding bird in Java, Bali and Bawean in Indonesia. It is a popular cage bird, and has been introduced into many other countries. Some taxonomists place this and the Timor sparrow in their own genus Padda. [more]

Scaly-breasted munia / Muskatbronzemännchen (Lonchura punctulata)
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Wikipedia: Scaly-breasted munia
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
The scaly-breasted munia or spotted munia (Lonchura punctulata), known in the pet trade as nutmeg mannikin or spice finch, is a sparrow-sized estrildid finch native to tropical Asia. A species of the genus Lonchura, it was formally described and named by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. Its name is based on the distinct scale-like feather markings on the breast and belly. The adult is brown above and has a dark conical bill. The species has 11 subspecies across their range and differ slightly in size and color. [more]

Chestnut munia / Schwarzkopfnonne (Lonchura atricapilla)
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Wikipedia: Chestnut munia
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
The chestnut munia or black-headed munia (Lonchura atricapilla) is a small passerine. It was formerly considered conspecific with the closely related tricoloured munia, but is now widely recognized as a separate species. This estrildid finch is a resident breeding bird in Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Burma, Nepal, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam and Hawaii. It also has been introduced to all the Greater Antilles and Martinique in the Caribbean. [more]

White-throated silverbill / Indischer Silberschnabel (Euodice malabarica)
Alternate classification: Lonchura malabarica
Also known as: Indian silverbill
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Wikipedia: White-throated silverbill
The Indian silverbill or white-throated munia (Euodice malabarica) is a small passerine bird found in the Indian Subcontinent and adjoining regions that was formerly considered to include the closely related African silverbill (Euodice cantans). This estrildid finch is a common resident breeding bird in the drier regions of the Middle East and the Indian Subcontinent. It has also been introduced into many other parts of the world and has become established in some areas. They forage in small flocks in grassland and scrub habitats. [more]

Genus Spermestes:
Bronze mannikin (Spermestes cucullata)
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Wikipedia: Bronze mannikin
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: North America, Africa.
The bronze mannikin or bronze munia (Spermestes cucullata) is a small passerine (i.e. perching) bird of the Afrotropics. This very social estrildid finch is an uncommon to locally abundant bird in much of Africa south of the Sahara Desert, where it is resident, nomadic or irruptive in mesic savanna or forest margin habitats.[5][6] It has an estimated global extent of occurrence of 8,100,000 km2. It is the smallest and most widespread of four munia species on the African mainland, the other being black-and-white, red-backed and magpie mannikin. It co-occurs with the Madagascan mannikin on the Comoro Islands, and was introduced to Puerto Rico. Especially in the West Africa, it is considered a pest in grain and rice fields. It is locally trapped for the pet bird trade.[4] [more]

Genus Amandava:
Red avadavat (Amandava amandava)
Alternate classification: Fringilla amandava
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Wikipedia: Red avadavat
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
The red avadavat (Amandava amandava), red munia or strawberry finch, is a sparrow-sized bird of the family Estrildidae. It is found in the open fields and grasslands of tropical Asia and is popular as a cage bird due to the colourful plumage of the males in their breeding season. It breeds in the Indian Subcontinent in the monsoon season. The species name of amandava and the common name of avadavat are derived from the city of Ahmedabad in Gujarat, India, from where these birds were exported into the pet trade in former times.[2][3] [more]

Genus Estrilda:
Common waxbill (Estrilda astrild)
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Wikipedia: Common waxbill
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
The common waxbill (Estrilda astrild), also known as the St Helena waxbill, is a small passerine bird belonging to the estrildid finch family. It is native to sub-Saharan Africa but has been introduced to many other regions of the world and now has an estimated global extent of occurrence of 10,000,000 km2. It is popular and easy to keep in captivity. [more]

Lavender waxbill (Estrilda caerulescens)
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Wikipedia: Lavender waxbill
The lavender waxbill (Glaucestrilda caerulescens) is a common species of estrildid finch native to Central Africa and successfully introduced on Hawai'i. It has an estimated global extent of occurrence of 620,000 km2. [more]

Family Icteridae (New world blackbirds, orioles and allies):
Genus Agelaius:
Tricolored blackbird / Dreifarbenstärling (Agelaius tricolor)
Alternate classification: Icterus tricolor
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Wikipedia: Tricolored blackbird
The tricolored blackbird (Agelaius tricolor) is a passerine bird of the family Icteridae. Its range is limited to the coastal areas of the Pacific coast of North America, from Northern California in the U.S. (with occasional strays into Oregon), to upper Baja California in Mexico. [more]

Red-winged blackbird / Rotflügelstärling (Agelaius phoeniceus)
Alternate classification: Oriolus phoeniceus
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Red-winged blackbird, Cromwell Valley Park, Marylan. 2021-06-14 16.09.06 Maryland
The red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) is a passerine bird of the family Icteridae found in most of North America and much of Central America. It breeds from Alaska and Newfoundland south to Florida, the Gulf of Mexico, Mexico, and Guatemala, with isolated populations in western El Salvador, northwestern Honduras, and northwestern Costa Rica. It may winter as far north as Pennsylvania and British Columbia, but northern populations are generally migratory, moving south to Mexico and the southern United States. Claims have been made that it is the most abundant living land bird in North America, as bird-counting censuses of wintering red-winged blackbirds sometimes show that loose flocks can number in excess of a million birds per flock and the full number of breeding pairs across North and Central America may exceed 250 million in peak years. It also ranks among the best-studied wild bird species in the world.[2][3][4][5][6] The red-winged blackbird is sexually dimorphic; the male is all black with a red shoulder and yellow wing bar, while the female is a nondescript dark brown. Seeds and insects make up the bulk of the red-winged blackbird's diet. [more]

Genus Sturnella:
Eastern meadowlark (Sturnella magna)
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Wikipedia: Eastern meadowlark
The eastern meadowlark (Sturnella magna) is a medium-sized icterid bird, very similar in appearance to the western meadowlark. It occurs from eastern North America to South America, where it is also most widespread in the east. [more]

Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta)
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Wikipedia: Western meadowlark
The western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta) is a medium-sized icterid bird, about 8.5 in (22 cm) in length. It nests on the ground in open grasslands across western and central North America. It feeds mostly on bugs, but will also feed on seeds and berries. The western meadowlark has distinctive calls described as watery or flute-like, which distinguish it from the closely related eastern meadowlark. The western meadowlark is the state bird of six states: Montana, Kansas, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oregon, and Wyoming. [more]

Genus Quiscalus:
Boat-tailed grackle (Quiscalus major)
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Wikipedia: Boat-tailed grackle
The boat-tailed grackle (Quiscalus major) is a passerine bird of the family Icteridae found as a permanent resident on the coasts of the Southeastern United States. [more]

Common grackle / Purpur-Grackel (Quiscalus quiscula)
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Common grackle with blue eyes, Cherrywood Court. 2021-06-17 05.50.26 Maryland
The common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula) is a large icterid found in large numbers through much of North America. First described in 1758 by Carl Linnaeus, the common grackle has three subspecies. Adult common grackles have a long and dark bill, pale yellow eyes, and a long tail. Adults often have an iridescent appearance on their head, especially males. Common grackles are found in much of North America east of the Rocky Mountains. [more]

Greater Antillean grackle (Quiscalus niger)
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Wikipedia: Greater Antillean grackle
The Greater Antillean grackle (Quiscalus niger) is a grackle found throughout the Greater Antilles as well as smaller, nearby islands. Like all Quiscalus grackles, it is a rather large, gregarious bird.[2] It lives largely in heavily settled areas. It is also known as the 'kling-kling' and 'chinchilín' in the Dominican Republic, and as a ‘chango’ in Puerto Rico.[3] [more]

Genus Dolichonyx:
Bobolink / Reisstärling (Dolichonyx oryzivorus)
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Wikipedia: Bobolink
The bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) is a small New World blackbird and the only member of the genus Dolichonyx. An old name for this species is the "Rice Bird", from its tendency to feed on cultivated grains. Adults are 16–18 cm (6.3–7.1 in) long with short finch-like bills and weigh about 1 oz (28 g). Adult males are mostly black with creamy napes and white scapulars, lower backs, and rumps. Adult females are mostly light brown with black streaks on the back and flanks, and dark stripes on the head; their wings and tails are darker. The bobolink breeds in the summer in North America and southern Canada, often wintering in South America. Considered a pest by some farmers, the numbers of these birds are declining and are a species at risk throughout Canada. [more]

Genus Euphagus:
Rusty blackbird (Euphagus carolinus)
Alternate classification: Turdus carolinus
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Wikipedia: Rusty blackbird
The rusty blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) is a medium-sized blackbird, closely related to grackles ("rusty grackle" is an older name for the species). It is a bird that prefers wet forested areas, breeding in the boreal forest and muskeg across northern Canada, and migrating southeast to the United States during winter. [more]

Brewer's blackbird (Euphagus cyanocephalus)
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Wikipedia: Brewer's blackbird
Brewer's blackbird (Euphagus cyanocephalus) is a medium-sized New World blackbird. It is named after the ornithologist Thomas Mayo Brewer. [more]

Genus Icterus:
Baltimore oriole / Baltimoretrupial (Icterus galbula)
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Seldom seen Baltimore Oriole, Cromwell Valley Park. 2021-06-18 11.34.42 Maryland
The Baltimore oriole (Icterus galbula) is a small icterid blackbird common in eastern North America as a migratory breeding bird. It received its name from the resemblance of the male's colors to those on the coat-of-arms of Lord Baltimore. Observations of interbreeding between the Baltimore oriole and the western Bullock's oriole, Icterus bullockii, led to both being classified as a single species, called the northern oriole, from 1973 to 1995. Research by James Rising, a professor of zoology at the University of Toronto, and others showed that the two birds actually did not interbreed significantly.[2] [more]

Bullock's oriole / Bullock-Trupial (Icterus bullockii)
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Wikipedia: Bullock's oriole
Bullock's oriole (Icterus bullockii) is a small New World blackbird. At one time, this species and the Baltimore oriole were considered to be a single species, the northern oriole. This bird is named after William Bullock, an English amateur naturalist. [more]

Orchard oriole / Gartentrupial (Icterus spurius)
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Wikipedia: Orchard oriole
The orchard oriole (Icterus spurius) is the smallest species of icterid. The subspecies of the Caribbean coast of Mexico, I. s. fuertesi, is sometimes considered a separate species, the ochre oriole or Fuertes's oriole. [more]

Spot-breasted oriole / Tropfentrupial (Icterus pectoralis)
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Wikipedia: Spot-breasted oriole
The spot-breasted oriole (Icterus pectoralis) is a species of bird in the family Icteridae. [more]

Hooded oriole (Icterus cucullatus)
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Wikipedia: Hooded oriole
The hooded oriole (Icterus cucullatus) is a medium-sized New World oriole. The male of this species ranges in color from a bright orange to a paler yellow, with a black back, face, tail and bib, with the wing containing two white bars. The female is more of an olive color with some yellow accents.[2] [more]

Scott's oriole (Icterus parisorum)
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Wikipedia: Scott's oriole
The Scott's oriole (Icterus parisorum) is a medium-sized icterid (the same family as many blackbirds, meadowlarks, cowbirds, grackles, and others, including the New World orioles). [more]

Altamira oriole (Icterus gularis)
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Wikipedia: Altamira oriole
The Altamira oriole (Icterus gularis) is a New World oriole. The bird is widespread in subtropical lowlands of the Mexican Gulf Coast and northern Central America, the Pacific coast and inland. They have since spread to southern Texas, but this was not until 1939.[2] [more]

Venezuelan troupial (Icterus icterus)
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Wikipedia: Venezuelan troupial
The Venezuelan troupial (Icterus icterus) is the national bird of Venezuela. It is found in Colombia, Venezuela, and the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Curaçao, Bonaire, Trinidad, and Puerto Rico. Previously part of a superspecies simply named the troupial, it was recently split together with the orange-backed troupial and Campo troupial. [more]

Audubon's oriole (Icterus graduacauda)
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Wikipedia: Audubon's oriole
Audubon's oriole (Icterus graduacauda), formerly known as the black-headed oriole, is a New World passerine inhabiting the forests and thickets of southeastern Texas and the Mexican coast. It is the only species to have a black hood and yellow body. It is divided into four subspecies and two allopatric breeding ranges. The westernmost range extends from Nayarit south to southern Oaxaca, whereas the eastern range stretches from the lower Rio Grande valley to northern Querétaro. The most common in the western range are the subspecies I. g. dickeyae and I. g. nayaritensis; I. g. graduacauda and I. g. audubonii can be found in the eastern range. Like most Central American birds, it is not a migratory species and does not display significant sexual dimorphism. DNA analysis of the ND2 and cyt-b genes strongly suggests that I. graduacauda is most closely related to I. chrysater, the yellow-backed oriole.[2] It is a member of the genus Icterus and therefore should not be confused with the Old World orioles. [more]

Genus Molothrus:
Shiny cowbird / Seidenkuhstärling (Molothrus bonariensis)
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Wikipedia: Shiny cowbird
The shiny cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis) is a passerine bird in the New World family Icteridae. It breeds in most of South America except for dense forests and areas of high altitude such as mountains.[1] Since 1900 the shiny cowbirds' range has shifted northward, and it was recorded in the Caribbean islands as well as the United States, where it is found breeding in southern Florida.[2] It is a bird associated with open habitats, including disturbed land from agriculture and deforestation.[1] [more]

Brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater)
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Brown-headed cowbird, Cromwell Valley Park, Maryland. 2021-06-14 16.01.06 Maryland
The brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) is a small, obligate brood parasitic icterid native to temperate and subtropical North America. It is a permanent resident in the southern parts of its range; northern birds migrate to the southern United States and Mexico in winter, returning to their summer habitat around March or April.[2] [more]

Bronzed cowbird (Molothrus aeneus)
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Wikipedia: Bronzed cowbird

The bronzed cowbird (once known as the red-eyed cowbird, Molothrus aeneus) is a small icterid.
[more]

Genus Xanthocephalus:
Yellow-headed blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus)
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Wikipedia: Yellow-headed blackbird
The yellow-headed blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) is a medium-sized blackbird, and the only member of the genus Xanthocephalus. [more]

Family Parulidae (New world warblers):
Genus Vermivora:
Bachman's warbler (Vermivora bachmanii)
Alternate classification: Helminthophila bachmani
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Wikipedia: Bachman's warbler
Bachman's warbler (Vermivora bachmanii) is a small passerine migratory bird that is critically endangered or extinct. This warbler was a migrant, breeding in swampy blackberry and cane thickets of the Southeastern and Midwestern United States and wintering in Cuba. There are some reports of the bird from the twenty-first century, but none are widely accepted. Some authorities accept a sighting in Louisiana, in August 1988 as confirmed,[2] but the last uncontroversial sightings date to the 1960s. [more]

Golden-winged warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera)
Alternate classification: Motacilla chrysoptera
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Wikipedia: Golden-winged warbler
The golden-winged warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) is a New World warbler. It breeds in southeastern and south-central Canada and in the Appalachian Mountains in northeastern to north-central United States. The majority (~70%) of the global population breeds in Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Manitoba. Golden-winged warbler populations are slowly expanding northwards, but are generally declining across its range, most likely as a result of habitat loss and competition/interbreeding with the very closely related blue-winged warbler, Vermivora cyanoptera. [more]

Blue-winged warbler (Vermivora cyanoptera)
Alternate classification: Vermivora pinus
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Wikipedia: Blue-winged warbler
The blue-winged warbler (Vermivora cyanoptera) is a fairly common New World warbler, 11.5 cm (4.5 in) long and weighing 8.5 g (0.30 oz). It breeds in eastern North America in southern Ontario and the eastern United States. Its range is extending northwards, where it is replacing the very closely related golden-winged warbler, Vermivora chrysoptera. [more]

Genus Basileuterus:
Rufous-capped warbler / Rotkappen-Waldsänger (Basileuterus rufifrons)
Alternate classification: Setophaga rufifrons
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Wikipedia: Rufous-capped warbler
The rufous-capped warbler (Basileuterus rufifrons) is a New World warbler native from Mexico south to much of Central America, rarely occurring as far north as southeastern Arizona and south Texas. [more]

Genus Limnothlypis:
Swainson's warbler (Limnothlypis swainsonii)
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Wikipedia: Swainson's warbler
Swainson's warbler (Limnothlypis swainsonii) is a small species of New World warbler. It is monotypic, the only member of the genus Limnothlypis. Swainson's warbler was named after William Swainson, an English ornithologist. [more]

Genus Geothlypis:
Kentucky warbler / Kentuckywaldsänger (Geothlypis formosa)
Alternate classification: Oporornis formosus
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Wikipedia: Kentucky warbler
The Kentucky warbler (Geothlypis formosa) is a small species of New World warbler. It is a sluggish and heavy warbler with a short tail, preferring to spend most of its time on or near the ground, except when singing. [more]

Mourning warbler / Graukopf-Waldsänger (Geothlypis philadelphia)
Alternate classification: Oporornis philadelphia
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Wikipedia: Mourning warbler
The mourning warbler (Geothlypis philadelphia) is a small songbird of the New World warbler family. Mourning warblers are native to eastern and central North America as well as some countries in Central America.[2] They are neotropical migrants and tend to be found in dense second growth forests.[3] They are under the Wood-warbler category, which consists of arboreal and terrestrial colorful passerines. Wood warblers are in the order Passeriformes, which are perching birds including more than half of all bird species, and the family Parulidae which also includes the Common Yellowthroat, Black and White Warbler, Nashville Warbler, ovenbird, and American Redstart. They are very similar to the MacGillivray's Warbler in appearance, especially in females and immature birds, but their breeding range does not overlap into the west.[4] [more]

Macgillivray's warbler (Geothlypis tolmiei)
Alternate classification: Oporornis tolmiei
Also known as: Macgillivray's warbler
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Wikipedia: Macgillivray's warbler
MacGillivray's warbler (Geothlypis tolmiei) is a species of New World warbler. These birds are sluggish and heavy warblers, preferring to spend most of their time on, or near the ground, except when singing. [more]

Common yellowthroat / Weiden-Gelbkehlchen (Geothlypis trichas)
Alternate classification: Geothlypis trichas (Linnaeus, 1766)
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Wikipedia: Common yellowthroat
The common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas) is a New World warbler. It is an abundant breeder in North America, ranging from southern Canada to central Mexico. The genus name Geothlypis is from Ancient Greek geo, "ground", and thlupis, an unidentified small bird; thlypis is often used in the scientific names of New World warblers. The specific trichas is also from Greek; trikhas is a kind of thrush, the word being derived from trikhos, "hair".[2] [more]

Genus Icteria:
Yellow-breasted chat (Icteria virens)
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Wikipedia: Yellow-breasted chat
The yellow-breasted chat (Icteria virens) is a large songbird found in North America, and is the only member of the family Icteriidae. It was once a member of the New World warbler family, but in 2017, the American Ornithological Society moved it to its own family. Its placement is not definitely resolved. [more]

Genus Oporornis:
Connecticut warbler (Oporornis agilis)
Alternate classification: Geothlypis agilis
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Wikipedia: Connecticut warbler
The Connecticut warbler (Oporornis agilis) is a small songbird of the New World warbler family. [more]

Genus Cardellina:
Wilson's warbler / Mönchswaldsänger (Cardellina pusilla)
Alternate classification: Wilsonia pusilla
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Wikipedia: Wilson's warbler
Wilson's warbler (Cardellina pusilla) is a small New World warbler. It is greenish above and yellow below, with rounded wings and a long, slim tail. The male has a black crown patch; depending on the subspecies, that mark is reduced or absent in the female. It breeds across Canada and south through the western United States, and winters from Mexico south through much of Central America. It is a very rare vagrant to western Europe. [more]

Canada warbler / Kanadawaldsänger (Cardellina canadensis)
Alternate classification: Wilsonia canadensis
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Wikipedia: Canada warbler
The Canada warbler (Cardellina canadensis) is a small boreal songbird of the New World warbler family (Parulidae). It summers in Canada and northeastern United States and winters in northern South America. [more]

Red-faced warbler / Dreifarben-Waldsänger (Cardellina rubrifrons)
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Wikipedia: Red-faced warbler
The red-faced warbler (Cardellina rubrifrons) is a species of New World warbler. [more]

Genus Helmitheros:
Worm-eating warbler / Haldenwaldsänger (Helmitheros vermivorum)
Alternate classification: Helmitheros vermivorus
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Wikipedia: Worm-eating warbler
The worm-eating warbler (Helmitheros vermivorum) is a small New World warbler that breeds in the Eastern United States and migrates to southern Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central America for the winter. [more]

Genus Mniotilta:
Black-and-white warbler / Kletterwaldsänger (Mniotilta varia)
Alternate classification: Motacilla varia
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Wikipedia: Black-and-white warbler
The black-and-white warbler (Mniotilta varia) is a species of New World warbler, and the only member of its genus, Mniotilta.[2] It breeds in northern and eastern North America and winters in Florida, Central America, and the West Indies down to Peru. This species is a very rare vagrant to western Europe.[2] [more]

Genus Myioborus:
Painted redstart (Myioborus pictus)
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Wikipedia: Painted redstart
The painted whitestart or painted redstart (Myioborus pictus), is a species of New World warbler. [more]

Genus Protonotaria:
Prothonotary warbler / Zitronenwaldsänger (Protonotaria citrea)
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Wikipedia: Prothonotary warbler
The prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea) is a small songbird of the New World warbler family. It is the only member of the genus Protonotaria.[2] [more]

Genus Seiurus:
Ovenbird / Pieperwaldsänger (Seiurus aurocapilla)
Alternate classification: Seiurus aurocapillus
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Wikipedia: Ovenbird
The ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla) is a small songbird of the New World warbler family (Parulidae). This migratory bird breeds in eastern North America and winters in Central America, many Caribbean islands, Florida and northern Venezuela.[2][3] [more]

Genus Setophaga:
Blackburnian warbler / Fichtenwaldsänger (Setophaga fusca)
Alternate classification: Dendroica fusca
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Wikipedia: Blackburnian warbler
The Blackburnian warbler (Setophaga fusca) is a small New World warbler. They breed in eastern North America, from southern Canada, westwards to the southern Canadian Prairies, the Great Lakes region and New England, to North Carolina. [more]

Yellow warbler (Setophaga aestiva)
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Wikipedia: Yellow warbler
About 35 (but see text) [more]

Hermit warbler (Setophaga occidentalis)
Alternate classification: Dendroica occidentalis
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Wikipedia: Hermit warbler
The hermit warbler (Setophaga occidentalis) is a small perching bird. It is a species of New World warbler. [more]

American redstart / Schnäpperwaldsänger (Setophaga ruticilla)
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Wikipedia: American redstart
The American redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) is a New World warbler. It is unrelated to the Old World (common) redstart. [more]

Pine warbler / Kiefernwaldsänger (Setophaga pinus)
Alternate classification: Dendroica pinus
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Wikipedia: Pine warbler
The pine warbler (Setophaga pinus) is a small songbird of the New World warbler family. [more]

Cape May warbler / Tigerwaldsänger (Setophaga tigrina)
Alternate classification: Dendroica tigrina
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Wikipedia: Cape May warbler
The Cape May warbler (Setophaga tigrina) is a species of New World warbler. It breeds in northern North America. Its breeding range spans all but the westernmost parts of southern Canada, the Great Lakes region, and New England. It is migratory, wintering in the West Indies. This species is a very rare vagrant to western Europe, with two records in Britain as of October 2013. The English name refers to Cape May, New Jersey, where George Ord collected the specimen later described by Alexander Wilson. This species was not recorded again in Cape May for another 100 years, although it is now known as an uncommon migrant there.[2] [more]

Blackpoll warbler / Streifenwaldsänger (Setophaga striata)
Alternate classification: Dendroica striata
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Wikipedia: Blackpoll warbler
The blackpoll warbler (Setophaga striata) is a New World warbler. Breeding males are mostly black and white. They have a prominent black cap, white cheeks and white wing bars. The blackpoll breeds in forests of northern North America, from Alaska throughout most of Canada, to the mountains of New York and New England. They are a common migrant through much of North America. In fall, they fly south to the Greater Antilles and the northeastern coasts of South America in a non-stop long-distance migration over open water, averaging 2500 km, one of the longest distance non-stop overwater flights ever recorded for a migratory songbird. Rare vagrants to western Europe, they are one of the more frequent transatlantic passerine wanderers. [more]

Yellow-throated warbler / Goldkehl-Waldsänger (Setophaga dominica)
Alternate classification: Dendroica dominica
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Wikipedia: Yellow-throated warbler
The yellow-throated warbler (Setophaga dominica) is a small migratory songbird species breeding in temperate North America. It belongs to the New World warbler family (Parulidae).[2] [more]

Hooded warbler / Kapuzenwaldsänger (Setophaga citrina)
Alternate classification: Wilsonia citrina
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Wikipedia: Hooded warbler
The hooded warbler (Setophaga citrina) is a New World warbler. It breeds in eastern North America and across the eastern United States and into southernmost Canada (Ontario). It is migratory, wintering in Central America and the West Indies. Hooded warblers are very rare vagrants to western Europe. [more]

Prairie warbler / Rostscheitel-Waldsänger (Setophaga discolor)
Alternate classification: Dendroica discolor
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Wikipedia: Prairie warbler
The prairie warbler (Setophaga discolor) is a small songbird of the New World warbler family. [more]

Magnolia warbler / Magnolienwaldsänger (Setophaga magnolia)
Alternate classification: Dendroica magnolia
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Wikipedia: Magnolia warbler
The magnolia warbler (Setophaga magnolia) is a member of the wood warbler family Parulidae. [more]

Black-throated green warbler (Setophaga virens)
Alternate classification: Dendroica virens
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Wikipedia: Black-throated green warbler
The black-throated green warbler (Setophaga virens) is a small songbird of the New World warbler family. [more]

Yellow-rumped warbler / Kronenwaldsänger (Setophaga coronata)
Alternate classification: Motacilla coronata
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Wikipedia: Yellow-rumped warbler
The yellow-rumped warbler (Setophaga coronata) is a regular North American bird species that can be commonly observed all across the continent. Its extensive distribution range connects both the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of the U.S. as well as Canada and Central America, with the population concentrating in the continent's northern parts during the breeding season and migrating southwards to southern North and Central America in Winter. The species generally prefers coniferous forests or mixed coniferous-deciduous forests as its breeding habitat, while during the winter it can be found inhabiting more open areas such as shrublands that offer food resources. The diet of the yellow-rumped warbler is based primarily on insects, though the species does eat fruits such as juniper berries as well, especially in winter. [more]

Black-throated blue warbler / Blaurücken-Waldsänger (Setophaga caerulescens)
Alternate classification: Motacilla caerulescens
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Wikipedia: Black-throated blue warbler
The black-throated blue warbler (Setophaga caerulescens) is a small passerine bird of the New World warbler family. Its breeding ranges are located in the interior of deciduous and mixed coniferous forests in eastern North America. Over the cooler months, it migrates to islands in the Caribbean and Central America. It is very rarely found in western Europe, where it is considered to be a non-indigenous species. The black-throated blue warbler is sexually dimorphic; the adult male has a black face and cheeks, deep blue upperparts and white underparts, while the adult female is olive-brown above and light yellow below. [more]

Cerulean warbler / Pappelwaldsänger (Setophaga cerulea)
Alternate classification: Dendroica cerulea
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Wikipedia: Cerulean warbler
The cerulean warbler (Setophaga cerulea) is a small songbird of the New World warbler family. Adult males have pale cerulean blue and white upperparts with a black necklace across the breast and black streaks on the back and flanks. Females and immature birds have greyer or greenish upperparts, a pale stripe over the eye, and no streaking on the back and no neck. All of these birds have wing bars and a thin pointed bill. They are found in deciduous forests of eastern North America during the breeding season and then migrate to forested mountain areas in South America. The species is considered threatened with an IUCN status of near threatened, indicating it does not face any imminent threat of extinction in the wild. [more]

Chestnut-sided warbler / Gelbscheitel-Waldsänger (Setophaga pensylvanica)
Alternate classification: Dendroica pensylvanica
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Wikipedia: Chestnut-sided warbler
The chestnut-sided warbler (Setophaga pensylvanica) is a New World warbler. They breed in eastern North America and in southern Canada westwards to the Canadian Prairies. They also breed in the Great Lakes region and in the eastern United States. [more]

Black-throated grey warbler (Setophaga nigrescens)
Alternate classification: Dendroica nigrescens
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Wikipedia: Black-throated grey warbler
The black-throated gray warbler or black-throated grey warbler (Setophaga nigrescens) is a passerine bird of the New World warbler family Parulidae. It is 13 cm (5.1 in) long and has gray and white plumage with black markings. The male has the bold black throat of its name, and black stripes on its head, as well as black streaks on its flanks; the female is a paler version of the male, with a white throat and less distinct black markings on the flanks and wings. It breeds in western North America from British Columbia to New Mexico, and winters in Mexico and the southwestern United States. The habitats it prefers are coniferous and mixed forests and scrubland, especially those with pinyon pines, junipers, sagebrush, and oaks. Its nest is an open cup of plant fibers lined with feathers, built a few metres from the ground in the branches of a tree or shrub. Three to five eggs are laid, and young are fed by both parents. Common in its breeding range, it does not seem to be seriously threatened by human activities, unlike many migratory warblers. [more]

Townsend's warbler (Setophaga townsendi)
Alternate classification: Dendroica townsendi
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Wikipedia: Townsend's warbler
Townsend's warbler (Setophaga townsendi) is a small songbird of the New World warbler family. [more]

Northern parula / Meisenwaldsänger (Setophaga americana)
Alternate classification: Parula americana
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Wikipedia: Northern parula
The northern parula (Setophaga americana) is a small New World warbler. It breeds in eastern North America from southern Canada to Florida.[2] [more]

Golden-cheeked warbler / Goldwangen-Waldsänger (Setophaga chrysoparia)
Alternate classification: Dendroica chrysoparia
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Wikipedia: Golden-cheeked warbler
The golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia [formerly Dendroica chrysoparia]), also known as the gold finch of Texas, is an endangered species of bird that breeds in Central Texas, from Palo Pinto County southwestward along the eastern and southern edge of the Edwards Plateau to Kinney County. The golden-cheeked warbler is the only bird species with a breeding range confined to Texas. [more]

Palm warbler / Palmenwaldsänger (Setophaga palmarum)
Alternate classification: Dendroica palmarum
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Wikipedia: Palm warbler
The palm warbler (Setophaga palmarum) is a small songbird of the New World warbler family. [more]

Grace's warbler (Setophaga graciae)
Alternate classification: Dendroica graciae
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Wikipedia: Grace's warbler
Grace's warbler (Setophaga graciae) is a small New World warbler that specializes in pine woods. [more]

Tropical parula / Elfenwaldsänger (Setophaga pitiayumi)
Alternate classification: Parula pitiayumi
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Wikipedia: Tropical parula
The tropical parula (Setophaga pitiayumi) is a small New World warbler. It breeds from southernmost Texas and northwest Mexico (Sonora) south through Central America to northern Argentina, including Trinidad and Tobago. This widespread and common species is not considered threatened by the IUCN.[1] [more]

Kirtland's warbler (Setophaga kirtlandii)
Alternate classification: Dendroica kirtlandii
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Wikipedia: Kirtland's warbler
Kirtland's warbler (Setophaga kirtlandii), which is recorded to have been known by local folk in Michigan by the common name jack pine bird,[2][3] and is also known as the jack pine warbler, is a small songbird of the New World warbler family (Parulidae), named after Jared Potter Kirtland, an Ohio doctor and amateur naturalist. Nearly extinct just 50 years ago, it is well on its way to recovery. It requires large areas, greater than 160 acres (65 hectares), of dense young jack pine for its breeding habitat. This habitat was historically created by wildfire, but today is created through the harvest of mature jack pine, and planting of jack pine seedlings. [more]

Bay-breasted warbler (Setophaga castanea)
Alternate classification: Sylvia castanea
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Wikipedia: Bay-breasted warbler
The Bay-breasted Warbler (Setophaga castanea) is a small species of songbird in the New World warbler family, Parulidae. It is one of thirty-four species in the diverse genus Setophaga.[2] Like all songbirds, or passerines, the species is classified in the order Passeriformes. [more]

Genus Parkesia:
Northern waterthrush / Uferwaldsänger (Parkesia noveboracensis)
Alternate classification: Seiurus noveboracensis
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Wikipedia: Northern waterthrush
The northern waterthrush (Parkesia noveboracensis[2]) is one of the larger New World warblers and one of the Nearctic-Neotropical migratory songbirds.[3] It breeds in the northern part of North America in Canada and the northern United States including Alaska. This bird is migratory, wintering in Central America, the West Indies and Florida, as well as in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador. It is a very rare vagrant to other South American countries and to western Europe. [more]

Genus Leiothlypis:
Nashville warbler / Rubinfleck-Waldsänger (Leiothlypis ruficapilla)
Alternate classification: Oreothlypis ruficapilla (Wilson, 1811)
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Wikipedia: Nashville warbler
The Nashville warbler (Leiothlypis ruficapilla) is a small songbird in the New World warbler family, found in North and Central America. It breeds in parts of the northern and western United States and southern Canada, and migrates to winter in southern California and Texas, Mexico, and the north of Central America. It has a gray head and a green back, and its underparts are yellow and white. [more]

Colima warbler (Leiothlypis crissalis)
Alternate classification: Oreothlypis crissalis
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Wikipedia: Colima warbler
The Colima warbler (Leiothlypis crissalis) is a New World warbler. It is mainly found in the Sierra Madre Occidental and Oriental mountains of central Mexico, though its range just barely extends into adjacent southwestern Texas in the Chisos Mountains of Big Bend National Park. [more]

Orange-crowned warbler (Leiothlypis celata)
Alternate classification: Vermivora celata
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Wikipedia: Orange-crowned warbler
The orange-crowned warbler (Leiothlypis celata) is a small songbird of the New World warbler family. [more]

Lucy's warbler (Leiothlypis luciae)
Alternate classification: Oreothlypis luciae
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Wikipedia: Lucy's warbler
Lucy's warbler (Leiothlypis luciae) is a small New World warbler found in North America. This species ranges includes southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. It is one of only two warblers to nest in cavities. [more]

Virginia's warbler (Leiothlypis virginiae)
Alternate classification: Oreothlypis virginiae
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Wikipedia: Virginia's warbler
Virginia's warbler (Leiothlypis virginiae) is a species of New World warbler. [more]

Tennessee warbler (Leiothlypis peregrina)
Alternate classification: Vermivora peregrina
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Wikipedia: Tennessee warbler
The Tennessee warbler (Leiothlypis peregrina) is a New World warbler that breeds in eastern North America and winters in southern Central America, the Caribbean, and northern South America. The specific name peregrina is from Latin peregrinus "wanderer".[2] [more]

Family Ploceidae:
Genus Euplectes:
Yellow-crowned bishop (Euplectes afer)
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Wikipedia: Yellow-crowned bishop
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
The yellow-crowned bishop (Euplectes afer) is a species of passerine bird in the family Ploceidae native to Africa south of the Sahara.[2] It is highly sexually dimorphic in its breeding season, during which the male adopts a distinctive yellow and black plumage, contrasting with the female's predominantly brown coloration. Three subspecies are recognised. [more]

Orange bishop / Feuerwida (Euplectes franciscanus)
Also known as: Northern red bishop
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Wikipedia: Orange bishop
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: North America, Africa.
The northern red bishop or orange bishop (Euplectes franciscanus) is a small passerine bird in the family Ploceidae. It is part of the largest genus in the family with over 60 different species.[2] Its sister species is the Southern red bishop (Euplectes orix). This species is most recognizable by the bright reddish orange with contrasting black plumage displayed by the breeding male. It is most common throughout the northern African continent but has also been introduced to areas in the western hemisphere. [more]

Family Paridae (Titmice / Meisen):

Genus Poecile:
Siberian tit / Lapplandmeise (Poecile cinctus)
Alternate classification: Poecile cincta
Also known as: Gray-headed chickadee
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Wikipedia: Siberian tit
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
The grey-headed chickadee or Siberian tit (Poecile cinctus, formerly Parus cinctus) is a passerine bird in the tit family Paridae. It is a widespread resident breeder throughout subarctic Scandinavia and the northern Palearctic, and also into North America in Alaska and the far northwest of Canada. It is a conifer specialist. It is resident, and most birds do not migrate. Curiously (with respect to its name), the bird has no grey on its head, which is black, white, and brown. [more]
Vocalization: Voice quite similar to Willow Tit. Other sounds: Chirping, bubbling sounds resembling Willow Tit, various other high pitched sounds. [Link]
Song: Song: Often vibrating or rasping notes repeated in Willow Tit-like structure, gradually falling in pitch "trrrrrr trrrrr trrrrr". [Link]
Calls: Call: Nasal Willow Tit-like "chee chee chee" , "ti ti chee". [Link]
Physical details: length=13 cm, wingspan=19-21 cm, weight=11-14 g

Carolina chickadee (Poecile carolinensis)
Alternate classification: Penthestes carolinensis
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Wikipedia: Carolina chickadee
General: Parus carolinensis [more]

Black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus)
Alternate classification: Poecile atricapilla
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Wikipedia: Black-capped chickadee
The black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus) is a small, nonmigratory, North American songbird that lives in deciduous and mixed forests. It is a passerine bird in the tit family, the Paridae. It is the state bird of Massachusetts and Maine in the United States, and the provincial bird of New Brunswick in Canada. It is well known for its ability to lower its body temperature during cold winter nights, its good spatial memory to relocate the caches where it stores food, and its boldness near humans (sometimes feeding from the hand). [more]

Chestnut-backed chickadee (Poecile rufescens)
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Wikipedia: Chestnut-backed chickadee
The chestnut-backed chickadee (Poecile rufescens, formerly Parus rufescens) is a small passerine bird in the tit family, Paridae. [more]

Mexican chickadee (Poecile sclateri)
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Wikipedia: Mexican chickadee
The Mexican chickadee (Poecile sclateri) is a small songbird, a passerine bird in the tit family Paridae. It is still often placed in the genus Parus with most other tits, but mtDNA cytochrome b sequence data and morphology suggest that separating Poecile more adequately expresses these birds' relationships (Gill et al., 2005). The American Ornithologists' Union had been treating Poecile as distinct genus for some time already. [more]

Boreal chickadee / Hudsonmeise (Poecile hudsonicus)
Alternate classification: Poecile hudsonica
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Wikipedia: Boreal chickadee
The boreal chickadee (Poecile hudsonicus) is a small passerine bird in the tit family Paridae. It is found in the boreal forests of Canada and the northern United States. [more]

Mountain chickadee / Gambelmeise (Poecile gambeli)
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Wikipedia: Mountain chickadee
The mountain chickadee (Poecile gambeli) is a small songbird, a passerine bird in the tit family Paridae. [more]

Genus Baeolophus:
Plain titmouse (Baeolophus inornatus)
Alternate classification: Parus inornatus
Also known as: Oak titmouse
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Wikipedia: Plain titmouse
The oak titmouse (Baeolophus inornatus) is a passerine bird in the tit family Paridae. The American Ornithologists' Union split the plain titmouse into the oak titmouse and the juniper titmouse in 1996, due to distinct differences in song, preferred habitat, and genetic makeup.[2] [more]

Bridled titmouse / Zügelmeise (Baeolophus wollweberi)
Alternate classification: Lophophanes wollweberi
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Wikipedia: Bridled titmouse
The bridled titmouse (Baeolophus wollweberi) is a small songbird, a passerine bird in the tit family Paridae. [more]

Tufted titmouse / Indianermeise (Baeolophus bicolor)
Alternate classification: Parus bicolor
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Tufted titmouse. 2021-06-19 08.10.16 Maryland
The tufted titmouse (Baeolophus bicolor) is a small songbird from North America, a species in the tit and chickadee family (Paridae). The black-crested titmouse, found from central and southern Texas southward,[2] was included as a subspecies, but now is considered a separate species, (Baeolophus atricristatus).[3] [more]

Black-crested titmouse / Schwarzhäubchenmeise (Baeolophus atricristatus)
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Wikipedia: Black-crested titmouse
The black-crested titmouse or Mexican titmouse (Baeolophus atricristatus), is a passerine bird in the tit family Paridae. Once considered a subspecies of the tufted titmouse (B. bicolor), it was recognized as a separate species[2] in 2002. It is native to southern Texas, Oklahoma, and east-central Mexico. Vagrants have been seen as far north and east as St. Louis, Missouri. [more]

Juniper titmouse (Baeolophus ridgwayi)
Alternate classification: Parus inornatus ridgwayi
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Wikipedia: Juniper titmouse
The juniper titmouse (Baeolophus ridgwayi) is a passerine bird in the tit family Paridae. The American Ornithologists' Union split the plain titmouse into the oak titmouse and the juniper titmouse in 1996, due to distinct differences in song, preferred habitat, and genetic makeup.[2] [more]

Family Sturnidae (Starlings / Stare):

Genus Sturnus:
Common starling / Star (Sturnus vulgaris)
Also known as: European starling
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Im richtigen Licht schimmern die Federn. 2020-04-11 07.54.52 Luppmen
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America (introduced), Africa.
In trees or in the fields by the cows.
Frequently seen here, for instance by their nests under the eaves of one of the Toblerone houses. Introduced to North America from Europe by Eugene Schieffelin.
Eine der Vogelarten, die gleichzeitig zwei Töne singen kann!
Vocalization: Among the best of imitators. Mimics birds, animals and mechanical noises. Often makes several sounds at the same time. [Link]
Song: Song a highly varied mix of falling whistles, bill-clappering and various masterful mimicry. [Link]
Calls: Other calls; a harsh "chaee" and a short sharp "tink". [Link]
Physical details: length=21 cm, wingspan=37-42 cm, weight=60-90 g

Song: I find their individual song amusing, with its (long) whoops and weird noises. As a group, they're just noisy!
Song attributes: Melody: improvised melodic, slow, Frequency: medium (1-5 KHz) Special sounds: whoop, weird, mimicry Singing season: 01-01 - 09-30 Dawn chorus start, 15 minutes before dawn.
Call: I hear this occasionally and really enjoy it - a long rising 'whoop', as I call it', starting low at 1 1/2 KHz and rising to 6 1/2 KHz!

♫ Source: BirdNet 2021-08-23 17.26.09 Fehraltorf (call)

Call attributes: Call melody: one note, slow, Frequency: 1-6 KHz, Special sounds: whoop

Genus Oreoscoptes:
Sage thrasher (Oreoscoptes montanus)
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Wikipedia: Sage thrasher
General: The sage thrasher (Oreoscoptes montanus) is a medium-sized passerine bird from the family Mimidae, which also includes mockingbirds, tremblers, and New World catbirds. It is the only member of the genus Oreoscoptes. This seems less close to the Caribbean thrashers, but rather to the mockingbirds instead (Hunt et al. 2001, Barber et al. 2004). [more]

Genus Acridotheres:
Common myna (Acridotheres tristis)
Alternate classification: Sturnus tristis
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Wikipedia: Common myna
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: North America, Africa.
The common myna or Indian myna (Acridotheres tristis), sometimes spelled mynah,[2] is a member of the family Sturnidae (starlings and mynas) native to Asia. An omnivorous open woodland bird with a strong territorial instinct, the common myna has adapted extremely well to urban environments. [more]

Jungle myna / Dschungelmaina (Acridotheres fuscus)
Alternate classification: Pastor fuscus
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Wikipedia: Jungle myna
The jungle myna (Acridotheres fuscus) is a myna, a member of the starling family. It is found patchily distributed across much of the mainland of the Indian Subcontinent but absent in the arid zones of India. It is easily recognized by the tuft of feathers on its forehead that form a frontal crest, a feature also found in the closely related Javan myna and the pale-bellied myna which were treated as a subspecies in the past. The eyes are pale, yellow or blue depending on the population and the base of the orange-yellow bill is dark. It has also been introduced either intentionally or accidentally into many other parts of the world including Fiji, Taiwan, the Andaman Islands, and parts of Japan. The species has also spread out on its own to some islands in the Pacific. [more]

Genus Aplonis:
Polynesian starling (Aplonis tabuensis)
Alternate classification: Lanius tabuensis
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Wikipedia: Polynesian starling
The Polynesian starling (Aplonis tabuensis) is a species of starling of the family Sturnidae. It is found in the Samoan Islands, Fiji, Niue, Tonga, the Santa Cruz Islands and Wallis and Futuna. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests and tropical moist forests. Various subspecies exist throughout this wide range, some darker in coloration and some lighter. Its call is a raspy buzz or rattle. Diet is fruit and insects.[2] [more]

Micronesian starling (Aplonis opaca)
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Wikipedia: Micronesian starling
The Micronesian starling (Aplonis opaca) is a species of starling in the family Sturnidae. It is found in Micronesia, the Northern Mariana Islands, and Palau. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forest and subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest. [more]

Family Turdidae (Thrushes / Drosseln):

Genus Catharus:
Swainson's thrush (Catharus ustulatus)
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Wikipedia: Swainson's thrush
Swainson's thrush (Catharus ustulatus), also called olive-backed thrush and russet-backed thrush, is a medium-sized thrush. It is a member of genus Catharus and is typical of it in terms of its subdued coloration and beautiful, ascending flute-like voice. Swainson's thrush was named after William Swainson, an English ornithologist. [more]

Hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus)
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Wikipedia: Hermit thrush
The hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus) is a medium-sized North American thrush. It is not very closely related to the other North American migrant species of Catharus, but rather to the Mexican russet nightingale-thrush.[2] [more]

Bicknell's thrush / Bicknelldrossel (Catharus bicknelli)
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Wikipedia: Bicknell's thrush
Bicknell's thrush (Catharus bicknelli) is a medium-sized thrush, at 17.5 cm (6.9 in) and 28 g (0.99 oz). One of North America's rarest and most localized breeders, it inhabits coniferous mountain tops and disturbed habitats of the Northeast. While very similar in appearance and vocalization to the gray-cheeked thrush (Catharus minimus), the two species, with two completely different breeding ranges, differ slightly in their morphology and vocalizations. It was named after Eugene Bicknell, an American amateur ornithologist, who made the first scientific discovery of the species on Slide Mountain in the Catskills in the late 19th century. [more]

Gray-cheeked thrush / Grauwangendrossel (Catharus minimus)
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Wikipedia: Gray-cheeked thrush
The grey-cheeked thrush (Catharus minimus) is a medium-sized thrush. This species is 15–17 cm (5.9–6.7 in) in length, and has the white-dark-white underwing pattern characteristic of Catharus thrushes. It is a member of a close-knit group of migrant species together with the veery and Bicknell's thrush;[2] it forms a cryptic species pair with the latter. The grey-cheeked thrush is all but indistinguishable from Bicknell's thrush except by its slightly larger size and different song. The two were formerly considered conspecific.[3] Of all the American spotted thrushes, the grey-cheeked has the most northern breeding range.[4] [more]

Veery / Wilson-Drossel (Catharus fuscescens)
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Wikipedia: Veery
The veery (Catharus fuscescens) is a small North American thrush species, a member of a group of closely related and similar species in the genus Catharus, also including the gray-cheeked thrush (C. minimus), Bicknell's thrush (C. bicknelli), Swainson's thrush (C. ustulatus), and Hermit thrush (C. guttatus).[2][3] Alternate names for this species include Wilson's thrush (named so after Alexander Wilson[4]) and tawny thrush.[5] Up to six subspecies exist, which are grouped into the eastern Veery (C. fuscescens fuscescens), the western Veery or Willow Thrush (C. fuscescens salicicolus), and the Newfoundland Veery (C. fuscescens fuliginosus).[6] [more]

Genus Turdus:
Rufous-backed robin (Turdus rufopalliatus)
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Wikipedia: Rufous-backed robin
The rufous-backed thrush (Turdus rufopalliatus) is a songbird of the thrush family. It is endemic to the Pacific slope of Mexico. It is also known as the rufous-backed robin. [more]

American robin / Wanderdrossel (Turdus migratorius)
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American robin, Cherrywood Court, Hunt Valley, Maryland. 2021-06-12 17.23.38 Maryland
The American robin (Turdus migratorius) is a migratory songbird of the true thrush genus and Turdidae, the wider thrush family. It is named after the European robin[2] because of its reddish-orange breast, though the two species are not closely related, with the European robin belonging to the Old World flycatcher family. The American robin is widely distributed throughout North America, wintering from southern Canada to central Mexico and along the Pacific Coast. It is the state bird of Connecticut, Michigan, and Wisconsin.[3] [more]

Eye-browed thrush (Turdus obscurus)
Also known as: Eyebrowed thrush
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Wikipedia: Eye-browed thrush
The eyebrowed thrush (Turdus obscurus) is a member of the thrush family Turdidae. The scientific name comes from Latin Turdus, "thrush" and obscurus "dark".[2] [more]

Island thrush / Südseedrossel (Turdus poliocephalus)
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Wikipedia: Island thrush
The island thrush (Turdus poliocephalus) is a common forest bird in the thrush family. Almost 50 subspecies have been described, ranging from South East Asia and Melanesia, to Samoa, exhibiting great differences in plumage. Several subspecies are threatened and three have already become extinct. [more]

Clay-colored robin (Turdus grayi)
Alternate classification: Turdus grayii
Also known as: Clay-colored thrush
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Lava hike clay colored thrush? national bird. 2018-03-01 17.09.44 Central America
The clay-colored thrush (Turdus grayi) is a common Middle American bird of the thrush family (Turdidae). It is the national bird of Costa Rica, where it is well known as the yigüirro (Spanish: [ʝi'ɣwiro]). Other common names include clay-colored robin.[1] [more]

Genus Myadestes:
Townsend's solitaire (Myadestes townsendi)
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Wikipedia: Townsend's solitaire
Townsend's solitaire (Myadestes townsendi) is a medium-sized thrush, the only solitaire native to America north of Mexico. [more]

Genus Sialia:
Eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis)
Alternate classification: Motacilla sialis
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Eastern bluebird hovering in search of prey. 2021-06-14 16.04.24 Maryland
The eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) is a small North American migratory thrush found in open woodlands, farmlands, and orchards. [more]

Western bluebird (Sialia mexicana)
Alternate classification: Sialia mexicanus
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Wikipedia: Western bluebird
The western bluebird (Sialia mexicana) is a small North American thrush. [more]

Mountain bluebird / Berghüttensänger (Sialia currucoides)
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Wikipedia: Mountain bluebird
The mountain bluebird (Sialia currucoides) is a small migratory thrush that is found in mountainous districts of western North America. It has a light underbelly and black eyes. Adult males have thin bills and are bright turquoise-blue and somewhat lighter underneath. Adult females have duller blue wings and tail, grey breast, grey crown, throat and back. In fresh fall plumage, the female's throat and breast are tinged with red-orange, brownish near the flank contrasting with white tail underparts. Their call is a thin 'few'; while their song is warbled high 'chur chur'. It is the state bird of Idaho and Nevada. It is an omnivore and it can live 6 to 10 years in the wild. It eats spiders, grasshoppers, flies and other insects, and small fruits. The mountain bluebird is a relative of the eastern and western bluebirds. [more]

Genus Ixoreus:
Varied thrush / Halsbanddrossel (Ixoreus naevius)
Alternate classification: Zoothera naevius
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Wikipedia: Varied thrush
The varied thrush (Ixoreus naevius) is a member of the thrush family, Turdidae. It is the only species in the monotypic genus Ixoreus. [more]

Genus Hylocichla:
Wood thrush / Walddrossel (Hylocichla mustelina)
Alternate classification: Hylocichla mustelinus
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Wood thrush, one of the few birds at Oregon Ridge we saw for the first time, unforunately out of focus. 2021-06-19 09.31.42 Maryland
The wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) is a North American passerine bird. It is closely related to other thrushes such as the American robin and is widely distributed across North America, wintering in Central America and southern Mexico. The wood thrush is the official bird of the District of Columbia.[2] [more]

Family Tyrannidae:

Genus Empidonax:
Least flycatcher / Gartentyrann (Empidonax minimus)
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Wikipedia: Least flycatcher
The least flycatcher (Empidonax minimus), (also called chebec, or chebecker, after the sound it makes), is a small insect-eating bird. It is the smallest Empidonax flycatcher in eastern North America. [more]

Hammond's flycatcher (Empidonax hammondii)
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Wikipedia: Hammond's flycatcher
Hammond's flycatcher (Empidonax hammondii) is a flycatcher in the family Tyrannidae. This small insectivorous bird inhabits the coniferous and mixed forests of western North America. The name of this bird commemorates William Alexander Hammond who was the surgeon general of the US Army. Hammond collected bird specimens for Spencer Fullerton Baird.[2] [more]

Cordilleran flycatcher (Empidonax occidentalis)
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Wikipedia: Cordilleran flycatcher
The Cordilleran flycatcher (Empidonax occidentalis) is a small insect-eating bird. It is a small Empidonax flycatcher, with typical length ranging from 13 to 17 cm. [more]

Yellow-bellied flycatcher (Empidonax flaviventris)
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Wikipedia: Yellow-bellied flycatcher
The yellow-bellied flycatcher (Empidonax flaviventris) is a small insect-eating bird of the tyrant flycatcher family. [more]

Acadian flycatcher / Buchentyrann (Empidonax virescens)
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Wikipedia: Acadian flycatcher
The Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) is a small insect-eating bird of the tyrant flycatcher family. [more]

Pacific-slope flycatcher (Empidonax difficilis)
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Wikipedia: Pacific-slope flycatcher
The Pacific-slope flycatcher (Empidonax difficilis) is a small insectivorous bird of the family Tyrannidae. It is native to coastal regions of western North America, including the Pacific Ocean and the southern Gulf of California, as far north as British Columbia and southern Alaska, but is replaced in the inland regions by the Cordilleran flycatcher. These two species were classified as a single species, commonly called the western flycatcher, by the American Ornithologists’ Union until 1989.[2] In winter, both species migrate south to Mexico, where they are virtually indistinguishable from one another. [more]

Alder flycatcher (Empidonax alnorum)
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Wikipedia: Alder flycatcher
The alder flycatcher (Empidonax alnorum) is a small insect-eating bird of the tyrant flycatcher family. The genus name Empidonax is from Ancient Greek empis, "gnat", and anax, "master". The specific alnorum is Latin and means "of the alders".[2] [more]

Willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii)
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Wikipedia: Willow flycatcher
The willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) is a small insect-eating, neotropical migrant bird of the tyrant flycatcher family. There are four subspecies of the willow flycatcher currently recognized, all of which breed in North America (including three subspecies that breed in California).[2] Empidonax flycatchers are almost impossible to tell apart in the field so biologists use their songs to distinguish between them.[3] The binomial commemorates the Scottish zoologist Thomas Stewart Traill. [more]

Gray flycatcher (Empidonax wrightii)
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Wikipedia: Gray flycatcher
The American gray flycatcher, or American grey flycatcher, or just gray flycatcher (Empidonax wrightii) as it is known in North America, is a small, insectivorous passerine in the tyrant flycatcher family. It is common in the arid regions of western North America, especially the Great Basin. From sagebrush steppes to pinyon-juniper woodlands and ponderosa pine forests, this flycatcher forages for insects from shrubs or low tree branches. [more]

Genus Tyrannus:
Thick-billed kingbird (Tyrannus crassirostris)
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Wikipedia: Thick-billed kingbird
The thick-billed kingbird (Tyrannus crassirostris) is a large bird in the family Tyrannidae, the tyrant flycatchers. This bird breeds from southeastern Arizona, extreme southwestern New Mexico, and northern Sonora, (the Madrean sky islands), in the United States and Mexico, through western and western-coastal Mexico, south to western Guatemala. [more]

Tropical kingbird / Trauertyrann (Tyrannus melancholicus)
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Tropical kingbird. 2018-02-16 16.18.52 Central America
The tropical kingbird (Tyrannus melancholicus) is a large tyrant flycatcher. This bird breeds from southern Arizona and the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas in the United States through Central America, South America as far as south as central Argentina and eastern Peru, and on Trinidad and Tobago. Birds from the northernmost and southern breeding areas migrate to warmer parts of the range after breeding. [more]

Eastern kingbird / Königstyrann (Tyrannus tyrannus)
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Eastern kingbird, Cromwell Valley Park, Maryland. 2021-06-14 16.00.42 Maryland
Lanius tyrannus Linnaeus, 1758 [more]

Gray kingbird / Grauer Königstyrann (Tyrannus dominicensis)
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Wikipedia: Gray kingbird
The gray kingbird or grey kingbird, also known as pitirre, petchary, or white-breasted kingbird (Tyrannus dominicensis) is a passerine bird. [more]

Cassin's kingbird (Tyrannus vociferans)
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Wikipedia: Cassin's kingbird
Cassin's kingbird (Tyrannus vociferans) is a large tyrant flycatcher native to western North America. The name of this bird commemorates the American ornithologist John Cassin. [more]

Couch's kingbird (Tyrannus couchii)
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Wikipedia: Couch's kingbird
Couch's kingbird (Tyrannus couchii) is a passerine tyrant flycatcher of the kingbird genus. It is found from southern Texas along the Gulf Coast to the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico, Belize and northern Guatemala. It is also found in the lower stretches of the Rio Grande Valley.[2] [more]

Fork-tailed flycatcher (Tyrannus savana)
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Wikipedia: Fork-tailed flycatcher
The fork-tailed flycatcher (Tyrannus savana) is a passerine bird of the tyrant flycatcher family, and is the member of a genus typically referred to as kingbirds. Named for their distinguishingly long forked tail, fork-tailed flycatchers are seen in lightly-forested or grassland areas; ranging from southern Mexico, to south past Argentina. They are most frequently observed sitting on conspicuous perches waiting for flying arthropods to fly past, they then sally out, eat their prey, and return to their perch. Northern populations near southern Mexico tend to be permanent residents, while fork-tailed flycatchers that live further south are migrants with a reputation to wander as far north as the eastern seaboard of the United States. [more]

Scissor-tailed flycatcher / Scherenschwanz-Königstyrann (Tyrannus forficatus)
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Wikipedia: Scissor-tailed flycatcher
The scissor-tailed flycatcher (Tyrannus forficatus), also known as the Texas bird-of-paradise and swallow-tailed flycatcher, is a long-tailed bird of the genus Tyrannus, whose members are collectively referred to as kingbirds. The kingbirds are a group of large insectivorous (insect-eating) birds in the tyrant flycatcher (Tyrannidae) family. The scissor-tailed flycatcher is found in North and Central America. [more]

Western kingbird / Arkansaskönigstyrann (Tyrannus verticalis)
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Wikipedia: Western kingbird
The western kingbird (Tyrannus verticalis) is a large tyrant flycatcher found throughout western environments of North America and as far as Mexico. [more]

Genus Sayornis:
Black phoebe / Schwarzkopf-Phoebetyrann (Sayornis nigricans)
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Wikipedia: Black phoebe
The black phoebe (Sayornis nigricans) is a passerine bird in the tyrant-flycatcher family. It breeds from southwest Oregon and California south through Central and South America. It occurs year-round throughout most of its range and migrates less than the other birds in its genus, though its northern populations are partially migratory. Six subspecies are commonly recognized, although two are occasionally combined as a separate species, the white-winged phoebe. [more]

Eastern phoebe / Weißbauch-Phoebetyrann (Sayornis phoebe)
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Wikipedia: Eastern phoebe
The eastern phoebe (Sayornis phoebe) is a small passerine bird. The genus name Sayornis is constructed from the specific part of Charles Lucien Bonaparte's name for Say's phoebe, Muscicapa saya, and Ancient Greek ornis, "bird".[2] Phoebe is an alternative name for the Roman moon-goddess Diana, but it may also have been chosen to imitate the bird's call.[3] [more]

Say's phoebe (Sayornis saya)
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Wikipedia: Say's phoebe
Say's phoebe (Sayornis saya) is a passerine bird in the tyrant flycatcher family. A common bird in the western United States, it prefers dry, desolate areas. This bird was named for Thomas Say, the American naturalist. [more]

Genus Elaenia:
Caribbean elaenia (Elaenia martinica)
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Wikipedia: Caribbean elaenia
The Caribbean elaenia (Elaenia martinica) is a species of bird in the family Tyrannidae found in the West Indies and parts of Central America. Its natural habitats are tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forest, subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest, and heavily degraded former forest. [more]

Genus Pachyramphus:
Rose-throated becard (Pachyramphus aglaiae)
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Wikipedia: Rose-throated becard
The rose-throated becard (Pachyramphus aglaiae) is a medium-sized member of the family Tityridae. Its genus, Pachyramphus, has traditionally been placed in Cotingidae or Tyrannidae, but evidence strongly suggest it is better placed in Tityridae.[2] This species was named in honour of Aglaé Brelay.[3] [more]

Genus Contopus:
Greater pewee (Contopus pertinax)
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Wikipedia: Greater pewee
The greater pewee (Contopus pertinax) is a passerine and is in the tyrant flycatcher group. This species' range is further north than the other Mexican species. This bird was formerly known as Coues' flycatcher. [more]

Lesser Antillean pewee (Contopus latirostris)
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Wikipedia: Lesser Antillean pewee
The Lesser Antillean pewee (Contopus latirostris) is a species of bird in the family Tyrannidae. [more]

Western wood-pewee (Contopus sordidulus)
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Arenal western wood-pewee tentative ID by Merlin. 2018-03-01 07.50.38 Central America
The western wood pewee (Contopus sordidulus) is a small tyrant flycatcher. Adults are gray-olive on the upperparts[2] with light underparts, washed with olive on the breast. They have two wing bars and a dark bill with yellow at the base of the lower mandible. This bird is very similar in appearance to the eastern wood pewee; the two birds were formerly considered to be one species. The call of C. sordidulus is a loud buzzy peeer; the song consists of three rapid descending tsees ending with a descending peeer. [more]

Eastern wood-pewee (Contopus virens)
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Eastern wood pewee, last new bird we discovered - at the parking lot shortly before leaving, Oregon Ridge. 2021-06-19 09.34.10 Maryland
The eastern wood pewee (Contopus virens) is a small tyrant flycatcher from North America. This bird and the western wood pewee (C. sordidulus) were formerly considered to be a single species. The two species are virtually identical in appearance, and can be distinguished most easily by their calls. [more]

Olive-sided flycatcher / Fichtentyrann (Contopus cooperi)
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Wikipedia: Olive-sided flycatcher
The olive-sided flycatcher (Contopus cooperi) is a passerine bird. It is a medium-sized tyrant flycatcher. [more]

Genus Myiarchus:
Great crested flycatcher (Myiarchus crinitus)
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Wikipedia: Great crested flycatcher
The great crested flycatcher (Myiarchus crinitus) is a large insect-eating bird of the tyrant flycatcher family. It is the most widespread member of the genus Myiarchus in North America, and is found over most of the eastern and mid-western portions of the continent.[2] It dwells mostly in the treetops and rarely is found on the ground.[3] [more]

Nutting's flycatcher (Myiarchus nuttingi)
Alternate classification: Myiarchus cinerascens nuttingi
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Wikipedia: Nutting's flycatcher
Nutting's flycatcher (Myiarchus nuttingi) is a passerine bird in the tyrant flycatcher family. It breeds in semi-arid desert scrub and tropical deciduous forest from western Mexico to northwest Costa Rica. It is normally a year-round resident, but has been known as an occasional vagrant to southern California and Arizona–(southeastern, central, and western), in the United States. It is named for the zoologist Charles Cleveland Nutting. [more]

Brown-crested flycatcher (Myiarchus tyrannulus)
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Wikipedia: Brown-crested flycatcher
The brown-crested flycatcher (Myiarchus tyrannulus) is a passerine bird in the tyrant flycatcher family. [more]

La sagra's flycatcher (Myiarchus sagrae)
Also known as: La sagra's flycatcher
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Wikipedia: La sagra's flycatcher
La Sagra's flycatcher (Myiarchus sagrae) is a passerine bird in the tyrant flycatcher family. [more]

Ash-throated flycatcher (Myiarchus cinerascens)
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Wikipedia: Ash-throated flycatcher
The ash-throated flycatcher (Myiarchus cinerascens) is a passerine bird in the tyrant flycatcher family. It breeds in desert scrub, riparian forest, brushy pastures and open woodland from the western United States to central Mexico. It is a short-distance migrant, retreating from most of the U.S. and northern and central Mexico, spending the winter from southern Mexico to Honduras. This bird is also prone to wander, with single birds often seen outside its normal breeding range as far away as the east coast of North America. [more]

Dusky-capped flycatcher (Myiarchus tuberculifer)
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Wikipedia: Dusky-capped flycatcher
The dusky-capped flycatcher (Myiarchus tuberculifer) is a passerine bird in the tyrant flycatcher family. It breeds in forest and other woodland from southern Arizona, as well as the Chisos Mountains, Texas, south to northern Argentina and on Trinidad. It is resident in most of its range, but American breeders retreat to Mexico in winter. [more]

Genus Myiodynastes:
Sulphur-bellied flycatcher (Myiodynastes luteiventris)
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Wikipedia: Sulphur-bellied flycatcher
The sulphur-bellied flycatcher (Myiodynastes luteiventris) is a large tyrant flycatcher. This bird breeds from southeasternmost Arizona of the United States (the Madrean sky islands region of Arizona, southwestern New Mexico, and northern Sonora, Mexico) to Costa Rica. They are short distance migrants, spending winters in the eastern Andean foothills of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil, and are passage migrants over the southern portions of Central America. [more]

Genus Pitangus:
Great kiskadee / Schwefelmaskentyrann (Pitangus sulphuratus)
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La fortuna Great kiskadee tenatative ID w wings spread. 2018-02-26 10.15.18 Central America
The great kiskadee (Pitangus sulphuratus), called bem-te-vi in Brazil, is a passerine bird in the tyrant flycatcher family Tyrannidae. It is the only member of the genus Pitangus. [more]

Genus Pyrocephalus:
Vermilion flycatcher (Pyrocephalus rubinus)
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Wikipedia: Vermilion flycatcher
The vermilion flycatcher (Pyrocephalus obscurus) is a small passerine bird in the tyrant flycatcher family found throughout South America and southern North America. It is a striking exception among the generally drab Tyrannidae due to its vermilion-red coloration. The males have bright red crowns, chests, and underparts, with brownish wings and tails. Females lack the vivid red coloration and can be hard to identify—they may be confused for the Say's phoebe. The vermilion flycatcher's song is a pit pit pit pidddrrrreeedrr, which is variable and important in establishing a territory. Riparian habitats and semi-open environments are preferred. As aerial insectivores, they catch their prey while flying. Their several months-long molt begins in summer. [more]

Genus Camptostoma:
Northern beardless-tyrannulet (Camptostoma imberbe)
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Wikipedia: Northern beardless-tyrannulet
The northern beardless tyrannulet (Camptostoma imberbe) is a small passerine bird in the tyrant flycatcher family. It breeds from southeasternmost Arizona and Texas of the United States through Mexico and Central America to northwestern Costa Rica. [more]

Family Muscicapidae (Old world flycatchers / Schnäpperverwandte):

Genus Copsychus:
White-rumped shama (Copsychus malabaricus)
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Wikipedia: White-rumped shama
The white-rumped shama (Copsychus malabaricus) is a small passerine bird of the family Muscicapidae. Native to densely vegetated habitats in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, its popularity as a cage-bird and songster has led to it being introduced elsewhere. [more]

Genus Oenanthe:
Northern wheatear / Steinschmätzer (Oenanthe oenanthe)
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Male northern wheatear, photo by Andreas Trepte - Own work, CC BY-SA 2.5 Source: WIKIPEDIA
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
General: I thought after seeing these at over 2700 meters that they must be a typical mountain bird (and in the FOK Zurich materials they were in the mountain section), however Wikipedia explains that such a stony landscape is the key, whether that is high or not:
Geography: The northern wheatear is a migratory insectivorous species breeding in open stony country in Europe and east across the Palearctic with footholds in northeastern Canada and Greenland as well as in northwestern Canada and Alaska. It nests in rock crevices and rabbit burrows. All birds spend most of their winter in Africa. ... Miniature tracking devices have recently shown that the northern wheatear has one of the longest migratory flights known - 30,000 km (18,640 miles), from sub-Saharan Africa to their Arctic breeding grounds.[15] [Link]
Strangely the residence and migration maps differ greatly by source: in Wikipedia the northern wheatear spends winter in subsaharan Africa, while the authoratitive Kosmos-Vogelführer shows some in northern Africa like Morocco. Most other sources agree with Wikipedia and Sub-Saharan Africa.
I thought the German name Steinschmätzer, presumably stone kisser (no one explains it, oddly enough) to be much more logical than the English northern wheatear. I was greatly amused to look it up and find it to be a 'folk etymology of "white" and "arse"' (Wikipedia).
Etymology: The genus name Oenanthe is derived from the Greek oenos (οίνος) "wine" and anthos (ανθός) "flower". It refers to the northern wheatear's return to Greece in the spring just as the grapevines blossom. [Link]
It has an evil-looking black eye stripe like the shrike. (I liked Nici Baiker's description of it in the FOK field ornithology course as 'Zorro look'.) I saw one flying on Muottas Muragl and thought the striking gray oval surrounded by dark feathers has to be typical and seems unique to the northern wheatear.
In den FOK Unterlagen werden die Zugrouten von Alaska und von nordosten Kanada gezeigt, die beide fuer Winter nach Afrika ziehen. Die aus Alaska fliegen ueber Asien unglaubliche 15000 Kilometer! Die in Kanada haben es auch nicht leicht, da sie zuerst ueber den Atlantik nach Spanien fliegen!
Vocalization: Each phrase is often introduced by the "weet" sound, then followed by hastened, creaking, rattling and warbling sounds of 1-2 seconds duration. [Link]
Song: Kurze, wechselvolle Strophe mit vielen unreinen Tönen. Meist von erhöhter Warte aus oder in kurzem Singflug vorgetragen. [Link]
The Wheatear song consists of short phrases with marked pauses. The "check" sound is also often included in the song. [Link]
Calls: „Tschack“ auch „hiit“ (saugend) [Link]
Contact and alarm call a high pitched, sharp "weet", followed by a hard "check", like hitting two rocks together. The "weet" sound is much sharper than the similar sound in Whinchat and Stonechat. Wheater usually repeats the "weet" sound more frequently than the "check" sound. The "check" of Stonechat is less pure and more gritty. [Link]
Physical details: length=14-15 cm, wingspan=26-32 cm, weight=18-29 g

Genus Calliope:
Siberian rubythroat / Rubinkehlchen (Calliope calliope)
Alternate classification: Motacilla calliope
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Wikipedia: Siberian rubythroat
General: The Siberian rubythroat (Calliope calliope) is a small passerine bird first described by Peter Simon Pallas in 1776. It was formerly classed as a member of the thrush family, Turdidae, but is now more generally considered to be an Old World flycatcher of the family Muscicapidae.[3] The Siberian rubythroat and similar small European species are often called chats. [more]

Family Sittidae (Kleiber):

Genus Sitta:
Red-breasted nuthatch / Kanadakleiber (Sitta canadensis)
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Wikipedia: Red-breasted nuthatch
The red-breasted nuthatch (Sitta canadensis) is a small songbird. The adult has blue-grey upperparts with cinnamon underparts, a white throat and face with a black stripe through the eyes, a straight grey bill and a black crown. Its call, which has been likened to a tin trumpet, is high-pitched and nasal. It breeds in coniferous forests across Canada, Alaska and the northeastern and western United States. Though often a permanent resident, it regularly irrupts further south if its food supply fails. There are records of vagrants occurring as far south as the Gulf Coast and northern Mexico. It forages on the trunks and large branches of trees, often descending head first, sometimes catching insects in flight. It eats mainly insects and seeds, especially from conifers. It excavates its nest in dead wood, often close to the ground, smearing the entrance with pitch. [more]

Brown-headed nuthatch / Braunkopfkleiber (Sitta pusilla)
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Wikipedia: Brown-headed nuthatch
The brown-headed nuthatch (Sitta pusilla) is a small songbird found in pine forests throughout the Southeastern United States. Genetic analyses indicated low differentiation between northern and southern populations in Florida, but the study also found lower genetic diversity among south Florida populations that may be a result of the increased habitat fragmentation that was documented. A population on the Bahamas showed moderate to high differentiation compared with Florida populations.[2] The Bahama nuthatch was and still is considered a subspecies (S. p. insularis) by several authorities including the IOC, but the IUCN and BirdLife International have reclassified it as its own separate species.[3] Two recent studies assessing vocalizations in Bahama and continental nuthatch populations found important differences.[4][5] One of the studies[4] also demonstrated that continental and Bahama populations did not respond aggressively to calls of the other population. This type of call-response study is often used to help define cryptic species.[6] [more]

Pygmy nuthatch (Sitta pygmaea)
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Wikipedia: Pygmy nuthatch
The pygmy nuthatch (Sitta pygmaea) is a tiny songbird, about 10 cm (4 inches) long and about 10 grams in weight. [more]

White-breasted nuthatch / Carolinakleiber (Sitta carolinensis)
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Wikipedia: White-breasted nuthatch
The white-breasted nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis) is a small songbird of the nuthatch family common across much of temperate North America. It is stocky, with a large head, short tail, powerful bill, and strong feet. It has a black cap, white face, chest, and flanks, blue-gray upperparts, and a chestnut lower belly. Its nine subspecies differ mainly in the color of the body plumage. [more]

Family Mimidae (Spottdrosseln):

Genus Toxostoma:
Crissal thrasher (Toxostoma crissale)
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Wikipedia: Crissal thrasher
The crissal thrasher (Toxostoma crissale) is a large thrasher found in the Southwestern United States (western Texas, southern New Mexico, southern Arizona, southeastern California, extreme southern Nevada, and extreme southwestern Utah) to central Mexico. [more]

California thrasher (Toxostoma redivivum)
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Wikipedia: California thrasher
The California thrasher (Toxostoma redivivum) is a large thrasher found primarily in chaparral habitat in California and Baja California. Similar to the crissal and Le Conte's thrashers in habit, the California thrasher is the only species of Toxostoma throughout most of its limited range. Like most thrashers, it rarely flies in the open, preferring to keep hidden in dense brush. Therefore, while it is common throughout much of its range, it is rarely seen. [more]

Long-billed thrasher (Toxostoma longirostre)
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Wikipedia: Long-billed thrasher
The long-billed thrasher (Toxostoma longirostre) is a medium-sized resident songbird of South Texas and eastern Mexico. It bears a strong resemblance to its close relative the brown thrasher in appearance, calls, and various other behaviors; however, the two species do not overlap in range except in the winter when the brown thrasher will temporarily reside in the northern range of the long-billed.[2] [more]

Bendire's thrasher (Toxostoma bendirei)
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Wikipedia: Bendire's thrasher
Bendire's thrasher (Toxostoma bendirei) is a medium-sized species of thrasher native to the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. It is 23–28 centimetres (9.1–11.0 in) long, with a long tail and a medium-sized bill. Coloration is grayish-brown on its upperparts with paler, faintly dark streaked underparts. The base of the lower bill is often pale, the eyes are bright yellow, and the tips of the tail are white-tipped. [more]

Curve-billed thrasher (Toxostoma curvirostre)
Alternate classification: Toxostoma curvirostre PS-1
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Wikipedia: Curve-billed thrasher
The curve-billed thrasher (Toxostoma curvirostre) is a medium-sized mimid native to the deserts of the southwestern United States and much of Mexico. It is a non-migratory species, and throughout most of its range it is the most common desert thrasher.[2] Several subspecies have been classified since 1827, though there is no consensus on the number. Allopatric speciation is believed to have played a major role in the variations of the curve-billed. It is grey-brown overall with a slightly curved bill, and is similar in appearance to the related Bendire's thrasher. It generally resides in desert regions of the United States and Mexico, but can inhabit areas predominately populated by humans. [more]

Le conte's thrasher (Toxostoma lecontei)
Also known as: Leconte's thrasher
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Wikipedia: Le conte's thrasher
LeConte's thrasher (Toxostoma lecontei) is a pale bird found in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. It prefers to live in deserts with very little vegetation, where it blends in with the sandy soils. LeConte's thrashers are nonmigratory birds that reside in the same territory annually. Although the species has been decreasing in certain areas of its range, in particular California, it still is abundant enough to not be considered for vulnerable status. [more]

Brown thrasher / Rotspottdrossel (Toxostoma rufum)
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Wikipedia: Brown thrasher
The brown thrasher (Toxostoma rufum) is a bird in the family Mimidae, which also includes the New World catbirds and mockingbirds. The brown thrasher is abundant throughout the eastern and central United States and southern and central Canada, and it is the only thrasher to live primarily east of the Rockies and central Texas. It is the state bird of Georgia. [more]

Genus Mimus:
Northern mockingbird / Gartenspottdrossel (Mimus polyglottos)
Alternate classification: Turdus polyglottos
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Mockingbird, Cherrywood Court, Hunt Valley, Maryland. 2021-06-13 05.32.48 Maryland
The northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) is a mockingbird commonly found in North America. This bird is mainly a permanent resident, but northern birds may move south during harsh weather. This species has rarely been observed in Europe. This species was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae as Turdus polyglottos. The northern mockingbird is known for its mimicking ability, as reflected by the meaning of its scientific name, "many-tongued thrush". The northern mockingbird has gray to brown upper feathers and a paler belly. Its tail and wings have white patches which are visible in flight.[2] [more]

Genus Dumetella:
Grey catbird / Katzendrossel (Dumetella carolinensis)
Alternate classification: Muscicapa carolinensis
Also known as: Gray catbird
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Catbird with cicada, Cherrywood Court, Hunt Valley, Maryland. 2021-06-12 17.11.36 Maryland
The gray catbird (Dumetella carolinensis), also spelled grey catbird, is a medium-sized North American and Central American perching bird of the mimid family. It is the only member of the "catbird" genus Dumetella. Like the black catbird (Melanoptila glabrirostris), it is among the basal lineages of the Mimidae, probably a closer relative of the Caribbean thrasher and trembler assemblage than of the mockingbirds and Toxostoma thrashers.[2][3] In some areas it is known as the slate-colored mockingbird.[4] [more]

Genus Margarops:
Pearly-eyed thrasher / Perlaugen-Spottdrossel (Margarops fuscatus)
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Wikipedia: Pearly-eyed thrasher
The pearly-eyed thrasher (Margarops fuscatus) is a bird in the thrasher family Mimidae. It is found on many Caribbean islands, from the Bahamas in the north to the Grenadines in the south, with an isolated population on Bonaire. At least two subspecies can be distinguished genetically: Margarops fuscatus fuscatus which is found between the Greater Antilles and Antigua and Barbuda, M. f. densirostris, occurring from Montserrat and Guadeloupe southwards. Its main habitat is bushes and trees in mountain forests and coffee plantations. [more]

Family Certhiidae (Baumläufer):

Subfamily Troglodytinae:
Genus Troglodytes:
House wren (Troglodytes aedon)
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Wikipedia: House wren
The house wren (Troglodytes aedon) is a very small songbird of the wren family, Troglodytidae. It occurs from Canada to southernmost South America, and is thus the most widely distributed native bird in the Americas.[2] It occurs in most suburban areas in its range and it is the single most common wren. Its taxonomy is highly complex and some subspecies groups are often considered separate species. [more]

Pacific wren (Troglodytes pacificus)
Alternate classification: Troglodytes hiemalis pacificus
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Wikipedia: Pacific wren
Nannus pacificus [more]

Genus Campylorhynchus:
Cactus wren / Kaktuszaunkönig (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus)
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Wikipedia: Cactus wren
The cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus) is a species of wren endemic to the deserts of the southwestern United States and northern and central Mexico. It is the state bird of Arizona, and the largest wren in the United States. Its plumage is brown, with black and white spots as markings. It has a distinctive white eyebrow that sweeps to the nape of the neck. The chest is white, whereas the underparts are cinnamon-buff colored. Both sexes appear similar. The tail, as well as flight feathers, are barred in black and white. Their song is a loud raspy chirrup; akin in the description of some ornithologists to the sound of a car engine that will not start. It is well-adapted to its native desert environment, and the birds can meet their water needs from their diet which consists chiefly of insects, but also of some plant matter. The cactus wren is a poor flier and generally forages for food on the ground. Ornithologists generally recognize seven subspecies, with the exact taxonomy under dispute. [more]

Genus Thryothorus:
Carolina wren / Carolinazaunkönig (Thryothorus ludovicianus)
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Carolina wren, Cromwell Valley Park. 2021-06-18 10.15.06 Maryland
The Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus) is a common species of wren that is a resident in the eastern half of the United States of America, the extreme south of Ontario, Canada, and the extreme northeast of Mexico. Severe winters restrict the northern limits of their range while favorable weather conditions lead to a northward extension of their breeding range. Their preferred habitat is in dense cover in forest, farm edges and suburban areas. This wren is the state bird of South Carolina. [more]

Genus Catherpes:
Canyon wren / Schluchtenzaunkönig (Catherpes mexicanus)
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Wikipedia: Canyon wren
The canyon wren (Catherpes mexicanus) is a small North American songbird of the wren family Troglodytidae. It is resident throughout its range and is generally found in arid, rocky cliffs, outcrops, and canyons. It is a small bird that is hard to see on its rocky habitat; however, it can be heard throughout the canyons by its distinctive, loud song. It is currently in a monotypic taxon and is the only species in the genus Catherpes. [more]

Genus Cistothorus:
Marsh wren / Sumpfzaunkönig (Cistothorus palustris)
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Wikipedia: Marsh wren
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
The marsh wren (Cistothorus palustris) is a small North American songbird of the wren family. It is sometimes called the long-billed marsh wren to distinguish it from the sedge wren, also known as the short-billed marsh wren. [more]

Sedge wren / Seggenzaunkönig (Cistothorus platensis)
Also known as: Grass wren
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Wikipedia: Sedge wren
The sedge wren (Cistothorus stellaris) is a small and secretive passerine bird in the family Troglodytidae. It is widely distributed in North America. It is often found in wet grasslands and meadows where it nests in the tall grasses and sedges and feeds on insects. The sedge wren was formerly considered as conspecific with the non-migratory grass wren of central and South America. [more]

Genus Thryomanes:
Bewick's wren (Thryomanes bewickii)
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Wikipedia: Bewick's wren
The Bewick's wren (Thryomanes bewickii) is a wren native to North America. At about 14 cm (5.5 in) long, it is grey-brown above, white below, with a long white eyebrow. While similar in appearance to the Carolina wren, it has a long tail that is tipped in white. The song is loud and melodious, much like the song of other wrens. It lives in thickets, brush piles and hedgerows, open woodlands and scrubby areas, often near streams. It eats insects and spiders, which it gleans from vegetation or finds on the ground.[2] [more]

Genus Salpinctes:
Rock wren (Salpinctes obsoletus)
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Wikipedia: Rock wren
The rock wren (Salpinctes obsoletus) is a small songbird of the wren family native to South America and western North America. It is the only species in the genus Salpinctes. [more]

Subfamily Certhiinae:
Genus Certhia:
Brown creeper (Certhia americana)
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Wikipedia: Brown creeper
The brown creeper (Certhia americana), also known as the American treecreeper, is a small songbird, the only North American member of the treecreeper family Certhiidae. [more]

Subfamily Polioptilinae:
Genus Polioptila:
Blue-gray gnatcatcher / Blaumückenfänger (Polioptila caerulea)
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Wikipedia: Blue-gray gnatcatcher
The blue-gray gnatcatcher or blue-grey gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea) is a very small songbird native to North America. [more]

Black-capped gnatcatcher (Polioptila nigriceps)
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Wikipedia: Black-capped gnatcatcher
The black-capped gnatcatcher (Polioptila nigriceps) is a small songbird in the family Polioptilidae. It is found in Mexico and the United States.[2] [more]

California gnatcatcher (Polioptila californica)
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Wikipedia: California gnatcatcher
The California gnatcatcher (Polioptila californica) is a small 10.8 cm (4.3 in) long insectivorous bird which frequents dense coastal sage scrub growth. This species was recently split from the similar black-tailed gnatcatcher of the Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts. This bird is often solitary, but joins with other birds in winter flocks. [more]

Black-tailed gnatcatcher (Polioptila melanura)
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Wikipedia: Black-tailed gnatcatcher
The black-tailed gnatcatcher (Polioptila melanura) is a small, insectivorous bird which ranges throughout the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. It is nonmigratory and found in arid desert areas year-round. [more]

Genus Auriparus:
Verdin (Auriparus flaviceps)
Alternate classification: Aegithalus flaviceps
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Wikipedia: Verdin
The verdin (Auriparus flaviceps) is a species of penduline tit. It is the only species in the genus Auriparus and the only representative of the old world family Remizidae to be found in North America.[2] [more]

Family Bombycillidae (Seidenschwänze):

Genus Bombycilla:
Cedar waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum)
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Wikipedia: Cedar waxwing
The cedar waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum) is a member of the family Bombycillidae or waxwing family of passerine birds. It is a medium-sized, mostly brown, gray, and yellow. This bird is named for its wax-like wing tips. It is a native of North and Central America, breeding in open wooded areas in southern Canada and wintering in the southern half of the United States, Central America, and the far northwest of South America. Its diet includes cedar cones, fruit, and insects.[2] The cedar waxwing is not endangered. [more]

Genus Phainopepla:
Phainopepla (Phainopepla nitens)
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Wikipedia: Phainopepla
The phainopepla or northern phainopepla[2] (Phainopepla nitens) is the most northerly representative of the mainly tropical Central American family Ptiliogonatidae, the silky flycatchers. Its name is from the Greek phain pepla meaning "shining robe" in reference to the male's plumage. [more]

Family Cinclidae (Wasseramseln):

Genus Cinclus:
American dipper / Grauwasseramsel (Cinclus mexicanus)
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Wikipedia: American dipper
The American dipper (Cinclus mexicanus), also known as a water ouzel, is a stocky dark grey bird with a head sometimes tinged with brown, and white feathers on the eyelids that cause the eyes to flash white as the bird blinks. It is 16.5 cm (6.5 in) long, has a wingspan of 23 cm,[2] and weighs on average 46 g (1.6 oz). It has long legs, and bobs its whole body up and down during pauses as it feeds on the bottom of fast-moving, rocky streams. It inhabits the mountainous regions of Central America and western North America from Panama to Alaska. [more]

Superfamily Corvoidea:

Family Laniidae (Shrikes / Würger):
Genus Lanius:
Northern shrike (Lanius borealis)
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Wikipedia: Northern shrike
The northern shrike (Lanius borealis) is a large songbird species in the shrike family (Laniidae) native to North America and Siberia. Long considered a subspecies of the great grey shrike, it was classified as a distinct species in 2017. Six subspecies are recognised. [more]

Loggerhead shrike / Louisianawürger (Lanius ludovicianus)
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Wikipedia: Loggerhead shrike
The loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) is a passerine bird in the family Laniidae. It is one of two members of the shrike family endemic to North America; the related northern shrike (L. borealis) occurs north of its range. It is nicknamed the butcherbird after its carnivorous tendencies, as it consumes prey such as amphibians, insects, lizards, small mammals and small birds, and some prey end up displayed and stored at a site, for example in a tree.[2] Due to its small size and weak talons, this predatory bird relies on impaling its prey upon thorns or barbed wire for facilitated consumption.[3] The numbers of loggerhead shrike have significantly decreased in recent years, especially in Midwestern, New England and Mid-Atlantic areas.[4] [more]

Family Corvidae (Krähenverwandte):
Genus Cyanocitta:
Steller's jay / Diademhäher (Cyanocitta stelleri)
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Wikipedia: Steller's jay
Steller's jay (Cyanocitta stelleri) is a bird native to western North America, closely related to the blue jay found in the rest of the continent, but with a black head and upper body. It is also known as the long-crested jay, mountain jay, and pine jay. It is the only crested jay west of the Rocky Mountains. It is also sometimes colloquially called a "blue jay" in the Pacific Northwest, but is distinct from the blue jay (C. cristata) of eastern North America. The species inhabits pine-oak and coniferous forests. [more]

Blue jay / Blauhäher (Cyanocitta cristata)
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Grayish blue jay, Cromwell Valley Park, Maryland. 2021-06-14 15.59.08 Maryland
The blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata) is a passerine bird in the family Corvidae, native to eastern North America. It lives in most of the eastern and central United States; eastern populations may be migratory. Resident populations are also found in Newfoundland, Canada; breeding populations are found across southern Canada. It breeds in both deciduous and coniferous forests, and is common in residential areas. It is predominantly blue, with a white chest and underparts, and a blue crest; it has a black, U-shaped collar around its neck and a black border behind the crest. Males and females are similar in size and plumage, and plumage does not vary throughout the year. Four subspecies have been recognized. [more]

Genus Corvus (Crows):
Common raven / Kolkrabe (Corvus corax)
Also known as: Northern raven
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Kolkrabe am Aabach, Wetzikon. 2021-03-10 09.49.56 Wetzikon
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
The raven is often mentioned in word puzzles as the largest songbird.
Good to know: Other: A flock of ravens may be called an unkindness [Literary names of groups and flocks]
Etymology: Kolk, die erste Silbe seines seit dem 16. Jahrhundert bezeugten deutschen Namens, ist vermutlich lautmalerischen Ursprungs, ahmt also den Ruf des Vogels nach. [Link]
Appearance and identification: It is one of the two largest corvids, alongside the thick-billed raven, and is possibly the heaviest passerine bird [Link]
Vocalization: Quite varied repertoire. Most heard sound a short, coarse, but resonant "korrk. Other sounds may be surprisingly resonant and pure, like a ringing "clong" etc. Shows even more variation when courting. [Link]
Physical details: length=64 cm, wingspan=120-150 cm, weight=800-1560 g

Song: Graak!
Song attributes: Melody: non-musical, slow, Frequency: low (1-3 KHz) Special sounds: cawing

Fish crow (Corvus ossifragus)
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Wikipedia: Fish crow
General: The fish crow (Corvus ossifragus) is a species of crow associated with wetland habitats in the eastern and southeastern United States. [more]

Tamaulipas crow (Corvus imparatus)
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Wikipedia: Tamaulipas crow
The Tamaulipas crow (Corvus imparatus) is a crow found in northeastern Mexico and some of southern Texas. [more]

American crow / Amerikanerkrähe (Corvus brachyrhynchos)
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Wikipedia: American crow
The American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) is a large passerine bird species of the family Corvidae. It is a common bird found throughout much of North America. American crows are the New World counterpart to the carrion crow and the hooded crow. Although the American crow and the hooded crow are very similar in size, structure and behavior, their calls are different. The American crow, nevertheless, occupies the same role that the hooded crow does in Eurasia. [more]

Mariana crow / Guamkrähe (Corvus kubaryi)
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Wikipedia: Mariana crow
The Mariana crow (Corvus kubaryi) (Chamorro name: aga) is a species of the crow family from the South Pacific. It is a glossy black bird about 15 inches (38 cm) long and known only from the islands of Guam and Rota. [more]

Genus Pica (Magpies):
Black-billed magpie / Hudsonelster (Pica hudsonia)
Alternate classification: Pica pica hudsonica
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Wikipedia: Black-billed magpie
The black-billed magpie (Pica hudsonia), also known as the American magpie, is a bird in the corvidae family that inhabits the western half of North America, from Colorado, to southern coastal Alaska, to Central Oregon, to northern California, northern Nevada, northern Arizona, northern New Mexico, central Kansas, and Nebraska. In Canada it is found in far Western Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and Yukon. It is black and white, with black areas on the wings and tail showing iridescent hints of blue or blue-green. It is one of only four North American songbirds whose tail makes up half or more of the total body length (the others being the yellow-billed magpie, the scissor-tailed flycatcher, and the fork-tailed flycatcher). [more]

Yellow-billed magpie (Pica nutalli)
Alternate classification: Pica nuttalli
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Wikipedia: Yellow-billed magpie
The yellow-billed magpie (Pica nutalli) is a large bird in the crow family that is restricted to the U.S. state of California. It inhabits the Central Valley and the adjacent chaparral foothills and mountains. Apart from its having a yellow bill and a yellow streak around the eye, it is virtually identical to the black-billed magpie (Pica hudsonia) found in much of the rest of North America. The scientific name commemorates the English naturalist Thomas Nuttall. [more]

Genus Aphelocoma:
Scrub jay / Florida-Buschhäher (Aphelocoma coerulescens)
Alternate classification: Corvus coerulescens
Also known as: Florida scrub-jay
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Wikipedia: Scrub jay
The passerine birds of the genus Aphelocoma[A] include the scrub jays and their relatives. They are New World jays found in Mexico, western Central America and the western United States, with an outlying population in Florida. This genus belongs to the group of New World (or "blue") jays–possibly a distinct subfamily–which is not closely related to other jays, magpies or treepies.[1] They live in open pine-oak forests, chaparral, and mixed evergreen forests. [more]

Mexican jay (Aphelocoma wollweberi)
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Wikipedia: Mexican jay
The Mexican jay (Aphelocoma wollweberi) [2] formerly known as the gray-breasted jay, is a New World jay native to the Sierra Madre Oriental, Sierra Madre Occidental, and Central Plateau of Mexico and parts of the southwestern United States. In May 2011, the American Ornithologists' Union voted to split the Mexican jay into two species, one retaining the common name Mexican jay and one called the Transvolcanic jay. The Mexican jay is a medium-sized jay with blue upper parts and pale gray underparts. It resembles the Woodhouse's scrub-jay, but has an unstreaked throat and breast. It feeds largely on acorns and pine nuts, but includes many other plant and animal foods in its diet. It has a cooperative breeding system where the parents are assisted by other birds to raise their young. This is a common species with a wide range and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated its conservation status as being of "least concern". [more]

Santa cruz jay (Aphelocoma insularis)
Also known as: Island scrub-jay
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Wikipedia: Santa cruz jay
The island scrub jay (Aphelocoma insularis) also island jay or Santa Cruz jay is a bird in the genus, Aphelocoma, which is endemic to Santa Cruz Island off the coast of Southern California. Of the over 500 breeding bird species in the continental U.S. and Canada, it is the only insular endemic landbird species.[2] The island scrub jay (ISSJ) is closely related to the California scrub jay – the coastal population found on the adjacent mainland – but differs in being larger, more brightly colored, and having a markedly stouter bill. They will bury, or cache, the acorns in the fall and may eat them months later. They also eat insects, spiders, snakes, lizards, mice and other birds' eggs and nestlings. [more]

Genus Perisoreus:
Canada jay / Meisenhäher (Perisoreus canadensis)
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Wikipedia: Canada jay
The Canada jay (Perisoreus canadensis), also known as the gray jay, grey jay, camp robber, or whisky jack, is a passerine bird of the family Corvidae. It is found in boreal forests of North America north to the tree line, and in the Rocky Mountains subalpine zone south to New Mexico and Arizona. A fairly large songbird, the Canada jay has pale grey underparts, darker grey upperparts, and a grey-white head with a darker grey nape. It is one of three members of the genus Perisoreus, a genus more closely related to the magpie genus Cyanopica than to other birds known as jays. The Canada jay itself has nine recognized subspecies. [more]

Genus Gymnorhinus:
Pinyon jay (Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus)
Alternate classification: Gymnorhinus cyanocephala
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Wikipedia: Pinyon jay
The pinyon jay (Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus) is a jay between the North American blue jay and the Eurasian jay in size. The voice is described as a rhythmic krawk-kraw-krawk repeated two or three times. It is the only member of the genus Gymnorhinus. Its overall proportions are very nutcracker-like and indeed this can be seen as convergent evolution as both birds fill similar ecological niches. The pinyon jay is a bluish-grey coloured bird with deeper head colouring and whitish throat with black bill, legs and feet. [more]

Genus Cyanocorax:
Green jay (Cyanocorax yncas)
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Wikipedia: Green jay
The green jay (Cyanocorax luxuosus) is a species of the New World jays, and is found in Central America. Adults are about 27 cm (11 in) long and variable in colour across their range; they usually have blue and black heads, green wings and mantle, bluish-green tails, black bills, yellow or brown eye rings, and dark legs. The basic diet consists of arthropods, vertebrates, seeds, and fruit. The nest is usually built in a thorny bush; the female incubates the clutch of three to five eggs. This is a common species of jay with a wide range and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated its conservation status as being of "least concern". [more]

Genus Nucifraga:
Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana)
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Wikipedia: Clark's nutcracker
Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana), sometimes referred to as Clark's crow or woodpecker crow, is a passerine bird in the family Corvidae, native to the mountains of western North America. The nutcracker is an omnivore but subsists mainly on pine nuts, burying seeds in the ground in the summer and then retrieving them in the winter by memory. [more]

Family Vireonidae (Vireos):
Subfamily Vireoninae (Shrike-vireos):
Genus Vireo:
Cassin's vireo (Vireo cassinii)
Alternate classification: Vireo solitarius cassini
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Wikipedia: Cassin's vireo
Cassin's vireo (Vireo cassinii) is a small North American songbird, ranging from southern British Columbia in Canada through the western coastal states of the United States. This bird migrates, spending the winter from southern Arizona (the Sonoran Desert) to southern Mexico. [more]

Yellow-green vireo (Vireo flavoviridis)
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Wikipedia: Yellow-green vireo
The yellow-green vireo (Vireo flavoviridis) is a small American passerine bird. It is migratory breeding from Mexico to Panama and wintering in the northern and eastern Andes and the western Amazon Basin. [more]

Warbling vireo / Sängervireo (Vireo gilvus)
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Wikipedia: Warbling vireo
The warbling vireo (Vireo gilvus) is a small North American songbird. [more]

Plumbeous vireo (Vireo plumbeus)
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Wikipedia: Plumbeous vireo
The plumbeous vireo (Vireo plumbeus) is a small North American songbird, ranging from far southeastern Montana and western South Dakota south to the Pacific coast of Mexico, including the extreme southern regions of Baja California Sur. It is migratory, moving to the southern part of its range in winter, and its habitat generally encompasses open pine forests. [more]

Black-capped vireo (Vireo atricapilla)
Alternate classification: Vireo atricapillus
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Wikipedia: Black-capped vireo
The black-capped vireo (Vireo atricapilla) is a small bird native to the United States and Mexico. It was listed as an endangered species in the United States in 1987. Successful conservation efforts on the U.S. Army's Fort Hood and Fort Sill led to delisting the black-capped vireo in 2018.[2] The IUCN lists the species as vulnerable. [more]

Gray vireo (Vireo vicinior)
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Wikipedia: Gray vireo
The gray vireo (Vireo vicinior) is a small North American passerine bird. It breeds from the southwestern United States and northern Baja California to western Texas. It is a migrant, wintering in northwestern Mexico, in western Sonora state, and the southern Baja Peninsula in Baja California Sur; it remains all year only in Big Bend National Park in southwest Texas. It is usually found at altitudes between 400 and 2,500 metres (1,300 and 8,200 ft) in its Mexican breeding grounds. This vireo frequents dry brush, especially juniper, on the slopes of the southwestern mountains.[2] [more]

White-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus)
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Wikipedia: White-eyed vireo
The white-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus) is a small songbird. It breeds in the southeastern United States from New Jersey west to northern Missouri and south to Texas and Florida, and also in eastern Mexico, northern Central America, Cuba and the Bahamas. [more]

Black-whiskered vireo (Vireo altiloquus)
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Wikipedia: Black-whiskered vireo
The black-whiskered vireo (Vireo altiloquus) is a small passerine bird, which breeds in southern Florida, USA, and the West Indies as far south as the offshore islands of Venezuela. It is a partial migrant, with northern birds wintering from the Greater Antilles to northern South America. This species has occurred as a rare vagrant to Costa Rica. [more]

Hutton's vireo (Vireo huttoni)
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Wikipedia: Hutton's vireo
Hutton's vireo (Vireo huttoni) is a small songbird. It is approximately 5 inches (12–13 cm) in length, dull olive-gray above and below. It has a faint white eye ring and faint white wing bars. It closely resembles a ruby-crowned kinglet, but has a thicker bill and is slightly larger in size. Its most common song is a repeated chu-wee, or a chew, but will have other variations. Its call is a mewing chatter. [more]

Yellow-throated vireo / Gelbkehlvireo (Vireo flavifrons)
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Wikipedia: Yellow-throated vireo
The yellow-throated vireo (Vireo flavifrons) is a small American songbird. [more]

Red-eyed vireo / Rotaugenvireo (Vireo olivaceus)
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Wikipedia: Red-eyed vireo
The red-eyed vireo (Vireo olivaceus) is a small American songbird. It is somewhat warbler-like but not closely related to the New World warblers (Parulidae). Common across its vast range, this species is not considered threatened by the IUCN. [more]

Philadelphia vireo (Vireo philadelphicus)
Alternate classification: Vireosylvia philadelphica
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Wikipedia: Philadelphia vireo
The Philadelphia vireo (Vireo philadelphicus) is a small North American songbird in the vireo family (Vireonidae). "Vireo" is a Latin word referring to a green migratory bird, perhaps the female golden oriole, possibly the European greenfinch. The specific philadelphicus is for the city of Philadelphia.[2][3] [more]

Bell's vireo (Vireo bellii)
Alternate classification: Vireo belli
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Wikipedia: Bell's vireo
Bell's vireo (Vireo bellii)[2] is a songbird that migrates between a breeding range in North America and a winter range in the Neotropics. It is dull olive-gray above and whitish below. It has a faint white eye ring and faint wing bars. [more]

Family Dicruridae:
Genus Dicrurus:
Black drongo (Dicrurus macrocercus)
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Wikipedia: Black drongo
The black drongo (Dicrurus macrocercus) is a small Asian passerine bird of the drongo family Dicruridae. It is a common resident breeder in much of tropical southern Asia from southwest Iran through India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka east to southern China and Indonesia and accidental visitor of Japan. It is an all black bird with a distinctive forked tail and measures 28 cm (11 in) in length. It feeds on insects, and is common in open agricultural areas and light forest throughout its range, perching conspicuously on a bare perch or along power or telephone lines. The species is known for its aggressive behaviour towards much larger birds, such as crows, never hesitating to dive-bomb any bird of prey that invades its territory. This behaviour earns it the informal name of king crow. Smaller birds often nest in the well-guarded vicinity of a nesting black drongo. Previously grouped along with the African fork-tailed drongo (Dicrurus adsimilis), the Asian forms are now treated as a separate species with several distinct populations. [more]

Family Monarchidae:
Genus Monarcha:
Tinian monarch (Monarcha takatsukasae)
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Wikipedia: Tinian monarch
The Tinian monarch (Monarcha takatsukasae) is a species of bird in the family Monarchidae. It is endemic to the Northern Mariana Islands. [more]

Genus Clytorhynchus:
Fiji shrikebill (Clytorhynchus vitiensi)
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Wikipedia: Fiji shrikebill
The Fiji shrikebill (Clytorhynchus vitiensis) is a songbird species in the family Monarchidae. It is found in American Samoa, Fiji, and Tonga. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. [more]

Family Thraupidae (Tanagers):

Genus Piranga:
Summer tanager (Piranga rubra)
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Arenal feeder summer tanager tenatative ID. 2018-02-27 12.58.26 Central America
The summer tanager (Piranga rubra) is a medium-sized American songbird. Formerly placed in the tanager family (Thraupidae), it and other members of its genus are now classified in the cardinal family (Cardinalidae).[2] The species's plumage and vocalizations are similar to other members of the cardinal family. [more]

Western tanager / Kieferntangare (Piranga ludoviciana)
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Wikipedia: Western tanager
The western tanager (Piranga ludoviciana), is a medium-sized American songbird. Formerly placed in the tanager family (Thraupidae), other members of its genus and it are classified in the cardinal family (Cardinalidae). The species's plumage and vocalizations are similar to other members of the cardinal family. [more]

Scarlet tanager (Piranga olivacea)
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Wikipedia: Scarlet tanager
The scarlet tanager (Piranga olivacea) is a medium-sized American songbird. Until recently, it was placed in the tanager family (Thraupidae), but it and other members of its genus are now classified as belonging to the cardinal family (Cardinalidae).[2] The species' plumage and vocalizations are similar to other members of the cardinal family, although the Piranga species lacks the thick conical bill (well suited to seed and insect eating) that many cardinals possess. The species resides in thick deciduous woodlands and suburbs. [more]

Hepatic tanager (Piranga flava)
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Wikipedia: Hepatic tanager
The hepatic tanager (Piranga flava) is a medium-sized American songbird. Formerly placed in the tanager family (Thraupidae), it and other members of the genus Piranga are now classified in the cardinal family (Cardinalidae).[2] The species's plumage and vocalizations are similar to other members of the cardinal family. [more]

Flame-colored tanager (Piranga bidentata)
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Wikipedia: Flame-colored tanager
The flame-colored tanager (Piranga bidentata), formerly known as the stripe-backed tanager, is a medium-sized American songbird. Formerly placed in the tanager family Thraupidae, other members of its genus and it are now classified in the cardinal family Cardinalidae.[2][3] The species's plumage and vocalizations are similar to other members of the cardinal family. [more]

Genus Spindalis:
Western spindalis (Spindalis zena)
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Wikipedia: Western spindalis
The western spindalis (Spindalis zena) is a songbird species. It was formerly considered conspecific with the other three species of spindalis, with the common name stripe-headed tanager. [more]

Genus Loxigilla:
Lesser antillean bullfinch (Loxigilla noctis)
Also known as: Lesser antillean bullfinch
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Wikipedia: Lesser antillean bullfinch
The lesser Antillean bullfinch (Loxigilla noctis) is a species of bird in the family Thraupidae. It is found in Saint Barth, Saint Martin, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, the British Virgin Islands, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. [more]

Genus Sporophila:
Morelet's seedeater (Sporophila morelleti)
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Wikipedia: Morelet's seedeater
Morelet's seedeater (Sporophila morelleti) is a passerine bird in the typical seedeater genus Sporophila. [more]

Genus Sicalis:
Saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola)
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Wikipedia: Saffron finch
The saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola) is a tanager from South America that is common in open and semi-open areas in lowlands outside the Amazon Basin. They have a wide distribution in Colombia, northern Venezuela (where it is called "canario de tejado" or "roof canary"), western Ecuador, western Peru, eastern and southern Brazil (where it is called "canário-da-terra" or "native canary"), Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, northern Argentina, and Trinidad and Tobago. It has also been introduced to Hawaii, Puerto Rico and elsewhere. Although commonly regarded as a canary, it is not related to the Atlantic canary. Formerly, it was placed in the Emberizidae but it is close to the seedeaters. [more]

Subfamily Thraupinae:
Genus Paroaria:
Red-crested cardinal (Paroaria coronata)
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Wikipedia: Red-crested cardinal
The red-crested cardinal (Paroaria coronata) is a songbird, the species belonging to the family of tanagers (Thraupidae). Notwithstanding its similar name, this bird is not closely related to the true cardinal family (Cardinalidae). It is sometimes known as the Brazilian cardinal. [more]

Yellow-billed cardinal (Paroaria capitata)
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Wikipedia: Yellow-billed cardinal
The yellow-billed cardinal (Paroaria capitata) is a bird species in the tanager family (Thraupidae). It is not very closely related to the cardinals proper (Cardinalidae). [more]

Family Passerellidae:

Genus Pipilo (Towhees):
Green-tailed towhee (Pipilo chlorurus)
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Wikipedia: Green-tailed towhee
The green-tailed towhee (Pipilo chlorurus) is the smallest towhee, but is still one of the larger members of the American sparrow family Passerellidae. [more]

Spotted towhee (Pipilo maculatus)
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Wikipedia: Spotted towhee
The spotted towhee (Pipilo maculatus) is a large New World sparrow. The taxonomy of the towhees has been debated in recent decades, and until 1995 this bird and the eastern towhee were considered a single species, the rufous-sided towhee. Literature before 1995 referred to the spotted towhee as a rufous-sided towhee that resides in the western United States.[2] An archaic name for the spotted towhee is the Oregon towhee (Pipilo maculatus oregonus). The call may be harsher and more varied than for the eastern towhee. [more]

Eastern towhee / Rötelgrundammer (Pipilo erythrophthalmus)
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Wikipedia: Eastern towhee
The eastern towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus) is a large New World sparrow. The taxonomy of the towhees has been under debate in recent decades, and formerly this bird and the spotted towhee were considered a single species, the rufous-sided towhee. [more]

Genus Spizella:
Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri)
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Wikipedia: Brewer's sparrow
Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri) is a small, slim species of American sparrow in the family Passerellidae. This bird was named after the ornithologist Thomas Mayo Brewer.[2] [more]

Field sparrow (Spizella pusilla)
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Wikipedia: Field sparrow
The field sparrow (Spizella pusilla) is a small New World sparrow in the family Passerellidae. It is about 140 mm (6 in) long and weighs about 12.5 g (0.4 oz). The head is grey with a rust-coloured crown, white eye-ring and pink bill. The upper parts are brown streaked with black and buff, the breast is buff, the belly is white and the tail is forked. There are two different colour morphs, one being greyer and the other more rufous. [more]

Chipping sparrow / Schwirrammer (Spizella passerina)
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Chipping sparrow, Cherrywood Court, Hunt Valley, Maryland. 2021-06-12 17.13.54 Maryland
The chipping sparrow (Spizella passerina) is a species of New World sparrow, a passerine bird in the family Passerellidae. It is widespread, fairly tame, and common across most of its North American range. [more]

Black-chinned sparrow (Spizella atrogularis)
Alternate classification: Spizella atrigularis
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Wikipedia: Black-chinned sparrow
The black-chinned sparrow (Spizella atrogularis) is a small bird in the genus Spizella, in the New World sparrow family Passerellidae. It is found in the southwestern United States and throughout much of Mexico north of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec; most populations in the US migrate south after breeding while those in Mexico are resident. It is a slim, long-tailed bird, primarily gray with a reddish-brown back streaked with black, brown wings and tail, a pink beak, and brownish legs and feet. In the breeding season, the male shows black on his throat, chin, and the front of his face. Females, youngsters and nonbreeding males show little or no black in these areas. An unobtrusive bird, it spends much of its time foraging slowly along the ground, either alone or in small groups, sometimes mixing with other Spizella species. It is an omnivore, feeding primarily on seeds during the winter and insects during the summer. It builds a cup-shaped nest of grasses, rootlets, or plant fibers, into which the female lays 2–5 pale blue eggs. The female does most or all of the egg incubation, but both parents feed the hatched nestlings. [more]

Clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida)
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Wikipedia: Clay-colored sparrow
The clay-colored sparrow or clay-coloured sparrow[2] (Spizella pallida) is a small New World sparrow of North America. [more]

Genus Junco (Juncos):
Dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis)
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Wikipedia: Dark-eyed junco
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
The dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis) is a species of junco, a group of small, grayish New World sparrows. This bird is common across much of temperate North America and in summer ranges far into the Arctic. It is a very variable species, much like the related fox sparrow (Passerella iliaca), and its systematics are still not completely untangled. [more]

Yellow-eyed junco / Rotrückenammer (Junco phaeonotus)
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Wikipedia: Yellow-eyed junco
The yellow-eyed junco (Junco phaeonotus) is a species of junco, a group of small New World sparrows. [more]

Genus Zonotrichia:
Harris's sparrow / Harris-Ammer (Zonotrichia querula)
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Wikipedia: Harris's sparrow
Harris's sparrow (Zonotrichia querula) is a large sparrow. Their breeding habitat is the north part of central Canada (primarily the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, ranging slightly into northern Manitoba and Saskatchewan), making it Canada's only endemic breeding bird. In the winter they migrate to the Great Plains states of the United States, from southern South Dakota to central Texas. The common name of this species commemorates the American amateur ornithologist Edward Harris (1799–1863). [more]

White-crowned sparrow / Dachsammer (Zonotrichia leucophrys)
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Wikipedia: White-crowned sparrow
The white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys) is a species of passerine bird native to North America. A medium-sized member of the New World sparrow family, this species is marked by a grey face and black and white streaking on the upper head. It breeds in brushy areas in the taiga and tundra of the northernmost parts of the continent and in the Rocky Mountains and Pacific coast. While southerly populations in the Rocky Mountains and coast are largely resident, the breeding populations of the northerly part of its range are migratory and can be found as wintering or passage visitors through most of North America south to central Mexico. [more]

Golden-crowned sparrow / Kronenammer (Zonotrichia atricapilla)
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Wikipedia: Golden-crowned sparrow
The golden-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla) is a large New World sparrow found in the western part of North America. [more]

White-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis)
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Wikipedia: White-throated sparrow
The white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis) is a passerine bird of the New World sparrow family Passerellidae. [more]

Genus Passerella:
Fox sparrow (Passerella iliaca)
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Wikipedia: Fox sparrow
The fox sparrow (Passerella iliaca) is a large New World sparrow. It is the only member of the genus Passerella, although some authors split the species into four (see below). [more]

Genus Melospiza:
Song sparrow / Singammer (Melospiza melodia)
Alternate classification: Zonotrichia melodia
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Here's a song sparrows Mark and I saw in Cromwell Valley Park. 2021-06-18 10.10.52
I had distinct memories of reading about the song sparrow in the two major books I read about bird biology in general (U. Cornell) and about birdsong by Marler and Slabbekoorn. Once I realized I heard them every morning at my mother's house and thoroughly enjoyed them - in Europe no sparrow really sings in any serious manner - I had to go back to read about all the research into song sparrows in those two books.
Song: Nature's Music: the Science of Birdsong Peter Marler and Hans Slabbekoorn, 2004. In this study it was found that young song sparrows recognize both a typical sound type, a trill, and the temporal pattern of the song, whereas swamp sparrows only listen for the trill, having no complex song. [page 82: acoustic cues for species-selective song learning]
Ibid. The authors describe the singing with amusing terms, puff-sing-wave used to drive off a territorial intruder, and the aggressive 'zhee' call used throughout the year to threaten other species or other song sparrows. [page 165]
Ibid. It was seen (by Hiebert et al in 1989) that song sparrows with a larger repertoire acquired a territory more quickly and survived longer. [page 48]
Ibid. It was seen that song sparrows matched the song repertoire of a neighbor to show that they were recognized. The authors (Beecher et al 1996) said that though not very aggressive, echoing the song of a neighbor's repertoire is more aggressive than singing a completely different song. [page 50]
Ibid. Another theory is that knowing all the songs of a neighbor means that it is sufficient to just responds those songs. If a bird has had to move to a more distant area or knows fewer songs himself, he may need to fight more often to prove the same point. [page 51-52]
Ibid. Young birds are said to learn songs from either one adult male after hatching, therefore in the area his parents did their breeding, or after migration the following spring, in which case it learns other songs from a male there. Dialects happen because birds tend to breed and therefore to sing in the same local area where they learned their songs. [page 115-116]
The Cornell Lab of Ornithology Handbook of Bird Biology Edited by Irby J. Lovette and John W. Fitzpatrick, 2016. One study shows that birds under stress during song learning in early development produce poor quality songs with fewer copied notes. Females prefer songs learned with accuracy, so these poor stress-out kids are out of luck. [page 324]
Ibid. Beecher 2008 notes that song sparrows always learn an entire song and don't link two different songs; and that they tend to learn songs sung by many different males in their new neighbohood, making the song more useful to them. [page 375]
Ibid. Stoddard et all 1991 noted that though each song sparrow has a repertoire of 10 songs, the set of neighbors will have about 50 all in all, but each can recognize the individuals. As I understood from the discussion before that, the point is that each can recognize the other's voice if they both sing the same song [page 384]
Ibid. Here it's mentioned that birds with more songs in their repertoire live longer - whether song sparrows in North America or great tits, which live right by our home. [page 396]
Ibid. Some birds like white-crowned sparrows are "open ended learners", and could learn song sparrow songs but prefer those of their own species. These open ended learners continue to learn songs well into adulthood or even throughout their lives. [page 371]

Swamp sparrow (Melospiza georgiana)
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Wikipedia: Swamp sparrow
General: The swamp sparrow (Melospiza georgiana) is a medium-sized New World sparrow related to the song sparrow. [more]

Lincoln's sparrow / Lincoln-Ammer (Melospiza lincolnii)
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Wikipedia: Lincoln's sparrow
Lincoln's sparrow (Melospiza lincolnii) is a small sparrow native to North America. It is a less common passerine bird that often stays hidden under thick ground cover, but can be distinguished by its sweet, wrenlike song. Lincoln's sparrow is one of three species in the genus Melospiza which also includes the song sparrow (M. melodia) and the swamp sparrow (M. georgiana). It lives in well-covered brushy habitats, often near water. This bird is poorly documented because of its secretive nature and breeding habits solely in boreal regions.[2] [more]

Genus Ammodramus:
Grasshopper sparrow / Heuschreckenammer (Ammodramus savannarum)
Alternate classification: Fringilla savannarum
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Wikipedia: Grasshopper sparrow
The grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) is a small New World sparrow. The genus Ammodramus contains nine species that inhabit grasslands and prairies. [more]

Genus Arremonops:
Olive sparrow (Arremonops rufivirgatus)
Alternate classification: Embernagra rufivirgata
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Wikipedia: Olive sparrow
The olive sparrow (Arremonops rufivirgatus) is a species of American sparrow in the family Passerellidae. (Other names include green finch and Texas sparrow.) Its range includes Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and southern Texas (including the counties of Val Verde, Atascosa, and Nueces). [more]

Genus Melozone:
Canyon towhee (Melozone fuscus)
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Wikipedia: Canyon towhee
The canyon towhee (Melozone fusca) is a bird of the family Passerellidae. [more]

California towhee (Melozone crissalis)
Alternate classification: Pipilo fuscus crissalis
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Wikipedia: California towhee
The California towhee (Melozone crissalis) is a bird of the family Passerellidae, native to the coastal regions of western Oregon and California in the United States and Baja California Sur in Mexico. [more]

Abert's towhee (Melozone aberti)
Alternate classification: Kieneria aberti
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Wikipedia: Abert's towhee
Abert's towhee (Melozone aberti) is a bird of the family Passerellidae, native to a small range in southwestern North America, generally the lower Colorado River and Gila River watersheds, nearly endemic to Arizona, but also present in small parts of California, Nevada, Utah, New Mexico, and Sonora in Mexico. The name of this bird commemorates the American ornithologist James William Abert (1820–1897). [more]

Genus Chondestes:
Lark sparrow (Chondestes grammacus)
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Wikipedia: Lark sparrow
The lark sparrow (Chondestes grammacus) is a fairly large New World sparrow. It is the only member of the genus Chondestes. [more]

Genus Passerculus:
Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis)
Alternate classification: Ammodramus sandwichensis
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Wikipedia: Savannah sparrow
The Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) is a small New World sparrow. It was the only member of the genus Passerculus and is typically the only widely accepted member. Comparison of mtDNA NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 and 3 sequences indicates that the Ipswich sparrow, formerly usually considered a valid species (as Passerculus princeps), is a well-marked subspecies of the Savannah sparrow, whereas the southwestern large-billed sparrow should be recognized as a distinct species (Passerculus rostratus).[2] [more]

Genus Aimophila:
Rufous-crowned sparrow (Aimophila ruficeps)
Alternate classification: Ammodromus ruficeps
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Wikipedia: Rufous-crowned sparrow
The rufous-crowned sparrow (Aimophila ruficeps) is a small American sparrow. This passerine is primarily found across the Southwestern United States and much of the interior of Mexico, south to the transverse mountain range, and to the Pacific coast to the southwest of the transverse range. Its distribution is patchy, with populations often being isolated from each other. Twelve subspecies are generally recognized, though up to eighteen have been suggested. This bird has a brown back with darker streaks and gray underparts. The crown is rufous, and the face and supercilium are gray with a brown or rufous streak extending from each eye and a thick black malar streak. [more]

Genus Calamospiza:
Lark bunting (Calamospiza melanocorys)
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Wikipedia: Lark bunting
The lark bunting (Calamospiza melanocorys) is a medium-sized American sparrow native to central and western North America. It is also the state bird of Colorado. [more]

Genus Amphispiza:
Five-striped sparrow (Amphispiza quinquestriata)
Alternate classification: Zonotrichia quinquestriata
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Wikipedia: Five-striped sparrow
The five-striped sparrow (Amphispiza quinquestriata) is a medium-sized sparrow. [more]

Black-throated sparrow (Amphispiza bilineata)
Alternate classification: Emberiza bilineata
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Wikipedia: Black-throated sparrow
The black-throated sparrow (Amphispiza bilineata) is a small New World sparrow primarily found in the southwestern United States and Mexico. It is sometimes referred to as the desert sparrow, due to its preferred habitat of arid desert hillsides and scrub. This name usually refers to the desert sparrow of Africa and Asia. [more]

Genus Pooecetes:
Vesper sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus)
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Wikipedia: Vesper sparrow
The vesper sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus) is a medium-sized New World sparrow. It is the only member of the genus Pooecetes. [more]

Genus Ammospiza:
Nelson's sparrow (Ammospiza nelsoni)
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Wikipedia: Nelson's sparrow
Nelson's sparrow (Ammospiza nelsoni) is a small New World sparrow. This bird was named after Edward William Nelson, an American naturalist. Formerly, this bird and the saltmarsh sparrow were considered to be a single species, the sharp-tailed sparrow; because of this it was briefly known as Nelson's sharp-tailed sparrow. [more]

Leconte's sparrow (Ammospiza leconteii)
Alternate classification: Emberiza leconteii
Also known as: Leconte's sparrow
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Wikipedia: Leconte's sparrow
LeConte's sparrow (Ammospiza leconteii) is one of the smallest New World sparrow species in North America.[2] [more]

Seaside sparrow (Ammospiza maritima)
Alternate classification: Fringilla maritima
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Wikipedia: Seaside sparrow
The seaside sparrow (Ammospiza maritima) is a small American sparrow. [more]

Saltmarsh sparrow (Ammospiza caudacuta)
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Wikipedia: Saltmarsh sparrow
The saltmarsh sparrow (Ammospiza caudacuta) is a small New World sparrow found in salt marshes along the Atlantic coast of the United States. At one time, this bird and the Nelson's sparrow were thought to be a single species, the sharp-tailed sparrow. Because of this, the species was briefly known as the "saltmarsh sharp-tailed sparrow." [more]

Genus Centronyx:
Baird's sparrow (Centronyx bairdii)
Alternate classification: Emberiza bairdii
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Wikipedia: Baird's sparrow
Baird's sparrow (Centronyx bairdii) is a species of North American birds in the family Passerellidae of order Passeriformes. It is a migratory bird native to the United States, Canada, and Mexico. [more]

Henslow's sparrow (Centronyx henslowii)
Alternate classification: Emberiza henslowii
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Wikipedia: Henslow's sparrow
Henslow's sparrow (Centronyx henslowii) is a passerine bird in the family Passerellidae. It was named by John James Audubon in honor of John Stevens Henslow. It was originally classified in the genus Emberiza and called Henslow's bunting.[2] [more]

Genus Spizelloides:
American tree sparrow / Baumammer (Spizelloides arborea)
Alternate classification: Spizella arborea
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Wikipedia: American tree sparrow
The American tree sparrow (Spizelloides arborea), also known as the winter sparrow,[2] is a medium-sized New World sparrow. [more]

Superfamily Meliphagoidea:

Family Meliphagidae (Honeyeaters):
Genus Myzomela:
Cardinal myzomela (Myzomela cardinalis)
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Wikipedia: Cardinal myzomela
The cardinal myzomela (Myzomela cardinalis) is a species of bird in the honeyeater family Meliphagidae. It is named for the scarlet color of the male. It is found in American Samoa, New Caledonia, Samoa, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu, as well as some islands in Micronesia such as Yap. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest and subtropical or tropical mangrove forest.[1] It frequents areas with flowers, such as gardens. This is a small, active bird, measuring about 13 cm (5.1 in) from bill to tail.[2] Males are red and black in coloration, females are grayish-olive, sometimes with a red cap or red head. Its long, curved bill is especially adapted for reaching into flowers for nectar.[3] Cardinal myzomela populations have vanished from the island of Guam since the invasion of the brown tree snake.[4] [more]

Micronesian myzomela (Myzomela rubratra)
Alternate classification: Cinnyris rubrater
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Wikipedia: Micronesian myzomela
The Micronesian myzomela (Myzomela rubratra) is a species of bird in the honeyeater family Meliphagidae. The species forms a superspecies with a number of related and similar looking island and mainland myzomelas across the Pacific and Australasia. It in turn is composed of seven insular subspecies. [more]

Genus Foulehaio:
Wattled honeyeater (Foulehaio carunculatus)
Alternate classification: Foulehaio carunculata
Also known as: Eastern wattled-honeyeater
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Wikipedia: Wattled honeyeater
The wattled honeyeaters make up a genus (Foulehaio) of birds in the family Meliphagidae. [more]

Order Charadriiformes (Shorebirds and others / Regenpfeiferartige):

Family Laridae (Gulls / Reiher):

Subfamily Larinae (Möwen):
Genus Larus:
Common gull / Sturmmöwe (Larus canus)
Also known as: Mew gull
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Near Badi Auslikon at the Pfäffikersee. I thought I had only seen black-headed gulls, but on reviewing my photos, I noticed the yellow bill. Other typical characteristics: it's bigger than the black-headed gull next to it, it doesn't have the Charlie Brown half-ring around the eye, it has less gray and only a few shorter black tail feathers. 2021-02-05 11.34.30 Pfäffikersee
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Not so common in Switzerland (most common would be the black-headed gull as far as I can see
Appearance and identification: Nabu: NABU ueber das Aussehen der Sturmmoewe: 'Sturmmöwen sind etwas größer als Lachmöwen, jedoch deutlich kleiner als Silbermöwen. Sie sind überwiegend weiß mit grauem Rücken und grauen Flügeln. Die Flügelenden sind schwarz mit weißer Spitze. Der Kopf ist rundlich, die dunklen Augen dünn rot umrandet. Der schlanke Schnabel und die Beine sind grünlichgelb, ein Schnabelfleck fehlt.' [Portraet]
Vocalization: Various mewing sounds. Similar in form to Herring Gull, but much higher pitched. [Link]
Physical details: length=40-42 cm, wingspan=100-115 cm, weight=300-480 g

Lesser black-backed gull / Heringsmöwe (Larus fuscus)
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Wikipedia: Lesser black-backed gull
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
General: The lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus) is a large gull that breeds on the Atlantic coasts of Europe. It is migratory, wintering from the British Isles south to West Africa. It is a regular winter visitor to the east coast of North America, probably from the breeding population in Iceland. [more]

European herring gull / Silbermöwe (Larus argentatus)
Also known as: Herring gull
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Wikipedia: European herring gull
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America.
Deutschland: Brut-, Jahres-, Zugvogel, Wintergast
Vocalization: Quite vocal. A long and strong "ay-kay-kay-kay-kay" with fading strength commonly heard. A deep "ga-ga-ga" heard from anxious birds. [Link]
Calls: All calls much deeper pitched than Common Gull. Difficult to distinguish from Lesser Black-backed Gull, but tone is less nasal. [Link]
Physical details: length=55-64 cm, wingspan=123-148 cm, weight=750-1440 g

Great black-backed gull / Mantelmöwe (Larus marinus)
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Wikipedia: Great black-backed gull
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
Deutschland: Brut-, Jahres-, Zugvogel, Wintergast RL R

Iceland gull (Larus glaucoides)
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Wikipedia: Iceland gull
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
General: The Iceland gull (Larus glaucoides) is a medium-sized gull that breeds in the Arctic regions of Canada and Greenland, but not in Iceland (as its name suggests), where it is only seen during winter. The genus name is from Latin larus, which appears to have referred to a gull or other large seabird. The specific name glaucoides denotes its resemblance to Larus glaucus, a synonym of Larus hyperboreus, the glaucous gull; -oides is Ancient Greek and means "resembling".[2] [more]
Vocalization: Like Herring Gull, but tone sharper. [Link]
Physical details: length=52-60 cm, wingspan=140-150 cm, weight=460-1039 g

Glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus)
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Wikipedia: Glaucous gull
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America.
General: The glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) is a large gull, the second-largest gull in the world. It breeds in Arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere and winters south to shores of the Holarctic. The genus name is from Latin larus, which appears to have referred to a gull or other large seabird. The specific name hyperboreus is Latin for "northern" from the Ancient Greek Huperboreoi people from the far north [2] "Glaucous" is from Latin glaucus and denotes the grey colour of the gull.[3] [more]
Vocalization: Like Herring Gull. [Link]
Physical details: length=62-68 cm, wingspan=150-165 cm, weight=964-2215 g

Ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis)
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Wikipedia: Ring-billed gull
General: The ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis) is a medium-sized gull. The genus name is from Latin Larus which appears to have referred to a gull or other large seabird. The specific delawarensis refers to the Delaware River.[2] [more]

Western gull / Westmöwe (Larus occidentalis)
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Wikipedia: Western gull
The western gull (Larus occidentalis) is a large white-headed gull that lives on the west coast of North America. It was previously considered conspecific with the yellow-footed gull (Larus livens) of the Gulf of California. The western gull ranges from British Columbia, Canada to Baja California, Mexico.[2] [more]

Slaty-backed gull (Larus schistisagus)
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Wikipedia: Slaty-backed gull
The slaty-backed gull (Larus schistisagus) is a large, white-headed gull that breeds on the north-eastern coast of the Palearctic, but travels widely during nonbreeding seasons. It is similar in appearance to the western gull and the glaucous-winged gull. Another alternate name is Pacific gull, though it also applies to a Southern Hemisphere species, L. pacificus. [more]

California gull / Kaliforniermöwe (Larus californicus)
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Wikipedia: California gull
The California gull (Larus californicus) is a medium-sized gull, smaller on average than the herring gull but larger on average than the ring-billed gull, though it may overlap in size greatly with both. [more]

Heermann's gull / Heermannmöwe (Larus heermanni)
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Wikipedia: Heermann's gull
Heermann's gull (Larus heermanni) is a gull resident in the United States, Mexico and extreme southwestern British Columbia, nearly all nesting on Isla Rasa in the Gulf of California. They are usually found near shores or well out to sea, very rarely inland. The species is named after Adolphus Lewis Heermann, nineteenth-century explorer and naturalist.[2] [more]

Glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens)
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Wikipedia: Glaucous-winged gull
The glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens) is a large, white-headed gull. The genus name is from Latin Larus which appears to have referred to a gull or other large seabird. The specific glaucescens is New Latin for "glaucous" from the Ancient Greek, glaukos, denoting the grey color of its wings.[2] [more]

Yellow-footed gull / Gelbfußmöwe (Larus livens)
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Wikipedia: Yellow-footed gull
The yellow-footed gull (Larus livens) is a large gull, closely related to the western gull and thought to be a subspecies until the 1960s. It is endemic to the Gulf of California. [more]

Genus Chroicocephalus:
Black-headed gull / Lachmöwe (Chroicocephalus ridibundus)
Alternate classification: Larus ridibundus
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On a canal feeding into the Pfäffikersee Paradoxically, they don't have to have a black head. 2020-10-30 16.51.58 Pfäffikersee
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Common waterbird at Pfäffikersee, that doesn't necessarily have the eponymous black head.

Bonaparte's gull (Chroicocephalus philadelphia)
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Wikipedia: Bonaparte's gull
General: Bonaparte's gull (Chroicocephalus philadelphia) is a member of the gull family Laridae found mainly in northern North America. At 28 to 38 cm (11 to 15 in) in length, it is one of the smallest species of gull. Its plumage is mainly white with grey upperparts. During breeding season, Bonaparte's gull gains a slate-grey hood. The sexes are similar in appearance. [more]

Genus Rissa:
Black-legged kittiwake / Dreizehenmöwe (Rissa tridactyla)
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Wikipedia: Black-legged kittiwake
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
The black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) is a seabird species in the gull family Laridae. [more]
Vocalization: Highly vocal at breeding ground. A mewing "kitti-wake", with the pitch rising on the second drawn out syllable, and then falling. Generally silent elsewhere, except when squabbling over food. [Link]
Physical details: length=38-40 cm, wingspan=95-105 cm, weight=310-500 g

Red-legged kittiwake / Klippenmöwe (Rissa brevirostris)
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Wikipedia: Red-legged kittiwake
General: The red-legged kittiwake (Rissa brevirostris) is a seabird species in the gull family Laridae. It breeds in the Pribilof Islands, Bogoslof Island and Buldir Island in the Bering Sea off the coast of Alaska, and the Commander Islands, Russia and spends the winter at sea, sometimes coming in land to feed off bird tables in Great Ayton. [more]

Genus Pagophila:
Ivory gull / Elfenbeinmöwe (Pagophila eburnea)
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Wikipedia: Ivory gull
The ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) is a small gull, the only species in the genus Pagophila. It breeds in the high Arctic and has a circumpolar distribution through Greenland, northernmost North America, and Eurasia. [more]

Genus Gelochelidon:
Gull-billed tern / Lachseeschwalbe (Gelochelidon nilotica)
Alternate classification: Sterna nilotica
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Wikipedia: Gull-billed tern
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
The gull-billed tern (Gelochelidon nilotica), formerly Sterna nilotica,[2] is a tern in the family Laridae. The genus name is from Ancient Greek gelao, "to laugh", and khelidon, "swallow". The specific niloticus is from Latin and means of the Nile.[3] The Australian gull-billed tern was previously considered a subspecies. [more]

Genus Xema:
Sabine's gull / Schwalbenmöwe (Xema sabini)
Alternate classification: Xema sabinii
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Wikipedia: Sabine's gull
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
Sabine's gull (/ˈsbɪn/ SAY-bin; Xema sabini), also known as the fork-tailed gull or xeme, is a small gull. Its generic placement is disputed; some authors treat it as the sole species in the genus Xema as Xema sabini,[2] while others retain it in the genus Larus as Larus sabini.[3][4] [more]

Genus Chlidonias:
Black tern / Trauerseeschwalbe (Chlidonias niger)
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Wikipedia: Black tern
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
The black tern (Chlidonias niger) is a small tern generally found in or near inland water in Europe, Western Asia and North America. As its name suggests, it has predominantly dark plumage. In some lights it can appear blue in the breeding season, hence the old English name "blue darr".[2] The genus name is from Ancient Greek khelidonios, "swallow-like", from khelidon, "swallow": another old English name for the black tern is "carr (i.e. lake) swallow".[3] The species name is from Latin niger "shining black".[4] [more]
Vocalization: Moderately vocal. [Link]
Calls: Flight call a more or less clear "kleck, or a disyllabic "klee-ake" with accented first syllable. Sometimes slightly rolling "klirr-eke", but never as much as in White-winged Tern. Also a slightly harsher "kreek", but not as raspy as in Whiskered Tern. [Link]
Physical details: length=22-24 cm, wingspan=64-68 cm, weight=60-86 g

Genus Anous:
Brown noddy / Noddi (Anous stolidus)
Alternate classification: Sterna stolida
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Wikipedia: Brown noddy
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: North America, South America, Africa.
General: The brown noddy or common noddy (Anous stolidus) is a seabird in the family Laridae. The largest of the noddies, it can be told from the closely related black noddy by its larger size and plumage, which is dark brown rather than black. The brown noddy is a tropical seabird with a worldwide distribution, ranging from Hawaii to the Tuamotu Archipelago and Australia in the Pacific Ocean, from the Red Sea to the Seychelles and Australia in the Indian Ocean and in the Caribbean to Tristan da Cunha in the Atlantic Ocean. The brown noddy is colonial, usually nesting on elevated situations on cliffs or in short trees or shrubs. It only occasionally nests on the ground. A single egg is laid by the female of a pair each breeding season. In India the brown noddy is protected in the PM Sayeed Marine Birds Conservation Reserve.[2] [more]

Black noddy / Weißkappennoddi (Anous minutus)
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Wikipedia: Black noddy
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: North America, South America, Africa.
The black noddy or white-capped noddy (Anous minutus) is a seabird from the family Laridae. It is a medium-sized species of tern with black plumage and a white cap. It closely resembles the lesser noddy (Anous tenuirostris) with which it was at one time considered conspecific. The black noddy has slightly darker plumage and dark rather than pale lores. [more]

Blue noddy (Anous ceruleus)
Alternate classification: Procelsterna cerulea
Also known as: Blue-gray noddy
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Wikipedia: Blue noddy
The blue noddy or hinaokū or manuohina[2] (Anous cerulea) is a seabird in the family Laridae. It is also known as the blue-grey noddy. [more]

Genus Gygis:
Common white-tern / Feenseeschwalbe (Gygis alba)
Also known as: White tern
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Wikipedia: Common white-tern
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: North America, Africa.
The white tern (Gygis alba) is a small seabird found across the tropical oceans of the world. It is sometimes known as the fairy tern although this name is potentially confusing as it is also the common name of Sternula nereis. Other names for the species include angel tern and white noddy in English, and manu-o-Kū in Hawaiian. [more]

Genus Rhodostethia:
Ross's gull / Rosenmöwe (Rhodostethia rosea)
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Wikipedia: Ross's gull
Ross's gull (Rhodostethia rosea) is a small gull, the only species in its genus, although it has been suggested it should be moved to the genus Hydrocoloeus, which otherwise only includes the little gull. This bird is named after the British explorer James Clark Ross. Its breeding grounds were first discovered in 1905 by Sergei Aleksandrovich Buturlin near village of Pokhodsk in North-Eastern Yakutia, while visiting the area as a [2] judge. The genus name Rhodostethia is from Ancient Greek rhodon, "rose", and stethos, "breast". The specific rosea is Latin for "rose-coloured".[3] [more]

Genus Leucophaeus:
Franklin's gull / Präriemöwe (Leucophaeus pipixcan)
Alternate classification: Leucopheus pipixcan
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Wikipedia: Franklin's gull
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: North America, South America, Africa.
Franklin's gull (Leucophaeus pipixcan) is a small (length 12.6–14.2 in, 32–36 cm) gull.[2] The genus name Leucophaeus is from Ancient Greek leukos, "white", and phaios, "dusky". The specific pipixcan is a Nahuatl name for a type of gull.[3][4] [more]

Laughing gull / Aztekenmöwe (Leucophaeus atricilla)
Alternate classification: Larus atricilla
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Wikipedia: Laughing gull
The laughing gull (Leucophaeus atricilla) is a medium-sized gull of North and South America. Named for its laugh-like call, it is an opportunistic omnivore and scavenger. It breeds in large colonies mostly along the Atlantic coast of North America, the Caribbean, and northern South America. The two subspecies are: L. a. megalopterus – which can be seen from southeast Canada down to Central America, and L. a. atricilla which appears from the West Indies to the Venezuelan islands. The laughing gull was long placed in the genus Larus until its present placement in Leucophaeus, which follows the American Ornithologists' Union. [more]

Genus Hydroprogne:
Caspian tern / Raubseeschwalbe (Hydroprogne caspia)
Alternate classification: Sterna caspia
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Wikipedia: Caspian tern
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
The Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia)[2] is a species of tern, with a subcosmopolitan but scattered distribution. Despite its extensive range, it is monotypic of its genus, and has no accepted subspecies.[3] The genus name is from Ancient Greek hudros, "water", and Latin progne, "swallow". The specific caspia is from Latin and, like the English name, refers to the Caspian Sea.[4] [more]
Calls: Easily recognized by its very harsh calls. Sometimes likened to the sound of a plate of steel being dragged across a concrete floor. Similar in harshness to Grey Heron, but more drawn, with an accented middle; "Kraaeeet", or with a double syllable start "ka-ha-kraaaeet". Immature birds begs with a penetrating, sharp whistle. [Link]
Physical details: length=47-54 cm, wingspan=130-145 cm, weight=500-750 g

Genus Onychoprion:
Sooty tern / Rußseeschwalbe (Onychoprion fuscatus)
Alternate classification: Sterna fuscata
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Wikipedia: Sooty tern
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: North America, South America, Africa.
General: The sooty tern (Onychoprion fuscatus) is a seabird in the family Laridae. It is a bird of the tropical oceans which sleeps on the wing, returning to land only to breed on islands throughout the equatorial zone. [more]

Bridled tern / Zügelseeschwalbe (Onychoprion anaethetus)
Alternate classification: Sterna anaethetus
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Wikipedia: Bridled tern
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: North America, South America, Africa.
The bridled tern (Onychoprion anaethetus)[2] is a seabird of the family Laridae. It is a bird of the tropical oceans. The scientific name is from Ancient Greek. The genus comes from onux meaning "claw" or "nail", and prion, meaning "saw". The specific anaethetus means "senseless, stupid".[3] [more]

Aleutian tern (Onychoprion aleuticus)
Alternate classification: Sterna aleutica
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Wikipedia: Aleutian tern
Sterna aleutica Baird, 1869 [more]

Grey-backed tern (Onychoprion lunatus)
Alternate classification: Sterna lunata
Also known as: Gray-backed tern
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Wikipedia: Grey-backed tern
The spectacled tern (Onychoprion lunatus), also known as the grey-backed tern, is a seabird in the family Laridae. [more]

Genus Sternula:
Least tern / Amerikanische Zwergseeschwalbe (Sternula antillarum)
Alternate classification: Sterna antillarum
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Wikipedia: Least tern
The least tern (Sternula antillarum) is a species of tern that breeds in North America and locally in northern South America. It is closely related to, and was formerly often considered conspecific with, the little tern of the Old World. Other close relatives include the yellow-billed tern and Peruvian tern, both from South America. [more]

Genus Thalasseus:
Royal tern (Thalasseus maximus)
Alternate classification: Sterna maxima
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Wikipedia: Royal tern
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, South America, Africa.
The royal tern (Thalasseus maximus) is a tern in the family Laridae. [more]

Genus Hydrocoloeus:
Little gull / Zwergmöwe (Hydrocoloeus minutus)
Alternate classification: Larus minutus
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Wikipedia: Little gull
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
Deutschland: ausnahmsweise Brutvogel, Zugvogel RL R
Calls: Repertoire of short, tern-like, hard calls, uttered individually, or in series. E.g. "kep" or "krrk". Also a diagnostic, gull-like, sharp and bouncing "ka-tee,ka-tee,ka-tee", with second syllable rising in pitch. [Link]
Physical details: length=25-27 cm, wingspan=75-80 cm, weight=85-150 g

Family Charadriidae (Regenpfeifer):

Genus Charadrius:
Lesser sand-plover (Charadrius mongolus)
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Wikipedia: Lesser sand-plover
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: North America, Africa.
General: The lesser sand plover (Charadrius mongolus) is a small wader in the plover family of birds. The spelling is commonly given as lesser sand-plover, but the official British Ornithologists' Union spelling is "lesser sand plover". The genus name Charadrius is a Late Latin word for a yellowish bird mentioned in the fourth-century Vulgate. It derives from Ancient Greek kharadrios a bird found in ravines and river valleys (kharadra, "ravine"). The specific mongolus is Latin and refers to Mongolia which at the time of naming referred to a larger area than the present country.[2] [more]

Common ringed plover / Sandregenpfeifer (Charadrius hiaticula)
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Wikipedia: Common ringed plover
This bird appears across the great seas in the following continents: Europe, North America, Africa.
The common ringed plover or ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula) is a small plover that breeds in Arctic Eurasia. The genus name Charadrius is a Late Latin word for a yellowish bird mentioned in the fourth-century Vulgate. It derives from Ancient Greek kharadrios a bird found in ravines and river valleys (kharadra, "ravine"). The specific hiaticula is Latin and has a similar meaning to the Greek term, coming from hiatus, "cleft" and -cola, "dweller" (colere, "to dwell").